Table of Content

    24 September 2002, Volume 21 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Integrated Demarcation and Building Measures on Ecological Environment in Northwest China
    LIU Yin-han, GUAN Hai yan, LI Hou di, WANG Yong, LIU Xiao jing
    2002, 21 (5):  403-409.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (268KB) ( )   Save
    This paper is completed mainly using the method of remote sensing images interpretation and combining with the method of field investigation and species test. After giving the conception and connotation of ecological environment in Northwest China according to the principle and purpose of the appraisal indexes selected, a all sided integrated demarcation is made through reiteration running-in the division from up to down and the mergence from down to up on the basis of classification of ecological environment in Northwest China. Finally, this makes a proposal for protection and building measure of ecological environment in Northwest China. These results provide scientific basis for monitoring, harnessing, construction and planning of ecological environment in Northwest China.
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    The Compartmentalization of Functional Areas for National Resourse Security and the Orientation of the West China
    GU Shu zhong, GENG Hai qing, YAO Yu long
    2002, 21 (5):  410-419.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1030KB) ( )   Save
    Resource security is an important part of the national security. National resource security is based on the integration of regional resource securities within the same country. From social, economic and natural aspects, the East, the Middle and the West of China should undertake different functions in national resource security. The energy & mineral resources are extractive resources whose rational allocation in different areas is vital to the national resource security. This paper makes a compartmentalization of the functional areas for the national resource security by taking account of resource, transportation and ecological situations. Here, the areas rich in energy & mineral resources are divided into three functional regions: the exploiting region, the relaying region and the reserving region. Furthermore, this scheme has been put into practice by using the West China as a studying object. For the situations are various, the concrete countermeasures should be different. At the end of this paper, based on the impersonal assessment of the energy & mineral characteristics and the current exploiting situations, the prospect as well as the relevant proposals of the West China in the country’s resource security frame is brought forward.
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    The International Latest Research of the Impacts of Human Activities on Carbon Emissions
    LIU Hui, CHENG Sheng-kui, ZHANG Lei
    2002, 21 (5):  420-429.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (699KB) ( )   Save
    Global warming has been becoming a world wide issue in which anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (CO 2, CH 2, N 2O) plays a main role. According to the analysis of international study on it since 1990’s, this paper summarized the main contents and the methods of international research on the impacts of human activities on carbon emission. The main contents are: ① energy consumption and carbon emission, including the transform of the structure of energy consumption and the construction of low emission supply system (LESS) ; ② economic development and carbon emission, which focus on the relationship between the different economic development style and carbon emission, including economic development stage, economic structure, and economic development speed; ③ agriculture and carbon cycle, including the relationship between land use/land cover change and carbon cycle, impacts of management of agricultural land and restoration of degraded land on carbon cycle, and the influence of agricultural development level and structure’s change on carbon emission; ④ the economic cost of CO 2 emission limits and the strategies for optimal CO 2 emission abatement. Because carbon emission process caused by human activities is very complicated, more and more synthetical models, based on a vast amount of data, such as carbon emission/energy model, economic model of energy consumption and carbon emission limitation, DIAM model, etc., are used for analysis besides the traditional regression analysis and regional contrast analysis. Meanwhile, several issues on carbon cycle research that must be emphasized in China were analyzed.
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    Methods of Constructing Distributed Hydrological Model Based on DEM
    WANG Zhong gen, LIU Chang ming, ZUO Qi ting, Liu Qing e
    2002, 21 (5):  430-439.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1069KB) ( )   Save
    Resent advances in remote sensing, geographic information systems, and computer technology make the use of distributed hydrological model, based on digital elevation model (DEM), an attractive approach or tool to studying hydrological processes and evolution laws of water resources under changing environment. But distributed hydrological model is not perfect compared with lumped hydrological model. In order to promote its development, based on DEM, this paper discusses and sums up the characteristics of distributed hydrological model, then probes into two main ways and means of constructing distributed hydrological model. One way is like SHE model, another is like SWAT model. Although distributed hydrological models can be made in different ways, the primary structure of the model is quite similar. A typical structure of DEM based distributed hydrological model is provided in this paper. To better study the impact of the changing environment on hydrological processes, a watershed must be divided into subunits. This paper expressly discusses the three most common techniques used to discretize a watershed, which are respectively grid cell discretization, representative hillslope discretization and subwatershed discretization. In the final, as to the problem of constructing model, the methods of building the components of the distributed hydrological model is set forth from three aspects: input module, unit hydrology model and river routing model. A brief comment on the current distributed hydrological model research and some advice are given in the conclusion. All these will provide a guidance for making distributed hydrological model based on DEM.
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    The Progress in the Research of Anastomosing River
    WANG Sui ji, XIE Xiao ping, CHENG Dong sheng
    2002, 21 (5):  440-449.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (725KB) ( )   Save
    Anastomosing river, as a new fluvial river pattern, has attracted more and more attention of geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers and sedimentologists. Research on anastomosing river is in great demand of the geomorphology, hydraulic engineering and sedimentology. In this paper, after introduction of the basic concept of anastomosing river, the channel plantform and boundary condition, sedimentary characteristics, hydraulic condition of this river pattern are reviewed based on comprehensive references. Furthermore, in the same fluvial system the spatial transformation between anastomosing and another river patterns is also discussed. Some weaknesses and aspects needing more attention on study of anastomosing river are pointed out. These aspects are mainly following. (a) The dynamical mechanism of the avulsion for anastomosing river formation has not studied clearly till now. It needs theoretical explanation and simulation in laboratory or digital model. Obviously, there have some difficulties. (b) The hydraulic dynamics of anastomosing rivers are still unclear because few study has been actualized on fluvial dynamics for multiple channel rivers, especially for anastomosing rivers. Besides, the hydraulic characteristics have some differences between multiple channels. The explanation to every channel of an anastomosing river system is not the same always. The stream power (including gross stream power and specific stream power) is also different between different channels of an anastomosing river system. (c) The scatter values of channel slope and bankfull discharge for anastomosing rivers have not a clear law. One of the causes is that the river number studied fully by researchers is few and distributed in different climate zones. This demands researchers to study much more anastomosing rivers.
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    Hemeroby--A Method to Assess the Naturalness of Vegetation
    LI Mai he, Norbert Kr uchi, YANG Jian
    2002, 21 (5):  450-458.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (907KB) ( )   Save
    Present plant/forest communities are the result of long term interactions between vegetation and site factors including man made impacts. Present vegetation in the cultural landscape shows graduations of different intensities of human activities in the past. To assess the degree of naturalness and/or the anthropogenic influences on the present vegetation/forests,the concept of hemeroby is often used. The degree of hemeroby is defined as degree of human cultural activities; at the same time it is a degree of distance to the natural state of vegetation. Such a natural state of vegetation may be pristine vegetation or potential natural vegetation. Because pristine vegetation was destroyed or modified by the humankind all over on the earth,the basis of naturalness assessment is the present potential natural vegetation including successive development under today’s site conditions. The evaluation of the level of hemeroby can be used as an ecological tool that has been widely applied to ecology of agriculture,forestry,water,landscape,urban and nature reserves. This paper discusses the concept of hemeroby and its application including field observation.
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    Grain-size Characteristics and Their Paleo-environmental Significance of Chen Co Lake Sediments in Southern Tibet
    WANG Jun bo, ZHU Li ping
    2002, 21 (5):  459-467.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (995KB) ( )   Save
    Grain size is one of the useful indices in the lacustrine sedimentary research. By directly indicating the water impetus during the sedimentary period, the grain size of lake sediments indirectly reflects the supplied water volume changes of the lake. Because the lake water volume is greatly influenced by climatic factors, such as precipitation, temperature and induced glacier melting water, the grain size provides more information to elucidate the environmental changes. By the analyses of the grain size parameters and the comparison with other proxies of the Chen Co sediments, four stages of environmental changes since ca. 1400 years ago have been distinguished. 1) Ca. 593~821 A.D. was a high lake level period accompanied by frequent fluctuations. It implies relatively wet climatic conditions with multi time alternative changes. 2) Ca. 821 1343 A.D. was a long and stable wet period, during which the lake enlarged and the lake level rose. 3) Ca. 1343 1892 A.D. was a climatically complex period. The inflow water violently increased around ca. 1602 A.D. while the lake was in the shallow water status in other periods. It suggested that the supplied water of the lake was relatively weak. 4) Ca. 1892 1998 A.D. was another stable period with the light lake level variations. Ca. 1892 A.D. was an obvious borderline for showing the supplied water impetus changes. These environmental changes reflected by the grain size of Chen Co lake sediments were well supported by other proxies and proved by other research results.
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    A Review and Prospect of the Research on Chinese Regional Spatial Structure
    LU Yu qi
    2002, 21 (5):  468-476.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (477KB) ( )   Save
    The school of space has become one of four modern geography schools since classic location theory began to analyze spatial structure. In theory, it is decided by the characteristic of geography, namely regionality. Although regionality determinates the status of geography in knowledge, there has inherent a logistic conflict between the regionality itself and the abstract of theoretical models. Therefore, peeling off extensity from regionality has become the precondition of abstracting theoretical model of regional spatial structure. However, extensity can not solve the whole problem of research on regional spatial structure. We think that the basic theoretical problem of the research on regional spatial structure is harmonizing the relation between space and region correctly. Since China put in forces the policy of reform and opening, Chinese geography kingdom has not only accumulated decade demonstrative analyses but also woken up to the importance of theoretical research adequately. Therefore, Chinese geography kingdom has acquired a lot of research fruits in the induction and abstract of spatial structure model. This paper discusses the main domains and the research ways of spatial structure in the future, which are based on systemic analyses above. Moreover, the author thinks that spatial structure model, spatial thinking, analytical technology, and regional application form four domains of research on regional spatial structure. According to the thinking and ways of forming spatial structure model in physical geography, the author thinks that the abstract of regional spatial structure model may develop in the pedigree from level to uprightness and from space to region. Moreover, this paper discusses the probability and necessity of forming Chinese characteristic spatial school.
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    Preliminary Analysis of Resources, Environment and Development in the South Hebei Area
    WU Kai
    2002, 21 (5):  477-483.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (378KB) ( )   Save
    The agricultural climatic condition is suitable for summer maize in the piedmont plain and for cotton in the Heilonggang Region in the South Hebei Area. Water resources in the area are deficient. Groundwater overexploitation is serious, the modulus of which is 8 01×10 4m 3/(km 2·a) for shallow aquifers and is 2 58×10 4m 3/(km 2·a) for deep aquifers. The comprehensive marginal revenue of water resources use in the area is highest (26 68 yuan/ton) for Langfang City and is lowest (14 85 yuan/ton) for Baoding City, the rate of which is 1 80. There are frequent environmental geological disasters such as depression cone of groundwater, in which the cone area was 5 4 thousand km 2 for shallow aquifers and was 15 9 thousand km 2 for deep aquifers in 1998, and land subsidence and obvious pollution of surviving pesticide and over-use chemical fertilizer to groundwater and grain and vegetables in the area. The water-lacking rate will be 36 2% in the area in 2010, in which the ratio between the water-transferring from the Changjiang River and the Huanghe River and the water supply will be 23 9%. The water-saving rate of 17 2% compared with the level in 1999 can be achieved by implementing the water-saving measures such as water-saving by irrigation projects (raising the comprehensive water-saving rate of 3 2%), water-suiting plant (reducing the sown area proportion of 7% for winter wheat), water stress treatment (decreasing once irrigation).
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    An Assessment of Household Living Quality and Its Relationship with Regional Economic Development
    LI Xiao jian, QIAO Jia jun
    2002, 21 (5):  484-490.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (730KB) ( )   Save
    Interview data from 9970 households reveals that satisfactory level of household living quality assessed by individuals does not follow a significant relationship with the level of regional economic development indicated by GDP per capita. Regions with relevant higher per capita GDP sometimes associate with lower level of satisfaction. This is because, firstly, the expected level by the households in the better-developed regions is usually higher. People have financial capacity as well as time to enjoy recreation in nice environments. Secondly, some relevant wealthy regions associate with environment pollution and transport congestion, while some poor region residents enjoy their moderate yet not wealthy life. Another finding concerns that the satisfactory degree varies among counties, cities and rural districts. In general, people in city show higher satisfactory degree than in rural district. People in different counties identify similar patterns and structures in assessing impact factors. The most satisfactory factor is the relationship of family members while the most unsatisfactory factor is the job opportunity and payment.
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    The Status Quo and Trends of the Study on City Life-space and Community Sustainable Development in China
    SUN Feng hua, WANG Xing zhong
    2002, 21 (5):  491-499.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (918KB) ( )   Save
    This paper first looks back on the history of the study on city life space and community sustainable development in Western developed countries. It then points out that the research on this new issue in China is relatively slower. The study on city life space and community sustainable development in China mainly covers the following 7 domains, namely, ① research of the chief elements of city life space; ② research of the structure and basic theories of city life space; ③ evaluation and practical exploration of the quality of city life space; ④ theoretical approach and practical exploration of city life space designing; ⑤ research of the residence-worthiness of city life space; ⑥ research of the change as well as development of city life space; and ⑦ research of city life space and community sustainable development. Six trends of development in this field are predictable: ① to find harmoniousness, on the basis of human beings and the nature, between the construction of city life space and community; ② to transfer gradually from the study of city life space structure and present community system to that of the coordinative development of structural elements of city life space and the conformity of systematic elements of community; ③ to transfer gradually from the study of the differentiation of city life space and segregation of community to that of conformity of city life space and harmony of community; ④ to transfer gradually from the study of present city life space and community designing to that of general artistic distribution of circumstance space of city life and community; ⑤ to transfer gradually from the study of the present city life space and community designing to that of green city life space and community designing; and ⑥ to transfer gradually from the study of the morphology space and image space of city life and community to that of the informational city life space and intelligential environmental community. Thus it is important that the relevant disciplines in this field coordinate closely to deepen the study on the subjects and expand the study domain. Human beings, with the developing of society, economy, culture, science and technology, will have higher demands on the space of city life as well as the quality of community. This means that city life space and community sustainable development will experience a kind of revolution, which will revolve around the construction of green city life space and green community, and which will hold as its goal the promotion of community sustainable development. Therefore the relevant disciplines, when studying city life space and community in their material pattern, physical space, spirit space, behavior space, landscape system, spatial structure, horizon, open spatial system, artistic features and so on, should interrelate closely human beings and the nature, to construct green city space and green community and to promote community sustainable development.
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    Characteristic Analysis and Control Strategies for the Eutrophicated Problem of the Lake Dianchi
    GUO Huai cheng, SUN Yan feng
    2002, 21 (5):  500-506.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (477KB) ( )   Save
    Since the 1970s,the eutrophicated problem of the Lake Dianchi,Yunnan province has been more and more serious, which becomes an important factor limiting sustainable development of the Lake Dianchi Basin. Applying nutrient indexes-chlorophyll-a(Chla), total phosphorustal(TP), total nitrogen(TN), chemical oxygen demand(CODMn) and transparency(SD) as evaluating factors, this paper synthentically evaluated and analyzed the characters and causes of eutrophicated phenomenon in the Lake Dianchi. Based on above study, forepassed control meatures were summarized in detail. And some main problems were specially put forward, which were particularly bias stress on external sources, incomplete defending tree fence and immoderate bed silt cleanup measures. On further thoughts, new control strategies were emphasized on resolving the eutrophicated problem of the Lake Dianchi. They could be concluded as follows: to restore Dianchi ecosytem, to control the pollutants from internal and external sources and to strengthen environmental management in the Lake Dianchi Basin.
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    Using Geochemistry as a Tool Measuring Soil Erosion
    ZHENG Yong chun, WANG Shi jie, OU yang Zi yuan
    2002, 21 (5):  507-516.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.05.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1103KB) ( )   Save
    Soil erosion results in land degradation, farming product output and quality declined, and water pollution, etc.. The problem becomes more and more serious with the changed farming fashion,tillage mode,and progressing pressure of population. Many conventional erosion research methods and techniques, such as Elevation method, Remote Sensing technique, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation method, Field Investigation technique, and Soil Loss Monitoring Spot method, have their limitations, though they are used widely today. Using geochemical tracers to measure soil erosion rates is popular and exerting particular function in erosion study. Those tracers include radionuclides, Rare Earth Element, magnetic susceptibility, and soil physics and chemistry index. This paper points out several limitations of conventional erosion research methods, and indicats that: (1) 137 Cs, 210 Pb can be used to study soil erosion rates in about 30~40 years. 7 Be can be used to trace seasonal soil particle movement and one rainfall erosion rates. The tracing theory, principle and technical path are also concluded. (2) REE can be used to measure incident erosion rates and to study erosion and deposition pattern. (3) Magnetic susceptibility and soil physics and chemistry index can be expected to use in studying soil erosion and land degradation in future. Geochemical tracing techniques have their own limitations. For example, chemical analysis of tracers in soil is expensive. Researchers are required to master essential analysis method and understand the knowledge of geochemial behavior of tracers. But these techniques are very useful supplements to traditional techniques, especially in the study of average erosion rates in several ten years and in one rainfall.
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