Table of Content

    25 March 2003, Volume 22 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Advancement and Scientific Issues in Research on Biological Process of Water Cycle
    Yu Guirui, Wang Qiufeng
    2003, 22 (2):  111-117.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (669KB) ( )   Save
    The interaction of vegetation with the physical processes of the hydrological cycle addressed by Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle (BAHC) of the initial Core Projects of the IGBP is a focus in academia at all time Water cycle and its biological process are of great importance to regional economic development and eco-environment establishment in China, especially for western development region For this reason, we summarized the process of development in research on the interaction of vegetation with the physical processes of the hydrological cycle in China At the same time, researches on Forest Water Cycle Ecology, Hillside Hydrology, Soil and Water Conservation Benefits of Protection Forest, and Purification Function of Aqua-Ecosystem are also covered in this paper,expecting to provide more information for water resources management and relevant research in China It is necessary to analyze the water resource security, eco-environment establishment and economic development of west region based on biological process of water cycle in China Relational scientific issues are also pointed. Finally, this paper discusses the harmonious development pattern of west and east in China and the strategy on ecosystem and water resource management.
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    A Study on Actual Evaporation from Non-Saturated Surfaces
    QIU Xinfa, ZENG Yan, LIU Changming
    2003, 22 (2):  118-124.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (655KB) ( )   Save
    Evaporation (Evapotranspiration) consumes much of the water and energy that is available on the ground of the earth and therefore influences all hydrological and most meteorological processes It also plays an important role for the water redistribution on the earth’s surface and is a major determinant of the amounts in water cycle Instruments can only measure evaporation in research context for small areas, which are subject to intensive studies Therefore, there is a strong need for reliable methods that can estimate actual evaporation and require only a few meteorological parameters which are readily and routinely obtainable at standard weather stations Based on energy balance equation and mass transfer equation, a general model to estimate actual evaporation from non saturated surfaces was introduced Making use of two concepts,"relative evaporation" and "relative drying power", a relationship was established to account for the departure from saturated conditions Using this model, the actual evaporation can be calculated without the need of potential evaporation estimation Furthermore, the model requires only a few meteorological parameters that are readily and routinely obtainable at standard weather stations Based on nearly 30 years of meteorological and hydrological data, in combined with GIS, nine representative river basins were selected Using the data of the selected river basins, the model was tested The results show that the actual evaporation rate can be estimated within an error of 10% in most area of China.
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    A Review and Prospect of Lake and Environmental Evolution in China
    HAN Mei, LI Yanhong, ZHANG Weiying, ZHANG Lina
    2003, 22 (2):  125-132.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (792KB) ( )   Save
    Based on lots of documentations, it can be said that the research of lake and environmental evolution in China had been developed by the tapping of oilfields from the 1970s to mid 1980s Since mid 1980s, much progress has been made, the power of research has been strengthened,and more attention has been paid to climatic changes. The research regions have been gradually increased, the methods of research have been well developed,and the techniques of dating have become more precise The new characteristics of the recent research show that particular attention is paid to the lakes located in Yunnan Guizhou Plateau and Qinghai Tibet Plateau , the research for short time scale becomes more important, and more work about the effect caused by human activities is done As to the further research, we should enhance the full utilization and quantitative study of the environmental indexes, and the analysis of the impacts coming from human activities also should be strengthened. It is necessary to set up Quaternary data base of the lakes in China to shorten the way with other countries.
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    Land Rehabilitation and Regional Land Use Transition
    LONG Hualou
    2003, 22 (2):  133-140.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (764KB) ( )   Save
    Land use/cover changes (LUCC) are not simple process There are complex simultaneous patterns of land cover change, ranging from modifications in land cover to conversions and maintenance To avoid the unilateralism of LUCC research, it is necessary to continuously put forward new themes, develop new methods and find new integrated approach Especially, concerning research on LUCC should pay more attention to the actual conditions in China and aim at the new demands of society Land use transition is a new research theme for LUCC, and land rehabilitation is a new thing in China The interaction and relationship between land use transition and land rehabilitation are discussed in this paper for the purpose of primely carrying out land rehabilitation and realizing sustainable land use At present, a lot of land use issues in China can be solved through carrying out land rehabilitation In the future, the tasks of land management will pay more attention to it The objectives of land rehabilitation in China are to form a rational, effective, and intensive land use pattern, increase effective area of cultivated land, enhance land use efficiency, and meet the demands of socioeconomic development to land It would change with the changes of the socioeconomic development phase that the country/region is in Regional land use morphology is the overall pattern of actual land cover in a region at a given time, comprising main types of land use Regional land use transition refers to the changes in regional land use morphology over time, and it usually corresponds to the transition of socioeconomic development phase In China, there are different land use transition phases in the same period of time as a result of the differences of regional socioeconomic development levels and physical conditions Therefore, in the process of laying out concrete objectives, modes and policies of land rehabilitation in a region, it is suggested to take regional land use transition phase into accountant Simultaneously, the course of socioeconomic development in a region can be accelerated through carrying out land rehabilitation and adjusting land use structure, which can also promote the transformation of regional land use transition phases and put forward new requirement for land rehabilitation.
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    Tupu Analysis of Land Use Changes in the New-born Wetland of the Yellow River Delta (YRD)
    YE Qinghua, LIU Gaohuan, YAO Yiming, Marco RUSSI
    2003, 22 (2):  141-148.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (629KB) ( )   Save
    The Geo information Tupu is a kind of methodology that is brought up by academician Chen Shupeng, supported by such advanced technologies as Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information System (GIS), Internet Communication, Virtual Reality and Cartography by computer, etc Based on the theories and methods of Geo information Tupu, the thesis puts forward series of Tupu Model on land use based on Tupu unit in the new born wetland of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) According to data from remote sensing and vector by ERDAS and ARC/INFO, four pieces of land use data are achieved By spatial and process integration in GRID on land use change of 1956,1984,1991,and 1996, three periods of land use change are defined by 1956~1984, 1984~1991,and 1991~1996 By analyzing three different ways of land use changes, which include changes in land use intensity, changes in land use structure and changes of distribution in the process of land use Tupu units, it provides typical applications of land use change analysis by the methods of Geo information Tupu It is composed of three aspects in Tupu analysis, which include spatial query in Tupu, ordinance in Tupu units and transfer matrixes of area and probability It analyzes land use changes in the three various temporal units The new born wetland (approx 85758 hm 2) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) is located in the active river mouth in the East of the YRD, which is one separate part of the Nature Reserve in YRD During 1956 to 1996, land use intensity was arising then falling down to some extent since 1991 In land use structure, wetland and water body is the mainly usage during these period, but it tend to decline as a whole Pasture and farm land are arising greatly from wetland and water body Residential and industrial lands are the most stable type in land usage.Farm land is the second stable type in land usage.
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    A Study on the Macro Mechanism of the Conversion of Land Use in the Urban Fringe of Beijing
    CHEN Xiaojun, ZHANG Hongyie, LIU Shenghe
    2003, 22 (2):  149-157.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (863KB) ( )   Save
    It is well known that land use change is an extremely complex process,which is resulted from interactions between the natural factors and the economic and social factors But the traditional approach of land use change study is not effective; new topics are required and a comprehensive understanding is necessary for the drivers of land use change In the recent international researches on land use dynamics,the factors from the socioeconomic and political systems and the influence of decision making on land use are regarded as very important factors The conversion of land use is a key process of land use change in the urban fringe of Beijing,which includes two basic aspects:decision making on land use and the allocation of land resources A conceptual model on the mechanism of the conversion of land use is created on the basis of this process,in which land use is shifting from one type to another The importance of the conceptual model mentioned above is in understanding the complexity of land use change,through which the main forces underlying the conversion of land use can be recognized and how they interact with each other and all together take effect is introduced The forces which result in the conversion of land use are "molded"by those factors from the socioeconomic systems Both decision making on land use and the allocation of land resources are also resulted from the economic,social and political systems By making comprehensive analysis on the conversion of land use that took place during the period from 1982 to 1997 in the urban fringe of Beijing,the most important derivers can be learned about and the key relationships between those factors can be identified.
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    An Analysis on Land Use Dynamics in Huabei Region During Recent Ten Years
    ZOU Yarong, ZHAO Xiaoli, ZHANG Zengxiang, WANG Changyou, LIU Bin
    2003, 22 (2):  158-163.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (618KB) ( )   Save
    Human interventions in natural systems have resulted in large changes in vegetation composition and distribution pattern The Land Use Change and Cover (LUCC) study under the International Geosphere Biosphere Program(IGBP) is a major initiative in this regard Land use change plays an important role in global change This paper dynamically monitors status of land use change in Huabei region from 1980s to 2000 based on RS & GIS The data are extracted from LANDSAT TM image From these data, the type of land use is decided on basis of the interactive MGE environment To diminish the geometry error of the image, we adopt the processing method of Least-Square As for pixel sampling method, we adopt the method of Nearest Neighbour Interpolation or Bilinear Interpolation After the image processing, the maximum geometry errors are 2-3 pixels The task of image classification is mainly taken on by experts with the help of relief map, navigation photo etc.;thus landuse coverage could be acquired Huabei region is central of policy, agriculture in china This paper analyzes land use dynamics during latest 10 years in Huabei region based on RS and GIS The results show: there is a lot of farmlands in huabei region, covering 27 35%; Grassland major distributes in Inner Mongolia; the farmland is increasing, especially in dry land; forest and grassland is decreasing;and urban increases rapidly The shifting of farmland to urban is main land change in this region, accounting for 43 63% farmland change,especially in Beijing The grassland shifting farmland is another land use change in Huabei region, which main happens in Inner Mongolia According to land use dynamic zone, Huabei locates in two zones: one is Huanghuaihai farmland shifting urban, which shows that dry land is changing into county The other is ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry, which focuses in Inner Mongolia From the time view, the rate of farmland increasing during 80s to 90s was faster than during 90s to end 90s’.
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    Spatial-temporal Changes of the Land Use/Cover in the Dongting-Lake Area during the Last Twenty Years
    LI Rendong, ZHUANG Dafang, WANG Hongzhi, WU Shengjun
    2003, 22 (2):  164-169.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (696KB) ( )   Save
    The research on the land use/cover change is one of the frontiers and hot spots in the globe change research Based on the Chinese resource and environment spatial temporal database, and the Landsat TM?MSS and ETM data which were acquired at the end of 1970’s?1980’s and 1990’s respectively, we analyzed the spatial temporal characteristics of land use/cover changes in the Dong ting Lake area The result shows that during the last twenty years there were three land use types that have changed remarkably The cultivated land decreased by 1 97% of total cultivated land The construction land and water area expanded, with an increase of 14 88% and 8 77% respectively The land use change speed of land use type at the period between the end of 1970’s and 1980’s is slower than that at the period between the end of 1980’s and 1990’s Three cities and towns, Yue yang City?Yuan jiang County and Han shou County have gotten the greatest value of the degree of land use change in all administrative district at the previous 10 years, which means that the land use in these cities and towns has changed much quickly However, at the later 10 years, Shi shou City and Jin shi City, all of them are city level district,have developed from county to city, replacing Yuan-jiang County and Han shou County, and have gotten the greatest value of the degree of land use change.
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    Diurnal Variation of Soil CO_2 Concentration and Its Relationship with Soil CO_2 Flux
    LIANG Fuyuan, SONG Linhua, WANG Jing
    2003, 22 (2):  170-176.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (132KB) ( )   Save
    Diurnal variation of soil CO2 concentration and flux of red soil and their relationship were studied in June of 2002 in Shilin national park,Yunnan provice. Study shows that in different depth, soil CO2 shows fluctuation during 24 hours. From 18:00 to 22:00, concentration of soil CO2 decreases (for example, at subsoil 20cm, soil CO2 concentration decreases from 0.48% at 18:00 to 0.43% at 22:00). From 22:00 o’clock to next 6:00 o’clock, soil CO2 concentration shows a minor fluctuation, and reaches the minimum at 6:00 o’clock. During daytime, from 6:00 to 18:00, soil CO2 concentration increases steadily and at 16:00 o’clock, it reaches the maximum of the whole day. Then it begins to fall down. In site A, soil CO2 concentration increases with soil depth. But it is a different case in site A’ because of the disruption of the soil, which doesn’t shows the same variation. Sometimes soil CO2 concentration at 20cm depth is greater than that of at 60cm depth. Study result also shows that soil CO2 flux coincides with soil CO2 concentration at 20cm, 40cm and 60cm. Soil CO2 concentration and flux is higher during daytime than that of night. The positive relationship between soil CO2 content and soil CO2 flux gives good explanation to the relationship between the soil organic carbon content, temperature with soil CO2 flux. Soil CO2 concentration in different soil depth increase with higher production of soil CO2 because of higher soil organic carbon content and increasing temperature. As this study shows, Soil CO2 flux will increase when soil CO2 concentration increases.
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    Influence Analysis of China’s Entering into WTO on Common Fossil Energy Industry Development
    ZHAO Jianan, YANG Zhaozhu
    2003, 22 (2):  177-185.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (842KB) ( )   Save
    As one of the most important material bases of national economy development and national political and economic security, the energy has always been causing great concern of people After China entered into WTO, The speedup of economic globalization and international trade liberalization must bring a series of influence on the exploitation and utilization of energy Based on the analysis of domestic energy present status,this paper tries to discuss the challenges and favorable opportunities of development of three main energy patterns: coal industry, oil and petrochemical industry,and natural gas industry. It can give some references to the practice of the energy industry development in the future China is one of the countries where the production and consumption of energy is very large Energy plays an important role in the steady, fast and continuous development of national economy and in the improvement of the life quality of people After China becoming a member of WTO, The common fossil energy industry in China will be faced with severe challenges under the background of globalization of resource allocation and internationalization of market competition At the same time, also with rare chances in the exploration of energy resource, the introduction of capital, technology and equipment is conducted together with opening of the international market and domestic market Under the new economic situation, only by making full use of two kinds of resources and two markets, including international and domestic, to import advanced technology and equipment and export abundant product and labors and to promote the upgrading of domestic energy industry structure,is the common fossil energy industry able to ensure the energy supply and guarantee the economic construction to go on smoothly This paper provides a comprehensive and multi angles analyses of possible advantages and disadvantages that the entry of WTO will bring to the oil and petrochemical industry, the natural gas and the coal industry in the view of the supply of resources, the assurance of technology and funds and the ability of market development and so on The countermeasures are also discussed briefly.
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    New Industrial Districts’ Developmental Mechanism and Comparative Analysis to Traditional Spatial Organization Theories
    TIAN Ming, FAN Jie
    2003, 22 (2):  186-194.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (817KB) ( )   Save
    Geography has made a great progress in discovering the law of regional economic distribution and put forward many spatial organization theories,such as central place theory, ladder shaped economic development theory, growth pole theory, pole axis spatial system theory,and so on At the end of 1970th,geographers and other scientists advanced a new spatial organization theory,the new industrial district theory Scientists can use this theory to explain some phenomena about enterprises’ conglomeration clearly This paper concludes 5 kinds of characters of the new industrial districts: global economy, networks, embedment in local social milieu, innovation, and clusters Then, this paper analyzes the mechanism of new industrial district’s development in detail Based on the general development course of industrial districts, this paper stresses the potential of interfirm networks for innovation and development and points out that the emerging of steady networks is the symbol of the formation of industrial district The networks reflect interdependencies among firms and facilitate the rapid diffusion of new information and critical resources Embedment in local social milieu improves the degree of trust among firms, stuff and enterprisers From the economic view, external economies and increasing returns are the main cause of enterprises conglomeration in industrial districts and the local social milieu favors to decrease the transaction costs At last, this paper analyzes the difference of new industrial districts theory and the traditional spatial organization theory.
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    A Comparative Study on Industrial Competitiveness-a case study of manufacture industries in eastern coastal provinces and municipalities of China
    JIA Ruoxiang, LIU Yi
    2003, 22 (2):  195-202.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (723KB) ( )   Save
    China’s industries have changed form rapid development stage to competition stage in present time The study on industrial competitiveness is of great theoretical and practical importance This paper analyzes the connotation of industrial competitiveness, which is defined as the industries’ capability to exploit and hold the market compared with their counterparts under free trade market situation Industrial competitiveness is the ligament between national competitiveness and enterprise competitiveness Comparative advantage (which emphasizes the resourses endowment, capital and labor force) and competitive advantage (which emphasizes the industries’ market performance) are the analysis bases for industrial competitiveness research Comparative advantage is the foundation for competitive advantages while competitive advantage can enhance comparative advantage in return The factors affecting the industrial competitiveness, which include resources endowment, location factors, science and technology, industrial organization,and policy environments, are briefly analyzed This paper also makes exploration on industrial competitiveness evaluation system There are many comprehensive evaluation systems for industrial competitiveness Locational quotient is an effective way to assess industrial competitiveness by reflecting the industry’s specialization,although it is brevity in calculation By adding the industry’s different locational quotients together according to their weight, a new comprehensive industrial competitiveness evaluation system is constructed Then the industrial competitiveness of manufactures in eastern coastal provinces and municipalities in China is evaluated according to the locational quotient based evaluation system.
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    The Characteristic and Mechanism of the Iron and Steel Industry in Tangshan City, Hebei Province
    LI Wenjun
    2003, 22 (2):  203-210.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (756KB) ( )   Save
    The iron and steel industry has developed rapidly and now become the most important industry in Tangshan city The total production value and the profit and tax are nearly 40 percent in the whole economy of the city It can be divided into three phases during the development of the iron and steel industrial Before the middle of the 1980’s, the state owned enterprise Tanggang subject to Hebei Province is the most dominant whose output proportion of the iron, steel and steel products was 82 12, 96 46 and 88 32 respectively in the whole city, and the production value was about 80 percent in 1985 In the first of the 1990’s, village and town small enterprises developed rapidly driven by the policy supporting the rural industry and cooperative firms and with the aid of Tanggang After the middle of the 1990s’, the whole level of the iron and steel group has improved New firms are mainly near Tanggang and located in the North near the minerals Most of them first engaged in steel rolling or steel making, now have almost the whole working procedure from sinter to the last products The amount of the local iron and steel industry has come up to that of Tanggang in 2001 The main factors to boost the developmemt of the iron and steel industry are the industrial environment and the institution The first includes the industrial guide offered by Tanggang company, the powerful support of relevant industries, abundant labor force and professional human resources, special relationship between Tanggang and its neighbor villages, communication and imitation among the enterprises The last consists of the role of the national policy, the strategy of local government and the institutional innovation of enterprises Apart from these factors, the increasing demand for the steel products promotes the development of the industrial group too The capacity of learning, adaptation and innovation is important to the growth of the local companies How to promote the sustainable development of the companies without connections in the working procedure is the key issue The government should make efforts to build the connection network, set up effective business environment, guide the firms to adjust the structure of products , foster the cooperation of the firms.
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    A Research on Development Rules of Tourism Resort
    Liu Jiaming
    2003, 22 (2):  211-218.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.02.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (423KB) ( )   Save
    This paper discusses evolution processes and rules of major resorts abroad and in China, and it points out that resort functions have been more and more diverse and activities developed have been changing Spa resorts have been developed ahead of other resorts and have been declining in some developed countries Resorts on beach and around city are major kinds of holiday-taking destinations today Skiing resort is a kind of winter holiday-taking place Golf course, football course, and other kinds of sport training centers have become important types of resorts New type resort operated all year round has appeared Resorts were developed in Europe first, then spreading to North America, South America, Africa, Oceania and Asia Royal and private summer places are taken as resorts and their development histories are studied in this article.
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