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Table of Content

    25 January 2003, Volume 22 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    The Human Geography View of Land Use Study and New Proposition
    FAN Jie, XU Yu dong, SHAO Yang
    2003, 22 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (946KB) ( )   Save
    It is known that geography have synthetical and regional attributesThe geographic environment, the study object of geography, consisting of hydrosphere, noosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and biosphere, is a complex system composed of all kinds of physical and human phenomena on the earth surface, so geography is synthetical subject having physical science trait and social science trait, in the view of theoretic system or methodologyIn the course of geographical development, synthetical study is the most difficult problems in geography all the timeFrom the point of synthetical study, the land use is the key field of studying relationship between human and geographic environment The dominant driving factor of land use change can be divided three type : consumption demand, the drive of economic benefit and the effect of harmonized development awarenessBefore Industrial Revolution, the dominant drying factor is consumption demandDuring the period of Industrial Revolution, the first transform of dominant drying factor, from consumption demand to economic benefit, had taken placeAt present, the second transform of dominant drying factor is yet to occur As far as consumption demand concerned, the food demand always is the most necessary and importantWith the increase of population, reclaiming land to supply more food is the general measureThus, the farmland has been increased, but the forest land and pasture has been decreasedThe UNEP predicted that the 1/5 of forest existing now would be the farmland or grasslandAs far as the economic benefit concerned, the coral mechanism is purchasing the maximum of economic benefit and it resulted succession of industrial structure and urban and rural settlement transformDifferent land use follow to Location Rent RuleThe result of the land use with high location rent substitute the land use with low location rent appear some phenomena: more and more farmland became the rural land use; the percentage of economic crops increased evidently; industrial corporation move to suburb; the central part of city became the advanced service including finance and so on from common service districtUnder principle of meeting more demand and purchasing maximum of economic benefit, there have a lot of unreason utilization of land use and this caused land degradation, desertification, the loss of species etcSo human begun to emphasize that the model of land use should accord with need of sustainable development.
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    The International Progress of Sustainable Development Research:A Comparison of Vulnerability Analysis and the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach
    Martha GRoberts, YANG Guo-an
    2003, 22 (1):  11-21.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (703KB) ( )   Save
    Since The Brundtland Commission formally put forward the concept of sustainable development in their famous book Our Common Future, the global community has paid great attention to the principles of sustainable developmentHowever, the implementation of sustainable development is still difficult even today, because of its essential complexity Therefore, many research tools for sustainable development have emerged in the past two decadesAmong them are the Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) Approach and Vulnerability Analysis Approach, two analytical tools that can inform sustainable development proposalsThe first focuses on poverty alleviation and the second on mitigation of risks to shocks and stressesThis paper explores the role of these two frameworks in development planning and describes where they intersect and where they differThe first section describes and compares the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of each approach.
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    Review of Most Recent Progresses of Study on Land Use and Land Cover Change
    CHEN Bai ming, LIU Xin wei, YANG Hong
    2003, 22 (1):  22-29.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (91KB) ( )   Save
    Land use and land cover change is one of the most important components and major causes to global environmental changes, and study on it has been the frontier all the while after entering the new millenniumThe paper reviewed firstly the major relevant research results of "Regional Geographical Conference of 2002"held by International Geographical Union(IGU)in Durban, South Africa in August this yearThen the authors put forward that the study on LUCC has made the most recent progresses in such five aspects: LUCC’s inspecting, assessing and mapping by means of using RS and GIS; analysing on countryside and agricultural land use/cover change;analysing on urban land use/cover change;the dynamics of land use/cover change and land use/cover change and eco environment. These aspects reflect that LUCC’s research scope is now extending and it’s research content deepening.
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    An Analysis on the Effect of Regional Land Use Change on Grain Production ——A Case Study in Shandong Province
    SHAO Xiao-mei
    2003, 22 (1):  30-37.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (826KB) ( )   Save
    Land use change and its effects are important contents of global change study.Taking Shandong Province as a case,land use structure and temporal variation of total grain yield are analyzed in this paper.Based on the results of analysis,the effects of land use on grain production are further discussed.As a result,it is found that:the changes of land use type directly influence grain crop sown area and the sown structure variation of different grain crop;the degree of land use directly influences multiple crop index,which causes the variation of total grain yield;the intensive degree of land use causes the variation of grain yield per unit area.Lastly,the measures of realizing the sustainable development of land and grain production are put forward.For example,we must control the increase of population strictly and protect arable land in order to level off grain crop sown area, and increase the intensive degree of land use and soil productivity for enhancing grain yield per unit areaAccording to the status and characters of land use,Shandong Province could be classified as five groups,and every group has different direction in land use.These measures will provide an important basis for making policies on the sustainable development of land use and grain production of Shandong Province.
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    An Evolution of Water Quality in Guanting Reservoir During the Past Three Decades
    LIANG Tao, WANG Hao, DING Shi ming, XUE Jin feng, CAI Chun xia, ZHANG Xiu mei
    2003, 22 (1):  38-44.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (758KB) ( )   Save
    As the first large scale reservoir, Guanting Reservoir plays a key role on water supply for BeijingThe reservoir kept healthy in the first decade and water quality has deteriorated since 1972 graduallyIn the following three decades, the water body undertook series pollutions, and dropped out from the source region of drinking water in 1997 The evolution of water quality in Guanting Reservoir in the past three decades was summarized based on the previous studiesSources and characteristics of the water pollution in Guanting Reservoir were discussed by stagesAt the same time, variations of main pollutants were also discussed The results show that the evolution process of water quality in Guanting Reservoir could be roughly divided into four stagesThe feature of first stage was organic toxicants and heavy metals pollution during 1972~1975The following stage was from 1981 to 1992,in which organic pollution played a main roleThe water pollution in third stage was a kind of complex pollution, which added bacteria pollutants during 1992~1995From 1996 till now, nitrogen and phosphorous pollution were the key features in Guanting ReservoirContents of COD and main heavy metals increased slowly during the past three decades, while contents of phenol varied In addition, contents of nitrogen and phosphorous increased steadily and significantly.
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    Research Progress and Future Development of Remote Sensing Monitoring on Sand-dust Disaster in China
    LI Hai ping, XIONG Li ya, ZHUANG Da fang
    2003, 22 (1):  45-52.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (810KB) ( )   Save
    Nowadays sand dust disaster and its effects on natural and social economic have attracted more and more attentions than ever before Since 1990s sand dust weather occurs more often in North China and strong sand dust storms bring more damage to the routine life of people in the local areas Meanwhile Asia dust can overpass the Pacific Ocean and transport to North America and pollute the air and environment of these regions Asia dust event becomes a hot spot in academic society of the world For the above reasons researches on sand dust have increased not only in world but also greatly in China Apart from traditional research method new technologies such as remote sensing have been used in the monitoring of sand dust disaster Since remote sensing technology can compensate the shortcomings in spatial and temporal resolution of conventional monitoring method Various satellite data with different spatial resolution, spectral resolution and temporal resolution can be used to monitor the sources of sand dust, the condition of land surface on its moving road and the climate background etcBut each sensor has its advantages and disadvantages so comprehensive research becomes more important and will be a new trend in sand dust research Quantitative information retrieval method of remote sensing will also be used in the research of sand dust disaster such as optical thickness of dust aerosol and characteristics of dust reflective and radiation Two of the most newly launched satellites are Terra and Aqua of NASA’s EOS plan The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board this two satellites have great potential in the study of sand dust disaster.
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    Remote Sensing Distribution Pattern and Changes Detection of West Ordos Vegetation
    HAN Xiu zhen, MA Jian wen, Wang Zhi gang 
    2003, 22 (1):  53-59.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (334KB) ( )   Save
    West Ordos Nature Conservancy Distribute locates at north environment fragility belt of Hungriness and Half hungriness Belt in China. The plants in this area have always appeared the sign of Hungriness specific vegetation from tertiary evolvement till now. It is overwhelming importance of academic value and diagnose meaning to study environment evolvement, biology diversity and globe transformation, with great worldwide attention of researcher of many subjects such as biology, ecology and geography. Traditional research method and sample statistic approach is not only need more time and labor, but also are difficult to totally comprehend and monitor the biology diversity and environment. Take advantage of two scapes of TM and ETM data from Landsat 5,7 planet at an interval of 12 years(Sept.1987 and Aug.,1999 )、1∶250,000 scale DEM data and sample statistics data, Researchers can use remote sensing technique to study the distribution pattern and changes detection of West Ordos Vegetation, which acquires rapid and precise large scope and real time data of resource environment status and its changes, produces a virtual reality 3 D imagery ,and merges with the synthesis analysis of Sample statistic. It opens up vegetation diversity rule and changes status at 12 years intervals. It takes reasonable advantage of these vegetation resource, and provides basis to the revival of damaged hungriness ecological system. At the same time, it is important to protect and improve hungriness environment and to explore the persistent development of hungriness distribution.
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    Progress on the Study of Process of Wetland Landscape Changes and Cumulative Environmental Effects
    LIU Hongyu, LU Xian-guo, ZHANG Shi-kui
    2003, 22 (1):  60-70.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1060KB) ( )   Save
    Wetland, located in the terrestrial aquatic transverse zone, is an important landscape and ecosystemWetlands have huge environmental functions in maintaining ecological balance and regional stability due to their particular characteristics in hydrology, soil, and plant, as well as landscape ecological structuresBut over past decades, wetland landscapes have been changed greatly, and these changes have relationship with land use / cover changes as well as human activitiesWetland landscape changes in structure and process have huge impacts on environmental changes caused by the spatial and temporal interaction of wetland natural ecosystem processesUp to now, a natural wetland pattern has been changed to a human dominated land use pattern by human beingsThe processing of wetland changes influenced wetland and other ecosystem in biodiversity, primary productivity, and global biogeochemistry cycle, as well as greenhouse gas contents in the atmosphereWetland change also has clear impacts on climate change, hydrological change, biodiversity change in regional or global scales.
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    Simulation of Runoff and Sediment Flow in a Catchment Based on Landunit Flow Networks
    LIU Gao huan, CAI Qiang guo, ZHU Hui yi, TANG Zheng hong
    2003, 22 (1):  71-78.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (525KB) ( )   Save
    To calculate soil erosion based on landunit in a catchment is a new and important method for estimation of soil and water conservation measuresTo achieve such a process based calculation in a catchment or a basin, soil erosion model with both landform factors and up and down stream relations in a catchment need to be developedMeanwhile, the runoff flow networks among landunits, which indicate the relations of runoff flow paths between landunits, are necessaryThe flow networks must be connected with soil erosion models to fit the model principlesIn this paper, the traditional technology of grid based flow network was improved according to loess soil erosion rolesA landunit based runoff and sediment flow network model was developed for simulating the flow process in whole basin, from top of basin to its outletThe flow network among landunit was calculated and three important parameters for soil erosion model were afforded: water and sediment flow order among landunits; the spatial distribution of the conflux amount among landunits; and the slope length of the runoff and sediment passing through each landunitThe soil erosion model was developed according to field observation of natural rainfall and artificial rainfalls with different slope, various land cover and different soil conditionsThe model was divided into three models according to landform positions: flat slope model for areas where the slope of landunit is less than 5 degree; slope model for simulation in whole slope; and gully bottom model for calculation of sediments transfer to the outletThese three models were connected with the landunit flow networks, and the parameters for each landunit such as soil type, slope, elevation, vegetation coverage, cultivating measures, landform position, slope length, etc, were automatically transferred from landunit file to the soil erosion model.
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    The Theory of SWAT Model and its Application in Heihe Basin
    WANG Zhong gen, LIU Chang ming, Huang You bo
    2003, 22 (1):  79-86.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (472KB) ( )   Save
    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a river basin, or watershed, scale model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water, sediment, and agricultural chemical yields in large, complex watersheds with varying soils, land use, and management conditions over long periods of timeThe model is physically based and enables users to study long term impacts This paper mainly introduces and discusses the issues of the hydrological theory, the structure and functions of SWAT modelSWAT separates the hydrology of a watershed into two major divisionsThe first division is the land phase of the hydrologic cycle which controls the loadings to the main channel in each subbasinThe second division is the water or routing phase of the hydrologic cycle which can be defined as the movement of water, sediments, etcthrough the channel network of the watershed to the outletSWAT uses a command structure for routing runoff and chemicals through a watershedUsing a routing command language, the model can simulate a basin subdivided into grid cells or subbasin In case study, SWAT model was used to simulate the hydrology of Heihe (Yingluo Valley) Basin in the cold Northwest ChinaFirst, Based on DEM, Heihe (Yingluo Valley) Basin was subdivided into four subbasinsBy building user soil type database and modifying land use coding, the model made a good runoff simulation result on a daily time step,and the model NSE (Nash Sutcliffe error judge standard) is up to 083So.
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    A Methodology of Spatialization of Observed Data Based on GIS
    LIAO Shun bao, LI Ze hui
    2003, 22 (1):  87-93.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5183KB) ( )   Save
    Spatialization of attribute data is one of forward issues in the field of GIS While 30 year mean temperature data from 624 meteorological stations in China was spatialized, the temperature was divided into regular component, which is affected by longitude, latitude and altitude, and irregular component affected by other local factorsThey were spatialized with multiple variable regression and inverse distance weighted interpolation respectivelyThere was a correlation ratio of R= 098 between temperature and geographical factors including longitude, latitude and altitudeSumming the two spatialized components generated grid based temperature dataIt can reflect temperature change both at large scale and at small scale.
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    Study Angles of the New Economic Geography
    ZHANG Wen zhong
    2003, 22 (1):  94-102.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (103KB) ( )   Save
    The emergence background, the study angles and methods of the new economic geography that has brought bigger effect on the fields of current economics and geography are studied and analyzed in this paper Based on these analyses, the following opinions are pointed outFirst, the development of the location theory, the traditional economic geography, the new international trade theory, the industrial organization theory and the non linear dynamic theory are thought to be the base of the production of the new economic geography Second, the interaction among the scale economics, the transportation costs, the non mobility of the key element of production, the historical contingency and the path dependence brought by the increasing income are the basic study angles when using the new economic geography to study the location selection of economic activity and development.
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    An Analysis on the Lag of China’s Urbanization and a Primary Prospect of its Future
    GENG Hai qing
    2003, 22 (1):  103-110.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2003.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (501KB) ( )   Save
    China’s urbanization level is much lower than the average level of that in the worldCompared with the economic development and the industrialization level, the situation is more seriousIt is not only due to historic reasons, but also due to realistic reasonsAs a whole, it can be summed up to these aspects: "urban country divided" dualistic management institution of registered residence, the industry developing policy which emphasizes heavy industry,the lagged agricultural development level, scale controll oriented guideline of city planning,increment of laid off workers during the economic system reform, and the differentiated family planning policyToday, the fundamental driving force of the urbanization is the tremendous real income disparity between urban and countryWith the entry of WTO, the relationship between China and world is more and more intimateThe universal law of urbanization begins to react on ChinaFrom 1999, the accelerating period of urbanization has been comingAs the economic system reform goes deeply, the urbanization level in China will be bound to have a big leap in the next ten to twenty years.
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