#### Table of Content

25 May 2007, Volume 26 Issue 3
Original Articles
 Analysis of the Integr ating Approach on Landscape Pattern and Ecological Processes LV Yihe, CHEN Liding, FU Bojie 2007, 26 (3):  1-10.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.001 Abstract ( )   PDF (311KB) ( )   Much progress has been made on theory and practice since the birth of landscape ecology as a scientific discipline. However, many problems are still waiting to be addressed. This paper analyzed the pertinent concepts and methods of landscape pattern and ecological processes and the shortcomings embedded which necessitates researches on the integrating of pattern and processes. Subsequently, the staple methods for this kind of integration were briefly summarized. Then, a general framework was put forward for the integrative research. According to this framework, subject to certain region and research objectives, land units or ecosystem types need to be partitioned. Then, small scale observation and modeling can be carried out. At the same time, large scale spatial dynamic models need to be formulated. Finally, adaptive multi - scale landscape pattern and ecological processes integrative model system can be constructed and put into application through the approaches of land evaluation and model integration.
 Study on Construction Land Distr ibution in Fujian and Taiwan Provinces Based on Spatial Autocor r elation Analysis WEI Suqiong, ZHANG Jinqian, CHEN Jianfei 2007, 26 (3):  11-17.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.002 Abstract ( )   PDF (834KB) ( )   Spatial autocorrelation is an important kind of spatial statistics, which is used to disclose the spatial structure of regional disparity. Spatial autocorrelation means self- correlation or spatial dependence among observations of a geo- referenced attribute. There are two different scales for spatial dependence: global indicators and local indicators. Based on the image data including Fujian and Taiwan provinces cutting from ASTER images in 2002 after geometric correction, the construction land patches were distilled, and the question of construction land density of regional disparity in Fujian and Taiwan was reconsidered by using spatial analysis methods. According to the analytical results, there is a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of construction land density in Fujian and Taiwan. That is to say, the relatively high (low) developed area tends to be located more often nearby other high (low) developed areas than expected by random chance, and then each area should not be viewed as an independent observation. We also investigate the spatial association between core areas and adjacent areas by computing the Local Moran I at county level. With the use of Moran’s scatter plots and LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association) cluster maps, we can identify some different types of significant local spatial association based on the analysis of different areas in Fujian and Taiwan. As a result, the research provides an important cognition to construction land distribution in Fujian and Taiwan, and insights into the types of spatial association present in an economic region allow for more effective implementation of economic development policies in Fujian.
 Construction of Ecological Function Network in Regional Scale: A Case Study in Taiwan Island CHANG Hsiaofei, WANG Yanglin, LI Zhengguo, HSUEH Ichen 2007, 26 (3):  18-28.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.003 Abstract ( )   PDF (1347KB) ( )   Constructing ecological network could protect environment, stabilize ecology and enhance ecological value of urban open space. Regional ecological network based on administerial units could represent natural characteristics and ecological function diversity of study area and could guide regional landscape ecological optimizing. In order to highlight the importance of ecological function network of each county or city on the whole Taiwan island and to guide establishing county or city development strategies, this study intends to construct ecological function network in the whole island through researches in counties or cities, and to separately integrate indices of ecological benefit, ecological patterns, and etc. At present, ecological function network centers in Taiwan locate in Hualien and Nantou counties, and ecological function wears off from east to west. Thereafter, according to function network framework, ecological needs estimation, and land value evaluation, this study suggests that Taipei city and other counties should improve their environments.
 Research on Process and Mechanism of Carbon and Nitrogen Leaching for For est Soils FANG Huajun, CHENG Shulan, YU Guirui 2007, 26 (3):  29-37.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.004 Abstract ( )   PDF (1095KB) ( )   Abroad attention has been drawn to effects of nitrogen deposition on process of carbon sequestration and depletion for forest ecosystem. However, further research is needed on fate of deposited nitrogen in forest ecosystem, impact of nitrogen increase on conversion process of soil carbon and nitrogen, and dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in soil solution during pre- and post- soil nitrogen saturation. In this paper, new research advance on fields of soil nitrogen saturation and soil carbon/nitrogen leaching is discussed firstly. Secondly, process and meaning of soil nitrogen saturation are demonstrated by system approach. Inherent response mechanism of nitrogen increase and deposition on the composition and structure change of DOC/ DON is analyzed. Finally, influence of nitrogen increase on conversion of soil inorganic nitrogen and contribution of biotic and abiotic factors on sequestration of deposited nitrogen. To sum up, we think soil nitrogen saturation is a state of available nitrogen increase with time and exceeds capacity of biotic and abiotic hold in soil, and then processes such as nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, leaching and soil pH occur in nonlinear change. Different responses of soil DOC and DON to added nitrogen are attributed to three stages of soil nitrogen saturation, which is related to the persisting time and quantity of nitrogen deposition or added mineralized nitrogen. As far as a certain terrestrial ecosystem is concerned, processes of nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, de - nitrification, immobilization and ammonium fixation in soil need to be deeply studied to make clear status of soil available nitrogen and temporal variability. Furthermore, uncertain questions, possible countermeasures and potential directions are pointed out in three research fields above to provide some reference for researchers.
 The Conceptual Fr amework of Water shed Landscape Optimization Concerning Water Environmental Protection YUE Jun, WANG Yanglin, LI Guicai, WU Jiansheng 2007, 26 (3):  38-46.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.005 Abstract ( )   PDF (1162KB) ( )   Landscape pattern, function and process all have close relationship with certain scale. Watershed with clear boundary and special scale and character becomes a focus region in studying landscape ecological process. For the collection of water by the gravitation at the watershed scale, the change of landscape pattern will heavily influence the water quality. Because the change of landscape pattern will dramatically influence the non- point pollution, it is necessary to control the non- point pollution from the perspective of landscape optimization. Considering the needs of water environmental protection at watershed scale, it is necessary to study how the type, pattern and spatial difference of landscape influence water pollution process. By reason-able allocation and complex design of landscape pattern, optimal landscape will change the distribution characteristics of pollution and stop the diffusion of pollution at spatial space. This will do good to water environmental protection and non- point pollution decrease. In order to realize this target, this paper constructs a conceptual framework for landscape pattern optimization concerning water environmental protection. This framework mainly considers four aspects as follows: (1) the feasible usage of ‘Source’and ‘Sink’landscape with spatial differences as optimization rules; (2) the key points in ‘Source’and ‘Sink’landscape pattern optimization; (3) some limits such as quantity, cost and other things that influence the change of ‘Source’and ‘Sink’landscape; and (4) the combination of the landscape quantity optimization with the landscape spacial optimization. On the basis of these results, this paper fulfills a conceptual framework of landscape optimization concerning the water environmental protection and non- point pollution decrease. According to an optimal combination of these four aspects, we could analyze the studying area characteristics, clear studying aims, confine optimal rules and carry out the research step by step. With some controlling methods of landscape ecology optimization, the landscape pattern optimization and water protection will be also realized. This study supplies not only a new view for resolving non- point pollution problem at watershed scale, but also a valid measure for decreasing the influence of landscape type and pattern on water quality.
 Emergy Evaluation of the Eco- economic System of Inner Mongolia and Study on Its Sustainable Development Strategy DONG Xiaobin, YAN Maochao, DONG Yun, YANG Lingzhi,ZHANG Yufang, ZHANG Xinshi 2007, 26 (3):  47-57.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.006 Abstract ( )   PDF (1459KB) ( )   Emergy theroy provides a common basis by converting all resouces into equivalents of one form of energy, solar emergy, a measurement of the past and present environmental support to any process occurring in the biosphere and some index indicating eco- economic efficiency. Inner Mongolia plays an important role in Chian west development, eco- environment construction, structure adjustment and nation' s steady going. Emergy synthesis was explored here to research its value of main stored resources, total emergy consumption, inflow and outflow of emergy, emergy input rate, environmental loading rate, emergy sustainable index as well as population loading capacity and other index. In addtion, several relevant indicators were compared with those of other countries. The results showed that its ration of emergy to GDP was 27.1 × 1012sej/$, meaning slow flow of money and material with lower economic development compared to other develped area, and that 75.21 percent of total emergy use was irrenewable resources and self- supported emergy was 98.11 percent of total emergy use, which indicated that the economic increasing mainly depended on the large number of raw material input. This traditional extensive model consumed a great of resources, making the industrial structure and comparative benefit in lower level. Some related measures and policies for the sustainable development of Inner Mongolia were addressed. It should pay more attention to adjusting its industrial construction to improve its production efficiency, making great efforts to get more feedback with high quality emergy for its prosperous competitive ability, and also quickening the establishment of real capability with good environment and condition to accelerate the development of tourism industry.one form of energy, solar emergy, a measurement of the past and present environmental support to any process occurring in the biosphere and some index indicating eco- economic efficiency. Inner Mongolia plays an important role in Chian west development, eco- environment construction, structure adjustment and nation' s steady going. Emergy synthesis was explored here to research its value of main stored resources, total emergy consumption, inflow and outflow of emergy, emergy input rate, environmental loading rate, emergy sustainable index as well as population loading capacity and other index. In addtion, several relevant indicators were compared with those of other countries. The results showed that its ration of emergy to GDP was 27.1 × 1012sej/$, meaning slow flow of money and material with lower economic development compared to other develped area, and that 75.21 percent of total emergy use was irrenewable resources and self- supported emergy was 98.11 percent of total emergy use, which indicated that the economic increasing mainly depended on the large number of raw material input. This traditional extensive model consumed a great of resources, making the industrial structure and comparative benefit in lower level. Some related measures and policies for the sustainable development of Inner Mongolia were addressed. It should pay more attention to adjusting its industrial construction to improve its production efficiency, making great efforts to get more feedback with high quality emergy for its prosperous competitive ability, and also quickening the establishment of real capability with good environment and condition to accelerate the development of tourism industry.
 Trend Analysis of the Runoff Var iation in Lhasa River Basin in Tibetan Plateau during the Last 50 Years LIN Xuedong, ZHANG Yili, YAO Zhijun, GONG Tongliang, WANG Hong, LIU Linshan 2007, 26 (3):  58-67.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.007 Abstract ( )   PDF (1303KB) ( )   Taking the Lhasa River Basin above Lhasa hydrological station in Tibetan plateau as a study objective, the characteristics of the annual and monthly mean runoff in 1956- 2003 were analyzed, which were based on the hydro- data of the two hydrological stations (Lhasa and Tangga) and the meteorological data of the three meteorological stations (Damxung, Lhasa and Tangga). The trends and the change - points of runoff and climate from 1956 to 2003 were detected by using the nonparametric Mann - Kendall test and Pettitt -Mann -Whitney change - point statistics. The correlations between the runoff and climate change were analyzed by using multiple linear regression. The major results could be summarized as follows: (1) The annual mean runoff in 1956~2003 is characterized by a great fluctuation and a positive trend with two change- points (around 1970 and the early 1980s), after which the runoff tended to increase and was increasing intensively in the last 20 years. Besides the annual mean runoff, the monthly mean runoff with a positive trend is in winter half year (from November to April) and summer half year (May, July and September). (2) The trends of the climate change in the study- area are generally consistent with the trend of the runoff, but the leading climate factors which aroused the runoff variation are distinct. Precipitation is the dominant factor influencing the annual and monthly mean runoff in summer half year, while temperature is the primary factor in winter.
 Recent Progr esses in Studies of the Ter r estr ial Carbon Stor age Change for the Past 20k Year s YU Lei, REN Guoyu 2007, 26 (3):  68-79.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.008 Abstract ( )   PDF (1564KB) ( )   Estimating carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystem and understanding its spatial distribution and temporal evolution are the key to the carbon cycle study. This article summarizes some major results of the estimations of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage in globe and China, including the existing problems and uncertainties in the studies. Progress in studies of the carbon storage change since the Last Glacial Maximum ( including the Mid- Holocene) and the influencing factors, especially the potential relationships between the changes and the anomalous increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide since 8.2 ka B.P. is evaluated. A main conclusion that could be drawn from the overview is that the increase in atmospheric carbon gases (CO2、 CH4) concentrations seems coincident with the decline of the terrestrial carbon storage during the mid to late Holocene, and these might have been caused by the impact of anthropogenic activities on terrestrial vegetation during the agricultural era in the old continents.
 Discussion on the Changes of Land- Use and the Land and Sea Ar ea Compr ehensive Utilization on Dachangshan Island ZHANG Yaoguang, WANG Dan 2007, 26 (3):  80-87.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.009 Abstract ( )   PDF (1062KB) ( )   Recently, most studies on land- use and its changes have focused on land cities or related regions at home and abroad, while few on islands. Island is the land on the sea, which is composed of island land, island base, island beach and epicontinental- sea around island. On island, the land- use and its changeable characteristics are influenced by factors of sea and land. It's especially obvious in island' s coastal belt, which can be seen from the use of mud- flat in coastal belt and the epicontinental- sea. This paper discusses the land- use and its changes on Dachangshan Island in North Yellow Sea, and analyzes the characteristics of land- use and the tendency of changeable structure of land- use over time on Dachangshan Island. And based on Area Sea Use Act and Real Right Law authorized by China, this paper also discusses island land and sea area which are considered as one system and their attributes from law and theory foundation.
 Simulating Regional Land Use Change Based on CA and AO CAO Yingui, WANG Jing, TAO Jia, LIU Aixia, XU Ning 2007, 26 (3):  88-95.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.010 Abstract ( )   PDF (1019KB) ( )   Regional land use change is an important part of global change. The research of land use change in the reservoir area of Three Gorges has attracted a lot of attention with construction of Three Gorges dam. The reservoir area of Three Gorges has become one of the important research areas. Based on the Landsat TM datum in 1995 and 2005, simulated multi- land use types change in the reservoir area of Three Gorges was conducted with the support of RS and GIS. In the process of research, the theory of Cellular Automata and the model of Arc- Object were used, with programming in the VB environment to fulfill the simulation and the forecasting. Firstly, transform the land use map of coverage format into grid format, and the shatters were set 100*100m. Secondly, sample on the land use change map using the RASTER CALCULATOR in GIS, and then judge the transfer situation in order to determine the transfer probability of different land use types in the scale of 3*3 neighborhood. Thirdly, program in the VB environment and simulate repeatedly until the simulation result fits for the precision. Lastly, continue simulating and get the land use map in 2010 and 2015. The forecasting map indicates that the areas of urban land and rivers will increase and the area of cultivated land will decrease, which are reasonable and convincing because of the policy of returning cultivated land to forestry land and the rising of water level in the reservoir area.
 Quantitative Study on Response of Ecosystem to Land Use/Cover Changes in Yulin Ar ea Based on 3S Technology Hao Huimei, Ren Zhiyuan, Xue Liang, Jiang Yanfei 2007, 26 (3):  96-106.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.011 Abstract ( )   PDF (1522KB) ( )   The technologies of 3S and various economic analysis methods for ecosystem service evaluation were employed, and regional total ecosystems’service values for different spatial scales in Yulin Area were calculated. Then, the factors that impact regional total ecosystems service values have been analyzed and the indexes employed to quantitatively evaluate the response of ecosystem to land use/cover changes were established. The results are as follows:① In 1987, 1999 and 2002 the total ecosystems’services values of Yulin Area were 237.58 billion yuan, 173.43 billion yuan and 283.69 billion yuan, respectively. But it varied with the spatial variation in Yulin Area. During the whole study period, there is a decrease in terms of the proportions of the services values of farmland and an increase in terms of that of woodlands and grasslands in the Northern- Six- County as well as in the Southern- Six- County, but the sharpest increase in the Northern- Six- County was woodlands, while that in the Southern- Six- County was grasslands. ②Both the land use/cover changes and climate fluctuation are mainly responsible for the changes of regional total ecosystems’service values yearly. Thus, only when the influence of climate fluctuation yearly is eliminated, can the response of ecosystems to land use/cover changes be evaluated more objectively. This was exactly indicated by the results of response indexes of ecosystems to land use/cover changes. ③For most of regions of different spatial scales, the response degree of ecosystems to land use/cover changes during the latter period was higher than that during the former period; and during the former period, changing of total ecosystems services values resulted from land use/cover changing in Northern- Six- County was more dramatic than that in Southern- Six- County, while it was vice verse during the latter period.
 The Analysis of New Rural Contraction Based on Our Country's Rur al Economic Reforms and the Income growth- rate Changes of Rural Household ZHONG Saixiang 2007, 26 (3):  107-118.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.012 Abstract ( )   PDF (1580KB) ( )   By probing the triple ebb and flow influence of rural economic reform on the income of farmers, this paper makes clear the direct relationship between the rural economics and the income growth- rate changes of rural household, and the problem in the rural economic development process: (1) every rural economic reform just happened when the rural economic condition was stagnated with potential great negative effect; (2) every rural economic reform brought on a high growth rate of income, but it was ended by rural economic development getting into hot water; (3) the rising range of the income of rural household shows itself to descend like a ladder. The paper figures out that the new rural construction is the extension of the last three rural economic reforms from 1949a in our country. Based on the last three rural economic reforms and endo- genetic pitfalls and the analysis of background bringing new rural contraction, the article says: (1) The rural economic development status has great demand again for new rural economic reform; (2) Considering the land reform and household contract responsibility system as an open sources reform, and the fee- to- tax reform as reduction expenditure police, the paper treats the new rural construction as broadening- sources of income strategy. It is essential to open a great source of wealth in new rural construction procedure under market economy. By referring to the experiences in agriculture development and the new rural construction from foreign countries, and based on the essential analysis and the cases study of new rural construction in our country, the paper concludes some suggestions for new rural construction.
 The Inquiry on Genesis and Formation Times of The First Bend of Yangtze River MING Qingzhong, SHI Zhengtao, DONG Ming 2007, 26 (3):  119-126.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.03.013 Abstract ( )   PDF (1101KB) ( )   The genesis and formation times of the first bend of Yangtze River are closely relative to such major issues as: the evolution of the formation of Jinsha River- Yangtze River drainage pattern and geographical environment of the Longitudinal Range - gorge Region (LRGR) in southwest China and the effect of Tibet Plateau uplift on peripheral environment. It has been focal points to be discussed and drawn attention from researchers for approximately a hundred years. The causes of the first bend of Yangtze River are summed up into two different viewpoints: river capture and non- river capture. Through comprehensive survey and synthesis analysis about the landforms and sediments, it is considered that the first bend of Yangtze River is a junction of paleo- Shulou river, paleo- Chongjing river and paleo- Jinsha River before Jinsha river′s headward erosion of three river junction. Jinsha River has captured Shuilou River in three river junction, forced Shuilou River to flow to backwards. The linkage of Jinsha River from paleo- Jinsha River to three river junction forms the genuine Jinsha River water system. Based on the ages of Yulong snow mountain uplift and circumjacent stratiform landforms develop as well as the formation of drainage system of China, we primarily infer that the first bend of Yangtze River has been formed since Middle Pleistocene. Kunlun Movement is a transformational event to trigger the evolvement of landforms and drainages.