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Table of Content

    25 March 2009, Volume 28 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Spatial Similarity between Soil Erosion and Its Influencing Factors Based on Information Entropy Theory
    LI Xiuxia, NI Jinren
    2009, 28 (2):  161-166.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1026KB) ( )   Save

    Soil erosion, affected by climate, landforms, soil, vegetation and human activities, is an important element influencing the environment. In order to find out the main influencing factors of soil erosion, the related data of the Yellow River Basin is collected, and the spatial similarity between soil erosion and the influencing factors is analyzed based on information entropy theory. It is indicated that, at a scale of 1∶100 000, the order of the factors' importance to soil erosion in the Yellow River Basin is as follows: (1) in the water eroded area weighted precipitation > topographic relief > vegetation coverage > soil type > gully density; (2) in the wind eroded area topographic relief > wind erosion climatic factor > vegetation coverage > soil type > gully density; and (3) in the freezing -thawing eroded area gully density > topographic relief > temperature difference > vegetation coverage > soil type. A quantitative spatial similarity analysis method between the qualitative and quantitative variables is constructed. The main influencing factors for the water eroded area, wind eroded area and freezing-thawing eroded area in the Yellow River Basin are presented. The research result is of great significance to the soil erosion process study and soil conservation in the basin.

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    Progress in the Study on Conjunctive Regulation of Surface Water and Groundwater in Arid Inland River Basins
    SUN Dongyuan, Yilihamu, FENG Shengli, ZHAO Chengyi
    2009, 28 (2):  167-173.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1169KB) ( )   Save

    Surface water and groundwater conjunctive regulation is an effective approach for solving shortage of water resource in arid inland river basins that is essential significance to the optimum allocation of water resources in arid region. Based on connotations of conjunctive regulation of surface water and groundwater, the present situation on conjunctive regulation of surface water and groundwater was summarized at home and abroad. Some relative study methods were evaluated and shortcomings were pointed out. The research trends of surface water and groundwater conjunctive regulation were prospected. It is proposed that cross discipline collaboration, such as meteorology, ecology, should be paid more attention in formation mechanism of surface water and groundwater conjunctive regulation in the future. The information systems and management model of surface water and groundwater conjunctive regulation were developed for inland rivers. The high-effective use model of water resources based on ecological health and development of environment demand water value method and threshold on environment were discussed in inland rivers. It is suggested that integrated model for synthetic component of water circle is becoming a trend in model development on surface water and groundwater conjunctive regulation.

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    Progress in Applications of the EOF Analysis in the Research of Coastal Geomorphology and Sedimentology
    XIA Fei,ZHANG Yongzhan,WU Wei
    2009, 28 (2):  174-186.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2146KB) ( )   Save

    The processes and mechanisms of coastal geomorphological evolution are the main tasks of the current research on coastal geomorphology and sedimentology. However, for the coastal zones that are high-dimensional and non-linear systems, their behavior has not been understood well, so predicting sediment transport and coastal geomorphological evolution in these areas are difficult tasks. The physically based prediction models are not modelling well, especially at larger temporal and spatial scales. Data-driving models can resolve such problems to a certain extent, and prior to the establishment of data-driving models, the EOF analysis technique can detect and quantify dominant patterns in the data and their evolution in time and space effectively, as well as how different patterns are related to each other. Thus, it is possible to obtain valuable information on the behavior of coastal zones that may be used not only for developing data-driving models, but also for increasing the understanding of the factors governing the geomorphological evolution, so it can improve the understanding of the processes and mechanisms of coastal geomorphological evolution. Based on a great deal of domestic and oversea references, this paper firstly introduces the principle of the EOF analysis technique, then makes a review of the progress in applications of the EOF analysis in studies of coastal geomorphological and sedimentary problems as the following aspects, characteristics of temporal and spatial changes on sandy and muddy coast profiles, characteristics of temporal and spatial changes of nearshore submarine erosion/accretion and their predictions, distribution of sediments grain sizes and sediments transportation et al., it also analyzes problems and deficiencies in the study cases, and proposes that the current research work should pay more attention to the following three main aspects in order to realize the deeper applications and development of the EOF analysis in the research of coastal geomorphology and sedimentology. First, the temporal and spatial resolution of field data and collection measures must be upgraded; the data types analyzed should be broadened. Second, the processes and mechanisms of coastal geomorphological evolution which the EOF analysis has revealed must be digged deeply in order to provide valuable information for numerical simulation at a certain scale. Third, the EOF analysis technique should be used with other linear or non -linear analysis methods for further data analysis or simulations.

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    The Application of Adaptive Neuron-Fuzzy Inference System in Simulating Land Use Change
    LI Xinyu, GE Ying, ZHANG Zunzhong
    2009, 28 (2):  187-192.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1100KB) ( )   Save

    The land use and land cover change (LUCC) is one of the most important projects on global environmental changes. The process of land use change resembles a progressive and nondeterministic process both spatially and temporally. Fuzzy set theory offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty present in the continuous real world. So, the fuzzy inference theory has important significance for researching on land use change that was discussed deeply in the study. Using Chongchuan district in Nantong City of Jiangsu Province as a case, the paper mainly studied the fuzzy inference model of land use change based on Adaptive Neuron-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS for short) and simulated and forecasted the transition progress of the study area by using the model. The results confirm the potential of fuzzy inference to produce realistic simulations of the land use change progress. The land use model based on ANFIS could reflect the complexity and uncertainty of land use change. It is convenience to obtain the parameters and fuzzy rules of the model by the ANFIS from the history data and predigest the model structure. So the study supplied another possible idea for simulating the land use change.

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    Dynamic Changes of Land Use Fractal Characteristic in Weihai, China
    JIA Wenchen, JIA Xiangyun, LI Fuyin, WANG Juanle
    2009, 28 (2):  193-198.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.005
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    Based on land use vector data of Weihai from remote sensing interpretation in three periods, using land use spatial shape fractal model, fractal dimensions and stability index of each main land use type in 1985,1995 and 2000 were acquired. Using the methods of overlay analysis, etc, dynamic degree of each main land use type in 1985-1995, 1995-2000 and 1985-2000 were calculated. Based on these data stated above, the rule of land use fractal characteristic change and dynamic degree change were studied. The result of the research showed: In 1985, 1995 and 2000, fractal dimensions of unused land, urban land and water area were all bigger, and fractal dimensions of rural residents, other construction land were all smaller. From 1985 to 2000, even value of fractal dimensions of each main type of land use decreased gradually, and, in all, morphology of land use types became simpler and more regular. The changing features of fractal dimensions and stability index of each main type of land use differed more significantly among different periods. In the three periods, the spatial shape of rural residents, other construction land and unused land were more stable, and the spatial shape of water area, urban land, grassland and farmland were more unstable. In 1985-1995, the annual increasing rate of urban land was the highest and the annual decreasing rate of forest land was the highest; in 1995-2000, the annual increasing rate of urban land was the highest and the annual decreasing rate of water area was the highest; in 1985- 2000, the annual increasing rate of urban land was the highest and the annual decreasing rate of unused land was the highest; thus, urban expansion was fast and the trend of urbanization was very obvious in Weihai. Rapid development of society and economy, government planning, urbanization, and so on, were the main reasons for change of fractal dimensions, stability index and dynamic degree of land use in Weihai.

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    Research on Land Use Change of Uxin Qi
    WU Xiaoxu, ZOU Xueyong
    2009, 28 (2):  199-206.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1456KB) ( )   Save

    With the aid of RS and GIS techniques and based on five TM images of Uxin Qi from 1986 to 2005, land use change is quantitatively studied by employing land use dynamic degree and land use shift matrix, landscape characteristics and dynamic changes of spatial landscape pattern are analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative methods, human driving factors of land use change are analyzed with socio-economic data. The research indicates (1) fluctuation between expansionary path and falling trend took place in land use types during the past 20 years. According to conversion direction of land use in 1986, woodland, grassland and sandy land transformed frequently, cropland were mainly converted to woodland, grassland and sandy land, water area mainly to other unutilized land which otherwise converted to grassland and sandy land, and no conversion happened to industrial and mining land. According to conversion source of land use in 2005, cropland was mainly converted from woodland, sandy land and grassland; woodland mainly converted from sandy land and grassland; grassland mainly converted from sandy land and woodland; water area mainly from sandy land and cropland; habitation mainly from sandy land, grassland and woodland; and other unutilized land mainly from grassland, water area and woodland. (2)Dynamics of landscape pattern in Uxin Qi manifest that fractal dimension of all landscape decreases, shape index shows an increasing trend except that of habitation, patch density and isolation degree presents a decreasing trend except that of water area, and dominance index declines and diversity index increases on the whole. (3) Population growth, economic development and ecological fathering projects are the main human driving factors influencing land use change.

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    Dynamic Analysis of Land Use and Landscape Pattern Changes in Guinan County, Qinghai, in the Past 30 Years
    HAN Haihui, YANG Taibao, WANG Yilin
    2009, 28 (2):  207-215.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1651KB) ( )   Save

    Based on Landsat satellite remote sensing data in growth season of 1977,1999 and 2007, we had monitored LUCC in Guinan County from 1977 to 2007 by RS, GIS and landscape ecology. Then, we calculated land use transform matrix and a set of landscape indices to analyse changes. The results show that from 1977 to 2007, noticeable changes in land use and land cover change (LUCC) occurred in Guinan County. There was a decreasing tendency in grassland, especially for high coverage grassland near Mangqu and Senduo, the degradation persisted throughout the 30 years; however the middle coverage grassland was reclaimed to farmland in prophase, then some farmland was returned to middle coverage grassland again in anaphase because of implementation of the national project for returning farmland to rangeland. So, the area of farmland was ascended in prophase and was descended in anaphase, but it kept a decreasing tendency in the mass. Meanwhile, woodland on east and south mountain of Guinan was increased, and the construction of the Longyangxia reservoir led to flooding of some low coverage grassland and rocks. After 2000, the area of sandy land was controlled along with the implementation of the national project. Between 1977 and 1999, the landscape fragmentation and landscape heterogeneity of the study area were increased, and the dominant patch was scattered. After 1999, the trend of landscape fragmentation was slow and the dominant patch was gathered again because of implementation of the project. Those changes in Guinan County were caused by nature and human activity. However, the human's contributions are great, such as the increase of population for human and livestock, such as the unreasonable exploitation of grassland and the excessive grazing.

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    Classification and Change Analysis of the Exploitation Oriented Bays in Guangdong Province
    LIU Yong, YANG Xiaomei, ZHANG Dandan, ZHANG Xuewu, GAO Lei
    2009, 28 (2):  216-222.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1301KB) ( )   Save

    A bay, the hinge of the connection between ocean and inland, is like a bright pear inlaying in coastal line. Scholars have done a lot of research work on it and put forward many classification methods of the bay. However, most of them all are based on classification of natural landscape or landform. With rapid increase in the development intensity, the classification methods can provide scientific basis for development plan or management of the bays. In this paper, the author proposes the definition of bay range and quantitative index of the bays' classification based on development and utilization, and completes classification of the bays in Guangdong. The changes in exploitation of various bays in Gongdong in 20 years are analyzed through RS images in different periods for those areas. According to analytic results, we can conclude that coastline becomes more zigzag due to intensified erosion intensity , reduction of the water area of the bays for enclosing lakes and seas to make cropland and sediment deposition, with the retreat of the coastline. So, in order to protect ecological balance and promote healthy development, we should make reasonable planning for the development and utilization of the bays.

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    Analysis of the Observation Results of Temperature and Precipitation over an Alpine Mountain, the Lhasa River Basin
    XIE Jian, LIU Jingshi, DU Mingyuan, KANG Shichang, WANG Kuikui
    2009, 28 (2):  223-230.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1193KB) ( )   Save

    Altitudinal and temporal distribution of surface based air temperatures and monsoon period precipitation were analysed, using an original data set, spanning Aug. 1, 2006 to Jul. 31, 2007, from 9 automated weather stations set up along an altitudinal gradient from 4300 to 5500 m a.s.l. on the southern slope of Nyainqentanglha Mountains, the Lhasa River basin. Surface based inversion was found typically during October to the following April. The annual inversion frequency was 11.5% (i.e. 42 days). The lapse rate of mean annual air temperature was 0.61℃/100m for the elevation interval of 4300~5500 m. Analysis on the precipitation indicated the presence of the maximum precipitation belt (MPB) at about 5100 m a.s.l, with an increasing rate of 4~7mm/100m below the MPB. The precipitation decreased at a rate of 1.6~2.3 times of the increasing rate over the MPB. The precipitation amounts in July and August were larger than those in June and September. The intra-month distributions of precipitation were generally more homogeneous for the upper hillslope than for the lower. The precipitation events generally occurred at any time except for 4:00~10:00, with the heavy rainfall(3~14mm/h) mainly occurring within 18:00~22:00. The larger precipitation events concentrated roughly between 4650 m a.s.l. and 5100 m a.s.l.

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    Progress in Glacier Variations in China and Its Sensitivity to Climatic Change during the Past Century
    DUAN Jianping, WANG Lily, REN Jiawen, LI Lun
    2009, 28 (2):  231-237.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.010
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    Glacier variations results from climatic change, it is also an indicator of climatic change. In the past 100 years, glaciers in China have been generaly retreating and ablating rapidly under the condition of global warming. In this paper the researches about glacial terminal retreat, areas and mass balance variations in China in recent decades have been reviewed and analyzed, the sensitivity of glacial variations to climatic change had been discussed from the view of time and space. Evidences indicated that there is a phase lag of about 10-20 years for glacial terminal variation to climatic change in China and the variations magnitude of the glacial retreat, mass balance and glacial areas are larger at the margins and the vicinities of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau than the inner glaciers. The sensitivity of glacial variations to climate change displayed an enhanced trend from the inner glaciers to the marginal and adjacent glaciers of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Finally, the authors analyze the problems and insufficiency of the present studies and the tendency in future.

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    RS/GIS-Based Assessment and Analysis of Ecological Security Dynamics in the Suburbs of Beijing
    WAN Li,CHEN Youqi,TAN Jing,ZHANG Jiexia
    2009, 28 (2):  238-244.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1363KB) ( )   Save

    In this paper, the temporal and spatial dynamic trend of ecological security in the suburbs of Beijing from 1996 to 2005 is analyzed in terms of landscape ecological security index (ESI), on the ground of landscape ecology theory and the stability of landscapes. Semivariogram analysis and Kriging interpolation are conducted to get the distribution map of ecological security. The results show that: (1) The landscapes in the study area from 1996 to 2005 changed in different trends, with persistent increase in construction land and substantial decrease in cropland landscape. (2) The landscape indexes of patch number, landscape fragmentation and fractional dimension have all shown an increasing trend in the study area. (3) Human activity has much influence on the ecological security index, giving rise to quite uneven spatial distribution of ecological security in the whole area. (4) The ecological security index (ESI) can be used to quantitatively evaluate the ecological environment and its evolution direction. The ESI takes on an ascending tendency from Chaoyang District through Shunyi to Miyun counties, and the area of low ESI has been expanding gradually with the acceleration of urbanization of Beijing.

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    Ecological Security Assessment and Prediction for Shenzhen
    LI Peiwu1, LI Guicai2, ZHANG Jinhua1, LI Zihe3, XU Feng1
    2009, 28 (2):  245-252.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1440KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the pressure-status-response (PSR) conceptual model, this paper constructs the ecological security evaluation index system of Shenzhen. It selects the AHP(analytic hierarchy process) and the entropy-right method to empowering all indicators. Through the fuzzy synthetic method and using the SPSS software, it obtains a result of ecological security dynamic changes of Shenzhen from 1997 to 2006 by calculating, analyzing and evaluating. Then it builds prediction model using stepwise regression analysis, and verifies the security grades of ecology data of Shenzhen in 2006. The results show that: it is an approaching situation of ecological security synthetic indices from less security to relative security of Shenzhen from 1997 to 2005, and reaches relative security status in 2006. The membership of ideal security and relative security will get larger gradually while the membership of terribly security gets smaller. It also shows that the limiting factors impacting ecological security of Shenzhen is diminishing gradually, and the development potential is great; the ecological security of Shenzhen will go up to ideal status in 2022 through the prediction model.

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    Research on the Agglomeration of Congener Merchandises: A Case Study of Xisi-Xinjiekou Street in Beijing
    LIANG Jinshe,WU Ying, ZHANG Jinzong
    2009, 28 (2):  253-258.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1220KB) ( )   Save

    Using the examples of four types of shops - wedding dress photography, hardware, musical instrument and garments of congener merchandises along the South Xisi Street-the North Xisi Street-the South Xinjiekou Street-the North Xinjiekou Street in Beijing xicheng District, we discussed the formation mechanisms and the effects of the commercial pattern of congener merchandises agglomeration. It shows that the acquirement of more market share in competition is the primary reason for the appearance of this commercial pattern; the existence of searching costs and information spillover effects coming from the intercommunication between merchants and customers are advantageous to such agglomeration. It also indicates that the commercial pattern of congener merchandise agglomeration is more competitive in the market than dispersive one. Because the former decreases the transaction cost and therefore benefits both merchants and customers. Moreover, the commercial pattern of congener merchandises agglomeration is more suitable for merchants with diversified products,and should not be opposite to other commercial patterns.

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    The Ubuffer Spatial Analysis on Economic Growth of the Pearl River Delta Urban Agglomerations Based on UGIS
    ZHANG Dujuan, LIU Kewei, CHEN Zhongnuan|WANG Lianbing
    2009, 28 (2):  259-263.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.014
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    This paper takes the Pearl River Delta Urban Agglomeration as a whole from macroscopic angle by breaking the administrative boundary, based on related theories on urban ubuffer area analysis of UGIS and GIS, as well as analysis on 30 km ubuffer areas of the entity line form and surface form on its inner core and axes zone (development axis and expanded surface) from promoting economic growth aspect, reaching the adjacent spatial visual effect between certain distance. The results show that (1) the ubuffer area scope of the expanding surface based on Guangzhou city includes the main city area of Dongguan, Foshan, Zhongshan and part of city area of Shenzhen and Zhuhai. (2) The ubuffer area scope of the development axis based on Guangzhou-Shenzhen railway includes nearly the whole administrative sphere of Dongguan and Shenzhen; the ubuffer area scope of development axis based on Guangzhou -Zhuhai highway includes the city area of Foshan, the whole Zhongshan city and Macao Special Administrative Region, part of Zhuhai administrative area, spreading to minor part of administrative area of Jiangmen and Dongguan. According to the regional scope which is eradiated and influenced by the ubuffer spatial sphere of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomerations core and axes region, this paper indicates from the viewpoint of geo-economics that as the future economic agglomerations, only by achieving the spatial combination of advantages and harmonious development can the Pearl River Delta achieve the conversion from unbalanced to relative balanced of regional economy in spatial distribution. Finally, the issues such as use of technology, choice of ubuffer distance and the further investigative direction are brought forward.

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    Beijing's Producer Services: Growth, Changes and Spatial Structures
    HU Dan, SONG Yujing, SHEN Yuming, QIU Ling
    2009, 28 (2):  264-270.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.015
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    Based on the input-output tables of Beijing in 1997 and 2002, and the first economic census data, the paper adopted the input-output analysis and location quotient methods to analyze the growth structure changes and effects on regional economy, as well as spatial arrangement of typical producer services in Beijing. The results indicated that, firstly, producer services presented the finance, business and information services-oriented pattern clearly. Secondly, producer services mainly served the tertiary industries. There was an uptrend of the intermediate demand to finance, business and information services from 1997 to 2002. Thirdly, consumption levels for intermediate use were improved in manufacturing significantly. Industrial structure was continuously optimized and upgraded. Fourthly, producer services not only promoted economic development but also needed support from economic development from 1997 to 2002. Knowledgeintensive and technology-intensive services had high value-added but low impetus ability, which could not promote the econiomic development significantly. Finally, spatial structure of producer services took a circle-shaped pattern in Beijing. And the development of producer services was closely related to economic development of Beijing.

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    Research Progress in Protection and Restoration of Urban Wetlands
    LI Chunhui, ZHENG Xiaokang, NIU Shaofeng, CAI Yanpeng, SHEN Nan, PANG Aiping
    2009, 28 (2):  271-279.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1674KB) ( )   Save

    As a special ecosystem in the city, urban wetlands play an important part both in ecological environment and social services. Urban wetlands can offer the important water resources and ecological environment protection for a city's sustainable development, and the rational development and use of wetland resources is a prerequisite to ensure the sustainable development of a city. However, with the development of urbanization, urban wetland protection has become an increasingly important issue, and some irrational behaviors in urban wetlands' exploitation resulted in wetland resources decrease, degradation of wetland function, serious pollution and other eco- environmental problems. More and more attention has been paid to urban wetlands protection and their rational use of the international community. Under the intense human disturbance, the ecological services deteriorated and eutrophication was serious, and the urban wetland area of the world is reducing. Thus, the main problems of urban wetlands were analyzed on the basis of urban wetland function. Moreover, the technologies related to wetlands protection and restoration were analyzed synthetically, and the progress of urban wetlands studies in the world were summarized. Furthermore, future research directions of urban wetland protection and restoration were also outlined. Finally, the strategies for urban wetland protection in China were put forward, and some important issues about the study and protection of China's urban wetlands were discussed. The studies would be of positive significance to the development of urban wetland science and the whole wetland science.

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    The Strategic Concept on Coordinated Development between the Protection and Development of the Great Wall
    ZHANG Yifeng, TAN Jie, CHEN Meijing, JIA Dameng, WANG Jing, SONG Siyu
    2009, 28 (2):  280-284.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (949KB) ( )   Save

    The Great Wall is one of the world famous historical architectures, as well as a symbol of Chinese spirits and culture. It even has been an image of China. But either the natural or the human environments around it has been greatly affected by human activities. In order that next generations can have equal chance to share the valuable historical and cultural heritage, it is important to protect the Great Wall while we use it as a resource for scientific research, education and economic development.Based on strategic, integrative, hierarchy, object-oriented and operable principles, we suggest to establish the Great Wall Economic Zone as a primary strategy so as to integrate its protection and development. This strategy also includes the establishment of the Comprehensive Test and Demonstration Zone for the coordinated development in the Great Wall area, Enterprise Alliance for the Great Wall development and civilization model villages. The purposes of this paper are to explore the new ways and models for coordinated development between the protection and development of the Great Wall, and to promote the sustainable development in this area.

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    Decomposition of Energy-induced CO2 Emissions in Industry of China
    LIU Hongguang, LIU Weidong
    2009, 28 (2):  285-292.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.018
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    There are many articles in the field of CO2 emission decomposition and the methods including Laspeyres index, Sample Average Division and Adaptive-Weighting Division are more scientific now, but many researchers just focused on one factor of carbon emission intensity or energy consumption intensity and lacked further decomposition. This paper presents a complex formula to calculate carbon emission, then examines the factors, including total energy consumption, energy mix, technology, inter -input, industrial structure and total industrial production, which have effects on CO2 emission from industrial energy during the period 1992~ 2005 by the decomposition method of LMDI proposed by Ang et al. The results show that the gross emission of CO2 induced by the energy consumption of manufacture in China increased rapidly during the period of 1992 -2005, especially in 2002 -2005 coherent with the economic development path. And the increase is mostly derived from the augment of total industrial production with the characteristics of heavy industrialization, low efficiency of energy consumption and the mix of primary energy with high proportion of coal. Beyond our expectation, the factors of technology (proportion of inter-input) and industrial structure do not have a big reduction of CO2 emission because of the economic development mainly driven by huge investment of infrastructure such as transportation, housing construction and primary manufacture such as steel, cement, chemistry and so on. But the quantity change of inter-input including other unaccounted factors is the primary contributor. The results indicate that accelerating technology upgrade, regulating industrial structure and energy mix, and developing CMD (Clean Development Mechanism) project are the efficient ways to reduce CO2 emissions.

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    The Evolution and Optimization of Space Structure of Fujian Province
    WU Dewen, MAO Hanying, ZHANG Xiaolei, TANG Xiaohua
    2009, 28 (2):  293-300.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.019
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    This paper is meant to explore the evolution process of the regional space structure of Fujian Province by setting the counties (cities) of the province as basic unit and selecting 14 indicators to calculate the weight of each indicator by means of principal component analytical method to comprehensively evaluate the economic power of respective counties (cities), based on the data of four typical years. It comes out with the following findings: the economic focus of Fujian Province is moving toward southeast; the regional economic space layout shows dramatic regionalization; the coastal axle is becoming a critical space growth axis for Fujian Province; the space structure of northeast evolutes slowly at preliminary stage, while the space structure of southeast coastal area evolutes speedily at a high stage; its space structure appears in the shape of the Chinese character “ 开(kai)”. A further analysis is made to explain that the momentum mechanism including the transfer of regional development strategy, difference in infrastructure development, discrepancy in industrial cluster development, the impact of economic globalization since the 1990s accelerates the evolution of regional space structure of Fujian Province. It then expounds the necessity of optimizing the space structure of Fujian Province to address the issues like the increasing prominence of the core -edge structure, the dramatic space cluster, the disconnections in the prosperous zone of southeast coastal area, the closure of its natural environment, the market space being captured, the urgent need to expand space. Based on the analysis of the momentum mechanism of the regional space structure evolution of Fujian Province and the necessity of space structure optimization, a vision of optimizing the space structure of Fujian Province is proposed here: On the one hand, it is urgent for Fujian Province to strengthen the economic ties with south Zhejiang Province, northeast Guangdong Province, and northeast and south Jiangxi Province to speed up the establishment of west Taiwan Strait economic zone in the short run; in the long term, it is strategically important to enhance the economic relationship with Taiwan and construct Taiwan Strait economic zone taking advance of west Taiwan Strait economic zone to build up external expansion space. On the other hand, it is imperative to optimize the nine growth poles and construct a “ shaped” open space structure composed of six rapid passages and clusters of coastal ports in Fujian province to optimize its inside space structure. As a result, a sound, internally optimized, and externally expansive space structure will be taking shape in Fujian Province.

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    Strategy and Methodology of Location Analysis for Economic Geography: A Case study of Guanhekou areas in Jiangsu Province
    LU Yuqi, DONG Ping
    2009, 28 (2):  301-306.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.020
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    New views about location analysis for economic geography were shown in the case of Guanhekou areas. These views were summed up using a meta-synthesis of location analysis for economic geography whose basic meaning is spatial-temporal multi-scale and multi-element integrative analysis in this paper. That is, economic zoning is not statically thought of a relative location relation but analyzed synthetically in the process of thinking about the relation of location and its effect, and the integrative methodology includes the principle of integrative multi-element analysis, the principle of spatial-temporal multi-scale analysis and the principle of portal multi-path analysis. On this basis, theoretical framework of location analysis for economic geography was established to discuss the location (or location analysis) for economic geography, which is as the most basic knowledge, theory and methodology in geography, with a certain creative theory and methodology.

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    Analysis of Informationization Level of OIBNEC Using RITE Model
    DONG Minghui, CHENG Duanlv, ZOU Bin, YANG Hong, LI Shixi
    2009, 28 (2):  307-311.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.021
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    This study firstly selected 15 indices based on the improved RITE model. Then, the comprehensive informationization indices for the old industrial bases of Northeast China (OIBNEC) and the entire China during 1998 to 2005 were calculated based on these indices. Thirdly, these comprehensive informationization indices were utilized to evaluate the differences of informationization progress between OIBNEC and entire China. Fourthly, the factors contributing to the comprehensive informationization of OIBNEC were ranked based on the results from the Pearson correlation analysis. It was observed that the informationization level of OIBNEC was higher than the corresponding one of entire China by 8.40% during 1998-2005. However, the informationization level of the three provinces located in OIBNEC differed from each other. The ranked order of the informationization level of them were Liaoning >Jilin> Heilongjian. It was also observed that the information equipment (r2=0.991) and the level of correspondence (r2=0.981) were the major driving forces promoting the informationization level of OIBNEC. The information amount (r2=-0.753) was the one reducing the informationization level of OIBNEC. The result in this study indicated that there is a good foundation for the future informationization instruction in OIBNEC.

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    New Way of Looking at Human Geographical Laws Using the Idea from Symmetry
    CHEN Yanguang
    2009, 28 (2):  312-320.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.022
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1409KB) ( )   Save

    Because of asymmetry of space and time translation, geographers have been trying in vain to find theoretical laws which are like the natural laws in classical physics for a long time. The basic laws at large scale of macro level (cosmos) and small scale of micro level (particles) keep symmetric in both space and time. However, for human scale of medium level (e.g. cities), all symmetry rules seem to be broken. For a geographical phenomenon, mathematical model is not always one and only, and model parameter values are not constant. Consequently, “universality” cannot be taken as a criterion of selecting geographical models or laws. The most difficult problem of theoretical construction in geography just rests with breaking symmetry of human scale. In this instance, we need now judgment standards of geographical models and laws based on new philosophy. Fortunately, a discovery is made by the author these years that a good geographical model, especially, mathematical model, always has some types of invariance through transformation indicative of variance. Invariance suggests symmetry, including translational symmetry, dilation symmetry, lateral symmetry, rotational symmetry, etc. For theoretical models or rules, universality is a kind of ex -symmetry of natural laws, while invariance of transformation is in fact an in - symmetry of models. Geographical laws seem to conform to some in-symmetry rules instead of exsymmetry rules. The evolution aim of geographical systems seems to reconstruct the symmetry rules of nature. It is of significance for us to explore geographical symmetry, in particular in human geography, such as symmetrical distributions in time or in space, and the symmetry between time and space, or between macro-level and micro -level, and so on. In this paper, a preliminary thought is presented to research geographical laws of human systems using the concepts from symmetry. Some conclusions may be revealing for future geographical research at home and abroad.

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