Table of Content

    25 May 2009, Volume 28 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Time-spatial Coordination of Energy Supply and Its Effects in West China
    ZHANG Lei1, HUANG Yuanxi1,2
    2009, 28 (3):  321-328.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1252KB) ( )   Save

    An expanding energy supply system, as a result of the uneven distributions of resources in one hand and demands in the other, is a prevailing trend for nations and regions on the way of modernization. This paper is aimed at a close examination on the interrelationship between growing capacity of energy industry and its spatial effects of energy supply in West China. Such a relationship can be libeled as a time-spatial coordination of regional energy supply. The findings of this paper are salutary. First, they provide that energy supply of West China, one of the most important regions with abundant energy resources in the country, was successfully transformed itself from a lower self-sufficiency type to a highly regional export-led one during the past 50 years. For instance, the self-sufficiency ratio of West China was more than doubled from 70% in 1952 to over 150% in 2005. In the meantime, the average conveyed distance of energy supply of West China was registered from less than 100 km in 1952 to about 550 km in 2005. Secondly, a powerful expansion of the energy supply system in Northwest China was the determined factor in such a transformation. In fact, more than 77% of net energy-export volume in West China was contributed by the Northwest, and to say nothing of the enlargement of energy spatial supply. Thirdly, a large scale of energy exploitation in West China could not bring profits to local economies and social wealth as much as expected due to heavily reliance on the energy-export-led industries, especially coal. Truly, it was evidenced that the growth of GDP per capita in West China was far beyond that of energy production when it became the second largest energy supplier in the country. In 1990,for example, GDP per capita of West China stood at about 72.6% of the country’s average when the region shared  only 8.6% of China’s total energy production. In 2005, however, GDP per capita of West China (at 1952 price) was registered only 52.1% of the national average when its energy output was accounted for 36.7% of the country’s total. Finally, it is, therefore, a reasonable to argue to transfer such a traditional mode of energy supply in West China to a new one addressed on a regional sustainable development in order to avoid the Dutch Disease and the Resource Curse.

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    Firm Migration of Clusters in East Coastal Areas of China: A Case Study of Lamp-making Clusters in Wenzhou, Zhejiang
    ZHU Huasheng1|WANG Jici2|LI Pengfei2|LI Wei1
    2009, 28 (3):  329-336.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (584KB) ( )   Save

    Firm emigration from the east coastal areas in China is generally explained as spatial expansion of firms,and can be attributed to these factors, such as resource scarcity, rising cost, technology upgrade, and environmental regulations. That point of view apparently follows the logic of comparative advantages. This article takes Wenzhou lamp-making cluster in Zhejiang Province as an example to analyze mechanism of firm migration in clusters. Based on the semi-structured depth interviews in Guzhen Town, Guangdong Province - one of the major immigration destination of Wenzhou firms - with local authorities, industrial associations, native firms, and Wenzhou firms, the article demonstrates that the increase of local resource price and the limitation of accessible space in Wenzhou can not be fully explained as powerful driven forces, while scarcity of core technology and deterioration of business environment actually push firms out. Furthermore, network organizations reduce transaction costs and potential risks of firm migration from Wenzhou to Guzhen and strengthen their bargaining power in the immigration area. Besides, such migration is typically cluster-oriented, which means that the competitive advantage based on the collective creativity and governance efficiency drive cluster firms to relocate.Firm emigration to some extent weakens the advantages of Wenzhou cluster. As far as Guzhen Town, firm immigration increases the cluster effects on one hand, and exerts some influence on the local innovation system on the other hand.

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    Agglomeration Economies, FDI Spillovers and Chinese Automobile Enterprises Efficiency
    WANG Junsong1, HE Canfei1,2
    2009, 28 (3):  337-344.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (774KB) ( )   Save

    With the fast development of automobile industry, six main agglomeration areas such as northeast, Yangtze River Delta region, Wuhan-Shiyan region, Chongqing, Pearl Delta region and Beijing-Tianjin area have been formed. Agglomeration economies and FDI significantly influence the automobile efficiency in China. The paper intends to explore how the agglomeration economies and FDI influence Chinese automobile efficiency. The result confirms that inner scale economies, urbanization and localization economies can significantly raise automobile industry efficiency. A large automobile enterprise performs better if it is located in a large city or with large scale of automobile industry because it can take advantages of infrastructure, labor markets and information resources, also, it can strengthen relationship with other enterprises. FDI has complex influence on Chinese automobile industry. First, FDI as a whole in the city does not have spillover effect on the city’s automobile industry. Second, a city’s actually used automobile FDI does not have spillover effect on whole automobile enterprises but has significant spillover effect on automobile assembly enterprises.

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    Grey Associative Analysis of Infrastructure System and Economic Development Coupling in Xinjiang
    YANG Li1,2, YANG Degang1, ZHANG Yufang1,2, QIAO Xuning1,2, TANG Hong1,2, WANG Gu
    2009, 28 (3):  345-352.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (789KB) ( )   Save

    Taking Xinjiang as a case analysis, based on the panel and serial statistical data, the main factors of infrastructure system and economic development coupling, temporal-spatial distribution of the coupling degrees have been researched. The results show: (1) Through grey associative degree analysis, it can be seen that the transport infrastructure and post﹠telecommunication services are the main momentums for infrastructure system to affect economic development. Furthermore, the paper selects ten items of infrastructure system and six items of economic development to reveal the coupling mechanism of infrastructure system and economic development. (2) The infrastructure system is very important for economic growth. Deducting an effects-relationship model and the elasticity of transport infrastructure and post﹠telecommunication services to economic growth is 0.264. (3) There exist significant phases and undulatory characteristics for the temporal evolvement of infrastructure system and economic development coupling, and its spatial distribution is different. According to the coupling degree distributions and the level of infrastructure system and regional economic development, the 15 prefectures, autonomous prefectures and cities in Xinjiang can be divided into four types, i.e., the economic development surpassing infrastructure, tending to be harmony, harmony and low-level coupling. The harmony type is dominant, reaching 50%.

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    Spatial Structure, Mode and the Meaning of Population Migration in the Yangtze River Delta
    ZHU Jie
    2009, 28 (3):  353-361.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.005
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    By employing revised gravity model and O-D matrix of the shortest passing time among cities, this paper simulates communication situation of migration nodes, estimates affiliations of attractive centers, and then constructs the hierarchies of migration gravity system. The results show that, in 2005, there are five 1st level migration attractive centers, including Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, two 2nd level attractive centers, which are Wuxi and Xuzhou, and nine 3rd level attractive centers, such as Lianyungang and Yangzhou. Consequently, the migration gravity system hierarchies are constructed based on the former attractive centers, which consist of five 1st level systems, seven 2nd level systems and 14 3rd level systems. Besides, the general mode of evolution of migration spatial structure is identified, which includes the following four processes : “single-core agglomeration”, “multi-core structure”, “mono-center system” and “multi-center network”. Furthermore, by the analysis of communicating scope, this paper points out that the layout of regional fast transportation system plays an important role in guiding and supporting migration spatial patterns. Finally, from the perspective of urban rail, local administrative barriers and the development of central cities, the corresponding suggestions are put forward for the different scales of planning in the Yangtze River Delta.

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    The Influence of Residential Space on Household Shopping Tour Decision-Making Behaviors
    ZHANG Wenjia, CHAI Yanwei
    2009, 28 (3):  362-369.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (803KB) ( )   Save

    The relationship between urban form and non-work activity-travel has received considerable attention in the recent debates over the area of transportation, urban studies and geography. In this paper, we formulate and estimate a nested model structure that includes the choice of shopping frequency of each household in the upper level, the allocation of household member to shopping task in the middle nest, and the choice of shopping tour pattern of residents in the lower nest. Data for the analysis are drawn from a 2007 Beijing activity dairy survey, including 516 households and 1110 residents in 10 communities distributed from urban core to suburb. The estimated results, with the methods of full information maximum likelihood (FIML), indicate that the difference of residential location does not significantly influent the household shopping travel demand such as tour frequency, however, obviously lead to diverse individual's everyday lifestyle such as shopping tour pattern to offset the impact of location. And the variable of residential duration, supposed as measurement of the cognition about residential space, merely significantly affects all levels of the shopping decision-making behaviors. Moreover, from the result of the simulation with changing the residential shopping density from 0.1M to 2.5M (M is current shopping density), we can draw a conclusion that the elasticity of shopping tour demand is not invariable for the reason that in some range (0.7M to 1.4M) the demand is elastic and in other case (<0.7M) is inelastic when the density is changing. And the elasticity varies between the location of intra-four-circle and outer-four-circle. It means that different land-use policies should be carried out in different region inside city, according to residential elasticity of shopping tour demand and the current situation of residential land-use, to optimize the shopping tour frequency. Meanwhile, the result tells us that the probability of choosing only-shop-to-home (OSH) pattern of suburb residents is the most largest, not only for the reason that the lower commercial density in suburb, but also the worse accessibility between suburb residential districts and CBD in urban core, such as lacking of transfer convenience and unpredicted traffic jam in Beijing city, all of which prevent the individual taking risks to carry out other activity in the long-distance activity pattern.

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    Progress in Research on Urban Spatial Expansion of China
    GUO Yueting1, LIAO Heping1, PENG Zheng2
    2009, 28 (3):  370-375.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (343KB) ( )   Save

    Summarizing the progress in research on urban spatial expansion, China has made great achievements in researches on the configuration and pattern of urban expansion, the mechanism of urban expansion, the dynamic simulation of urban expansion and the environmental influence of unban expansion. At this stage quantitative research methods are mainly used for research on urban spatial expansion of China. The driving factors of urban spatial expansion are analyzed. By remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS), accurate information about urban spatial expansion is gained. And the process of urban spatial expansion is simulated on different space-time scales. The environmental influence of unban expansion is also analyzed. At the same time there are a large number of theoretical scientific researches on urban spatial expansion. These are the main characteristics of the study on urban spatial expansion. In the future, with the improvement of research technique and methods, the research  foci on the urban expansion are to investigate the rationality of urban expansion, to build quantitative dynamics model, to harmonize space increment with storage, and to enhance comparative study with foreign countries.

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    Multi-scale and Multi-modal Urban Transportation Network GIS Data Model
    CHEN Shaopei1,2, TAN Jianjun1| LI Yingyuan3
    2009, 28 (3):  376-383.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2025KB) ( )   Save

    Multi-modal  transportation  has  been  an  essential  pattern  of  urban  transportation. Sustainable transportation should favour emergence of balanced transportation systems that use each mode for what it does best. The development of sustainable transportation partly depends on reliable  data  and thus information. Single-modal transportation geographical  information system (GIS) cannot precisely reflect the characteristics and relationships of urban transportation spatial networks. Therefore, a study on multi-modal  urban  transportation  network data  integration  and presentation has been an importation task in transportation GIS. This paper introduced a study on multi-scale  and  multi-modal  transportation  geographical  information  system data model. This implies a support for an integration of different urban transportation networks, modelling of topological  relationships  and  multi-modal  network  analysis  and  representation.  The  model introduced takes into account different transportation modes (including road, bus, metro and pedestrian facilities) and integrates them within a federated data model designed using an object-oriented approach. The approach extends Unified Modelling Language (UML), and integrates plug-in for visual languages (PVL) to represent spatial and temporal semantics of transportation objects. The model provides different scale levels to represent transportation network, that is, transportation network is represented at multiple abstraction levels to meet different applications. Such model allows the development of specialised services designed after a survey and study of users’ and planners’ requirements. The model is applied to a district of the city of Guangzhou and validated by a prototype development. This experimental system enables transportation planners  and  decision-makers  to  take  better  decisions  effectively, and  provides high-quality geospatial information-based services to final end-users.

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    Study on Urban Taxi Drivers&rsquo|Out-Dining Characters and Planning Implications in Beijing
    ZHANG Chun, ZHENG Tong, LU Bin, CHAI Yanwei
    2009, 28 (3):  384-390.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2008KB) ( )   Save

    In the cities of the 21st century, taxicabs become an important component supporting the urban public transportation system. The convenience and efficiency of taxi services will promote the urban daily activities and business activities, so as to increase the accessibility of urban space.  Exploring the approach of time geography, this paper establishes its data base through cluster sampling questionnaire of 350 taxi drivers’ daily activities in Beijing.  It’s found that the out-dining space of taxi drivers is more likely to locate between the second and third rings road, near the expressway, and are intended to agglomerate along diagonal direction streets, river banks and administrative boundaries. Typical daily paths based on in-depth interview of taxi drivers reveal that both individual characters and external constrains affect on the dining time-spatial decision. Specifically, individual characters such as the residential location and serving shifts influence the habit of long-term out-dining behavior, while the constrains such as economic affordability, passengers need and the viability to park influence the selection of a certain dining spot. Responding to the mismatch between dining service provision and taxi driver’s needs, suggestions are put forward from the perspective of urban planning. These suggestions include the establishing of more multi-functional driver’s centers in the gateway of a city and driving-through taking away food cafés, and prolonging the business hours of the existing dining facilities. It’s believed to provide some implications to build up an efficient urban public transportation system which meets the various and flexible daily commuting needs of citizens in the contemporary urban China.

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    Regional Differentiation of Vegetation Change in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    YU Bohua1|LU Changhe1|LU Tingting2,3|YANG Aqiang1,4|LIU Chuang1
    2009, 28 (3):  391-397.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.010
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    The spatial distribution and change of vegetation have an obvious characteristic of regional differentiation, which is always affected by global climate change and local human activities. This study explores regional differentiation characteristics of vegetation changes including the spatial distribution and annual variation of vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using 1981-2006 time-series GIMMS/NDVI as the main data source. The results showed that the vegetation coverage was the highest in the Metok and Tsona counties on the southern slope of the Himalayas, and next in the junction area of three provinces of Qinghai, Sichuan and Tibet, while it was much lower in the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Qaidam Basin and Ali Plateau. From 1981 to 2006, the mean annual NDVI in the whole plateau showed an increasing trend, reflecting an improvement of vegetation coverage. The standard deviation(SD) of NDVI change was generally decreased, indicating a small difference among different areas and different vegetation types. The following areas, located on the fringe of all kinds of ecotone, have a lager value of SD, i.e., the Yalung Zangbo Valley, the northwestern part of Metok and Tsona counties, southern margin of the Qaidam Basin, head of the Source Areas of the Three Rivers and northern slope of the Nanshan Mountain in Qinghai; these places should be given more attention from scientists, governments of various levels and other stakeholders. SLOPE was one of the widely used indicators reflecting long time trends of vegetation coverage change. The annual values of SLOPE had a spatial distribution trend from decline to increase and then stable (no change) from south-east  to north-west. Regionally,  the  vegetation coverage had a significant decline on the southern slope of the Himalayas and the southern part of Qinghai, a moderate decline in middle and southern part of the SATR and a slight decline in its northern part and Ali Plateau. No significant vegetation changes happened in the Northern Tibetan Plateau and the Qaidam Basin, which accounted for 40% of the total area. Vegetation was significantly improved in the Yalung Zangbo Valley, and the intermontane basins of the Tanggula Ranges and Nyantsentanglha Mountains. Based on the spatial difference of SLOPE values, the plateau was divided into four regions: Ⅰ) the Pamirs Region, with an increasing vegetation index; Ⅱ) the Northern Tibetan Plateau-Qaidam Basin Region, with a stable vegetation index; Ⅲ) the Central Tibetan an Plateau-the Upper and Middle Reaches of the Yalung Zangbo River Region, with an increasing  vegetation  index,  and Ⅳ)  the  Source  Areas of  the Three Rivers-the Hengduan Mountains Region, with an decreasing vegetation index. The paper did not give a detailed description of the reasons for vegetation change in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau due limited space. However, under the background of NDVI increase regarding the plateau as a whole, vegetation change in Region Ⅳ should be given special attention because of the controllable human activities.

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    Research on Urban Expansion Based on Land Use Degree
    LI Xuerui1,2|WANG Xiulan1,2|FENG Zhongke1,2
    2009, 28 (3):  398-402.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2689KB) ( )   Save

    For the purpose of predicting the future urban evolution trends and elaborating rational policies for regulation and control, it’s significant to distinguish correctly the rules of urban expansion and to analyze the evolution process. Offering rich variable data of urban expansion, the earth observation technology of remote sensing becomes the main approach to monitor urban expansion. Based on the TM images in 1988, 1996 and 2004, the article applies RS, GIS and land use degree comprehensive index to extract the boundary of urban entity of Beijing, and analyzes the area, direction, type and rules of Beijing urban expansion between 1988 and 2004. It’s indicated that urban expansion of Beijing developed rapidly in 16 years, and greatly influenced by terrain, environment, satellite cities, traffic circulation and the government.

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    Standard Land Price Appraisal and Space Structure Analysis Based on Co-Kriging
    DENG Yu1,2|LIU Shenghe1|YAO Fengfeng1,2|WANG Haijun3
    2009, 28 (3):  403-408.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1445KB) ( )   Save

    With the perfection of socialism market economic system, the urban construction needs more rules to follow. Rational allocation of urban land is an important part of urban development, and urban land price appraisal is significant. On the basis of assessment towards traditional assessment methods and conventional Kriging methods, this paper puts forward co-Kriging method with second message source, analyzes the forecast results comprehensively and interprets the structural characteristics of the land space reflected by this method. The case study has shown that Kriging has improved significantly in prediction and validation errors compared with IDW; co-Kriging method is even more accurate in the RMS. Therefore, the method has a relative strong scientificness and practicability and can be widely applied to all levels of city land in the assessment.

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    Progress in the Application of Fuzzy Mathematics Methods in China Land Resource Evaluation
    LI Xican1,2|WANG Jing2|SHAO Xiaomei2
    2009, 28 (3):  409-416.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (451KB) ( )   Save

    The purpose of this paper is to review recent 30 years research of China's land resource evaluation by using fuzzy mathematics methods. The results indicate that, since 1980 fuzzy mathematics methods have been applied to land resource evaluation, the relevant articles are not only distributed on many journals, but the authors are also scatterd. Especially, the major applied fuzzy mathematics methods are fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and fuzzy classification, and the articles using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation are 46% of the indexed papers, and the articles using fuzzy classification are 26% of the indexed papers. The method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is mainly applied in land suitability judgment, land quality evaluation and land sustainable development evaluation. The method of fuzzy classification is mainly applied to clustering region of land use condition and land resource evaluation. At the same time, the further application directions are the land resource evaluation, clustering, planning, decision making, forecast and control. When we use the fuzzy mathematical methods, we should pay attention to expressing the fuzzy concept rationally, utilizing multiple methods and innovating in practice.

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    Assessment of Loss of Ecosystem Service Value under Sea-level Rise: A Case Study of Shekou Peninsula in Shenzhen
    LI You1, WANG Yanglin1, PENG Jian1, LIU Zhenhuan2, WU Jiansheng2
    2009, 28 (3):  417-423.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3367KB) ( )   Save

    Global warming is an important process which may profoundly influence the global ecosystem, and the corresponding sea-level rise may be one of the most concerns for its unpredictable disastrous risk, and so forth threatening the sustainable development of coastal zone. People living in coastal areas are faced with the dilemma between exploring the coastal land for economic development and shunning the risk of inundation caused by sea-level rise. The issue has brought up wider attention of scientists including ecologists, meteorologists and economists, and of local governments who aim to facilitate their strategy to deal with it. In this paper, we take Shekou Peninsula as a study site, a threatened-site by sea-level rise located on the southern part in Nanshan district of Shenzhen. We predict the relative sea-level rise in this area based upon the previous researches and estimate the following effects, including storm surge, land inundation and loss of ecosystem service value. According to the investigation, under the scenario of sea-level rise: (1) the occurrence of storm surges will be intensified. The relative sea-level rise in the study area could be 1m by 2100, and the recurrence period will be shortened from 100 years to less than 10 years. The tides of 50-years-once and 100-years-once will be 3m and 3.3m, which bring about a greater threat to the construction of urban facilities near the coast. (2) The land of coastal zone will be inundated. There will be nearly 4816.2 hm2 of land in the risk of being inundated, making up 16.6% of the study area. The main categories of the inundated areas are using as urban construction and marine cultivation, occupying nearly 60% and 30% of the whole inundated area respectively, and this may cause great economic benefit lost. (3) The reduction of ecosystem service value will get to 19665.5, 44729.2 and 50528.3 thousand yuan per year under different tide heights respectively of 1m, 3m and 3.3m, and the loss of ecological value per unit area may take up nearly 1% GDP of per unit area in Shenzhen (according to price in 2000).

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    The Defect Analysis of the Ecological Footprint Method Measuring Sustainable Development
    WANG Yunping, BIE Xueyan
    2009, 28 (3):  424-428.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.015
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    In recent years, many researchers and some international organizations have taken the Ecological Footprint method as a measure of sustainable development. But when it is used for measuring regional sustainable development, the results sometimes are inconsistent with the principle of sustainable development. Therefore, arguments have existed in the academic fields. Some of the recent studies indicate the Ecological Footprint method can not be taken as a measure of sustainable development, regional ecological deficit also can not indicate regional ecological overload, while the global ecological deficit can indicate global ecological overload; that is because the Ecological Footprint method has the defect of ecological deviation and denies trade rationality. This paper compared measure functions of the Ecological Footprint method with measure functions for measuring sustainable development and ecological sustainability, and drew some conclusions as follows: in regional and global scales, the Ecological Footprint method can be used as measure method of neither sustainable development nor ecological sustainability. Yet, ecological deficit can not indicate ecological overload not only because the Ecological Footprint method has a defect of ecological deviation and denies trade rationality, but also because it has a logical error of mistaking the conception of biological capacity. The conclusion can impulse the current research conclusion of the Ecological Footprint method further, which is useful for applying the Ecological Footprint method accurately.

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    Analysis of Carbon Emission Caused by Food Consumption in Urban and Rural Inhabitants in China
    ZHI Jing1,2,3|GAO Jixi1,3
    2009, 28 (3):  429-434.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.016
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    Household is the unit of society, and its development is the basis for sustainable development of society. Food consumption is one of the most important parts of family life. This article, which is based on official data, analyses the differences in food consumptions and the input of energy, agrochemical and other materials between urban inhabitants and rural inhabitants. On this basis, the article quantifies the impact of carbon emission caused by food consumption. The results indicated that the impact on carbon emission by food consumption is increasing according to the economic development and urban inhabitants generate more food consumption carbon emission than the rural inhabitants. In the respect of direct carbon emission per capita, rural inhabitants generate more than city inhabitants, but the indirect carbon emission of urban inhabitants far outweighs the amount of rural inhabitants. City residents are inclined to eat more non-staple foods, processed foods or attractively-packaged foods and the increase in indirect energy and the input of other materials will increase markedly. The key to mitigating the impact on carbon emission by food consumption is to advocate low-carbon food habit and improve energy utilization of relevant industries.

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    Street Surface Dust Heavy Metal Pollution State and Assessment in Xianyang City
    SHI Xingmin, WANG Jianhui
    2009, 28 (3):  435-440.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.017
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    Urban street dust is one of the important indicators that reflects status of urban environmental pollution. The dust samples were collected in the district of traffic crossroads in Xianyang city. The experiment used atomic absorption spectrometry to measure lead, cadmium and copper of the dust content. Spatial technique was applied to study the content level and the spatial distribution character of heavy metal pollution in street surface dust of Xianyang city. Geochemical maps of heavy metals(Cd, Cu, Pb)in the street surface dust were produced based on and adopting Hakanson suggested potential ecological risk index technique to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in street surface dust, and utilizing geographical information system(GIS)technique to draw up the spatial distribution map of assessment results. The results showed that the majority of heavy metals in the dust exceeded the soil background value in Xianyang city streets. The range of Cd, Cu and Pb contents in street dust is 0.09-0.2mg·kg-1, 68.82-1212.58 mg·kg-1 and 23.44-97.63mg·kg-1, respectively. Cu is 1-5.8 times of the soil background value in Xianyang. The contents of Cd and Pb are 0-1.7 and 0-2.6 times of the soil background value in Xianyang. Based on the calculation results of heavy metal ecological risk indexs in street surface dust of Xianyang, potential ecological risk of Cd is the highest, Cu is moderate and  Pb is the least. The ecological hazard for the different domains was in the order of industrial area > school area > business area > agriculture area. Generally speaking, heavy metals pollution in urban street dust of Xianyang reached the lightly ecological risk levels. The results are expected to provide important scientific basis for the urban environmental pollution control and city planning of Xianyang.

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    Application and Prospect of Carbon Isotope in the Study of Carbon Cycle in Grassland Ecosystem
    LUO Guangqiang1,2|GENG Yuanbo1|YUAN Guofu1
    2009, 28 (3):  441-448.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.018
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    Study of grassland ecosystem is essential for understanding the allocation of global carbon pool and the global carbon cycle. In this paper, we reviewed briefly the main applications of carbon isotopes in grassland ecosystem in the following aspects: the sources of grassland soil organic carbon, the allocation of photosynthesized carbon in grassland, the turnover of soil organic matter and the study of soil respiration. The focus is on the application of carbon isotopes in the study of soil respiration. Soil respiration is a main way of carbon dioxide flux from soil to atmosphere, so its separation will contribute to the understanding of soil carbon cycle and carbon balance under the condition of global change. Several methods for separating soil respiration by the application of carbon isotopes have been reviewed including: ①13C natural abundance method,②pulse labeling methods, ③the isotope dilution method, ④the model rhizodeposition technique, ⑤modeling of 14CO2 efflux dynamics, ⑥the exudate elution procedure and ⑦the difference method between root-derived 14CO2 and rhizomicrobial 14CO2. There is no standard method and criterion for the separation of soil respiration until now. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration is important for understanding terrestrial carbon cycling. Many studies recently showed that Q10 is a variable related to temperature, moisture and some other factors. Because most of the large-scale carbon cycle models are based on the temperature sensitivity, the accurate determination of Q10 value is essential in estimating carbon efflux in terrestrial ecosystems and predicting future climate change. Carbon isotope techniques involved less disturbance to the soil-plant system than other methods and had great potential in the study of carbon cycle of grassland ecosystem.

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    Relationships between Arabidopsis thaliana Populations Distribution and Environmental Factors in the Tianshan-Altay Mountain Region, China
    TAO Ye1,2,3, LIU Tong1
    2009, 28 (3):  449-459.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.019
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    Tianshan Mountains and the nearby mountains are one of the main distribution regions of Arabidopsis thaliana and its closely related species in the world. Based on comprehensive field surveys on the distribution of A. thaliana in the Tianshan-Altay mountain region, 13 plots in low mountain zone Shihezi, the 143rd Corps, Shawan, Dushanzi, Yili Guozigou, Emin and Altay were selected and 18 environmental factors were measured, the relationship between A. thaliana populations distribution and environmental factors were studied. Classification of the vegetation was analyzed using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) technique. Ordination techniques as detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to examine the relationships between vegetation and environmental parameters. Lastly, the correlation coefficients between cruciferous species, A. thaliana and environmental variables were also examined. The results showed that 13 plots were classified into 4 community types by TWINSPAN using important values (IV) data of 53 main species: Seriphidium kaschgaricum, Seriphidium kaschgaricum-Salsola collina, S.kaschgaricum-Cara acanthophylla-Carex liparocarpos, and Myosotis sylvatica-Bromus sewerzowii-C. liparocarpos. And environmental heterogeneity obviously appeared between each community type. Distributions of community types in DCA, PCA and CCA ordination figures showed obvious distinction, and they corresponded to species distribution well. The result was basically the same as TWINSPAN classification. PCA analysis on environmental factors showed that slope, organic matter, electric conductivity, pH, soil moisture and available potassium (both 2 soil layers) were the main factors affecting environmental heterogeneity in different plots, and these factors were most significantly associated with each other. CCA analysis showed that slope, organic matter, pH, electrolytic conductivity and soil moisture (both 2 soil layers) were associated with ordination axes, this result indicated that those environmental variables were the dominant factors to determine the patterns of species distribution and plant diversity, and it is the same as PCA basically. The study also found that aspect, soil water content (2nd layer), organic matter (1st layer) and pH (2 layers) were the major factors impacting the change in the number of Cruciferae species, and electrolytic conductivity (1st layer) played an very important role in the number distribution of A. thaliana.

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    Relative Carrying Capacity of Resources and Problems of Sustainable Development in Jining City of Shandong
    WANG Chuanwu
    2009, 28 (3):  460-464.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.020
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    Natural resources and economic resources not only play an important role in supporting the population of a nation or a region, but also are the foundation of the sustainable development in that area. In this paper, the relative resources carrying capacity is defined. Then, taking Jining city as the research area and Shandong Province as a reference, the author calculates and analyses the relative carrying capacity of natural resources, economic resources and the synthetic capacity of resources of Jining city from 1996 to 2008. The conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) the carrying capacity of all resources in Jining city is in the state of overload; (2) the contribution of natural resources to the synthetic capacity in Jining city is greater than that of others, which are the principal resources to support population. On this basis, the author points out the problems existing in the sustainable development of Jining city by analysis, such as the decline of the relative synthetic capacity, the reduction of the arable land, the dependence on coal and the irrational structure of the three major industries. Finally, the author also presents the competitive advantages in realizing sustainable development in Jining city, which include large area of plain, abundant mineral resources and nature-endowed superiority in developing tourism.

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    Evaluation of Ecosystem Services Value and Integrated Study in Geography
    ZHANG Wei1,2, ZHANG Hongye1|ZHANG Yifeng1
    2009, 28 (3):  465-470.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.021
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    Integrated study is not only the characteristic and nodus in geographic research, but also the trend of geographic development in future. The integrated study in geography mainly had those following insufficiencies in the past: (1) the weakness of basic theoretic study; (2) the insufficiency of overlapping and fusion between nature-humanities researches; and (3) in favor of qualitative and monotonous way of synthesization. So, the shoe pinches of pushing forward the integrated study in geography at present is to find out a synthetical measure of value and evect a bridge between natural and economic systems. Evaluation of ecosystem services value is a hot spot in ecology currently, and is a research stretching across the natural and socioeconomic systems. Its cross-disciplinary characteristics fit well with the demand of integrated study in geography, and reinforcing the evaluation of ecosystem services value research will promote the cognitions of natural key elements and processes, link up the connections between natural and economic systems, provide scientific basis for the harmonization of human-earth relationship, and then boost the integrated study in geography greatly. Finally, combining with the trend of integrated study in geography, this paper brought forward the expectations of evaluating ecosystem services value, pointed out the status quo and problems of this research. Specifically, we should push forward the evaluation of ecosystem services value research with the advices such as making a better theoretic basis of evaluation, improving the technology of evaluation, reinforcing case studies, strengthening public cognitiveness, and consummating the interrelated rules and regulations.

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    Assessment of Coordinative Development between Economy and Environment Based on Ecosystem Service Values Change: A Case of Daqing City
    SU Fei1,2|ZHANG Pingyu1
    2009, 28 (3):  471-477.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.03.022
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    A quantitative assessment of the Coordination Degree between Environment and Economy(CDEE)can effectively identify whether the relationship between environment and economy is in the state of coordination. Although researchers have done a lot of studies in this area, it is still a disputable question on how to make a reasonable quantitative assessment of CDEE. Based on the relationship between the changes of ecosystem service value and the regional economic development, a method was designed for the quantitative assessment of CDEE. The changes of ecosystem service value (ESV) in Daqing city were analyzed by using the land use data in 2001 and 2006. The parameters were revised by using the methods and models of ecological value estimation in view of the actual conditions of the study area, and the CDEE of Daqing was evaluated by using the method mentioned above. The results indicate that the total ecosystem service value of Daqing city descended from 18.247 billion yuan to 18.069 billion yuan during the period of 2001 and 2006, and the descending ratio was 0.98%; the regional eco-economic development was overall at a low disharmonic level, and the CDEEs of Northwest were higher than those of Southeast. The eco-economic development of Lindian County, Duerbete County, and Zhaoyuan County were at a low harmonic level, while Zhaozhou County and four districts except Sartu were at a low disharmonic level; however, Sartu district was at a severe conflict level. So more attention should be paid to strengthening the protection of eco-environment and promoting the harmonious development of eco-economy for a sustainable development of Daqing city.

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