Based on the data of permanent residents from six national population census of China over the period 1953-2010, this study conducted an empirical analysis on the size heterogeneity of city size distribution and the relationship between the evolution of city size distribution and city growth model, to which little attention was paid in previous studies. We selected all cities (including prefecture-level cities and county-level cities) and prefecture-level cities (city propers) alone as samples, and empirically analyzed the morphological characteristics and evolution trends of urban rank-size distribution in China and its relationship with Gibrat's Law. The results show that the main body of city size distribution in China conforms to the linear distribution of Zipf's Law. However, the two ends of the city size distribution spectrum, namely small cities and megacities, deviate from the linear distribution due to insufficient sizes. This phenomenon is not unique to China, but supported by evidence from other countries of the world. From the perspective of evolution, the city size distribution in China gradually dispersed and deviated from Zipf's Law in the early stage. However, from 2000, it began to return to the direction in line with Zipf's Law, with big cities taking the lead in 1990, which shows the coupling with the random growth of urban population in this stage and verifies the logical consistency between Zipf's Law and Gibert's Law. The findings of this study have important implications for promoting the high-quality development of city size distribution in China.
Strategic emerging industries are important support for national economic development. It is of great significance to explore the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the development level of related industries in Northeast China to promote regional economy and industrial innovation development. Using the Tianyancha software to extract the A-shares and the new over-the-counter market listed company data in 2009, 2014, and 2019 for Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces and applying the methods of Markov chain, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographical detector model, this study explored the spatial and temporal change of strategic emerging industry development level and analyzed its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is constantly improving, and the growth rate is slowing down. All types of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China have achieved leap-forward development, while the industries at a high development level have achieved steady development. 2) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is characterized by a "polar area" in the central part of the region and a "S-shaped polar zone" in the south. Spatial agglomeration is weakened, and the spatial differentiation of the provinces is gradually enhanced. The spatial centers of gravity of development level of various industries have shifted southward, with both diffusion and agglomeration effects. 3) Different factors play different roles, and multiple factors jointly affect the change of the development level and spatial pattern of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China.
The scientific and reasonable siting of administrative centers directly affects the efficient allocation of resource elements, equality of basic public services, coordinated and balanced regional development, and modernization of national governance system and governance capacity. This study used spatial analysis and the difference-in-differences (DID) model to analyze the basic characteristics, mechanism, and economic effects of administrative center relocation in China since the reform and opening up in 1978. The results show that in terms of relocation characteristics, the higher the administrative level, the longer the relocation distance is, and the relocation is mainly concentrated after 2000, especially in North China, while the relocation distance in western China is generally much longer than that of other regions. In terms of relocation effects, the growth rates of population, economy, and construction land around the new administrative centers are obviously faster than that of the original administrative centers. On the whole, the relocation of administrative centers plays a certain role in promoting economic development, but there is also a clear spatial heterogeneity. In terms of the factors and mechanism of influence, the process is mainly influenced by the restriction of resources and environmental conditions, the promotion of old city planning and reconstruction, the guidance of the development and construction of new areas, the reform of the administrative system, and urban development strategies. The relocation of administrative centers is usually the result of the joint action of multiple factors.
Under the background of global production network development, the research on "global-local" cross-regional relatedness of production organizations has important theoretical significance. The cross-regional network characteristics and geospatial representations of China's joint venture automobile production network have been explored in the global-local interactive situation. Based on the perspective of global-local production relatedness and multi-scale integration and using primary supply data of automobile manufacturing, this study analyzed the cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China's joint venture automobile production network represented by FAW-Volkswagen. The results show that: 1) The global-local multi-scale integration provides a good perspective for understanding the industrial transfer footprint of multinational corporations in building global production networks. The German company Volkswagen is embedded into China's automobile manufacturing system by building global production network, and the structure of the production network shows a typical characteristic of global-local relatedness. 2) The spatial distribution of local primary suppliers in the FAW-Volkswagen automobile production network is highly consistent with the "T"-shaped pattern of China's territorial development strategy. Investment type / technology control of automobile suppliers presents a regional organization model of the same type of spatial agglomeration, and the agglomeration degree presents the characteristic of sole proprietorship ≈ joint venture > local investment business. 3) Through the production transfer of automobile assembly plants and the procurement by cross-regional supply chains, the production organization of FAW-Volkswagen has formed a cross-regional cluster network structure with the core of cities where the automobile assembly plants are located and are restricted by geographical boundaries. 4) Spatial and temporal constraints, location advantages and agglomeration effects, technological innovation represented by modular production, venture strategies of multinational groups, and foreign investement club strategies jointly influence the spatial organization structure of the FAW-Volkswagen production network. Through a typical case study, this study provides theoretical and practical bases for understanding the organizational structure of China's key industrial production networks under the global-local multi-scale.
Accurate assessment and classification of rural development levels is an important issue in rural revitalization research, which can provide a scientific basis for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies by development type and stage. Taking Luanchuan County, Henan Province as an example, this study integrated multi-source data such as administrative village census and electronic maps to construct a multi-dimensional development potential measurement indicator system for the village scale, and carry out multi-dimensional evaluation and type identification of rural development potential. The results show that: 1) The overall situation of rural multi-dimensional development potential in Luanchuan County is poor, with only 45.89% of the villages having medium and above development potential, and the interaction between any two dimensions has a nonlinear enhancement effect on explaining the spatial differentiation of multi-dimensional development potential. 2) The spatial differentiation characteristics of rural multi-dimensional development levels are obvious. Villages with high development potential are concentrated near the county seat and where key township centers are located, while villages with low and medium-low development potential are mainly distributed in the border areas of the county and in the areas between the towns in the central part. 3) The development level of each dimension shows relatively significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, but the spatial agglomeration pattern is different for different dimensions. Villages with higher development level in geographical location and natural background are mainly concentrated in areas with good resource endowment and relatively flat terrain; and villages with higher development level in the four dimensions of geographical location, population development, economic foundation, and social welfare gather near the county seat, township centers, and tourist attractions. 4) According to the multi-dimensional development assessment results, the villages are divided into five types: priority revitalization, preliminary revitalization, maintaining the status quo, decline and relocation, and priority relocation. Based on the characteristics of different types of villages, revitalization paths and development strategies are proposed to improve the development quality of villages.
Virtual tourism flow (VTF) to some extent represents geographic biases of tourist demands. It is a crucial entry point for analyzing the spatial structure of China's tourism and promoting the formation of domestic circulation. From the perspective of VTF, this study built models of virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness using Baidu index search data from 2016 to 2020. Coefficient of variation and spatial autocorrelation were employed to analyze its spatial distribution characteristics. Virtual tourism dominance degree and correlation of each provincial node were analyzed to further investigate the characteristics of the spatial change of VTF network structure. The results show that: 1) Beijing, Shanghai, and Yunnan are the radiating centers in the spatial structure of China's VTF. Based on this, a virtual spatial structure with the core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta region, and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region is formed. 2) The polarization and diffusion features of VTF are manifested in the obvious diffusion effect of the Yangtze River Delta, and the significant polarization effect of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region. Among them, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south has changed from a dual core to a single core structure, while the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region has formed a robust regional circulation structure with multiple cores and multiple levels due to the region's continuously strengthened internal and external ties. 3) According to the spatial change of VTF network structure, intra-regional circulation is an effective way to balance the development of tourism within and outside a region. Meanwhile, provinces with strong virtual tourism advantage degree have stronger resilience, which can well boost the circulation of inter-regional tourism flow. 4) The change of VTF network structure is mainly affected by economic development level, tourism resource endowment, infrastructure development, and temporal and spatial proximity. This study broadens the horizon of tourism flow research by introducing the concept of VTF and analyzing both virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness. Its results provide a reference for the geographic direction of tourist demands, which can help to promote the coordinated regional development of tourism.
Out-of-school hours care place (OSHCP) is a new type of educational auxiliary facility, mainly provides meals and rest places for primary and secondary school students, has gradually become the third activity space for students outside their homes and schools, and worth further examination from a spatial perspective. Based on the data of OSHCPs and related points of interest (POIs) in Yanta District of Xi'an City, we used spatial analysis, statistical analysis, and field investigation methods to explore the basic functions and location choice and its influencing factors of OSHCPs. The results indicate that: 1) The service demands of OSHCPs are from families with childcare needs in the lower grades of compulsory education for childcare assistance and children's "transfer" and "deposit", and the service types include student care, catering, help with homework, and so on. 2) The distribution of OSHCPs generally showed a trend of extending along the east-west direction, which is consistent with the urban morphology and the development status of residential committees, mainly in the traditional neighborhoods, high-rise housing estates, and work unit housing areas, concentrated in the low floors (1-5 floors). 3) Regional population, educational environment, investment costs, and spatial location influence the layout and location of OSHCPs, with the number and distribution of primary and secondary schools, the number and distribution of residential neighborhoods, and the distance from the central city having significant impacts. Finally, we summarized the influencing factors of location choice from three scales including urban area, residential committee, and care place in combination with the needs of the population, and provide an outlook on future research directions in conjunction with the "double reduction" education policy.
Due to the differences in resource endowments and the complex relationship between governments at all levels, there are inevitable conflicts and imbalances in socialeco development in the cross-boundary regions of urban agglomerations. Scholars have revealed that the administrative boundary effect is common in different scales such as provincial and urban agglomeration, and its influence on land use change varies in different development stages. However, previous studies have mostly transformed administrative boundaries into virtual variables rather than as spatial geographical elements, which is insufficient for understanding the complex interactions between various factors at the meso and micro scales. This study analyzed the expansion mechanism of impervious surface area (ISA) in Tongzhou-Wuqing-Langfang (TWL)—a typical cross-boundary region of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration—by using China's Land-Use/Cover Datasets from 1985 to 2020. Taking districts and counties as the units of analysis, we used centroid migration, kernel density analysis, and Logistic regression methods to measure the impact of administrative boundaries. The results show that: 1) The speed and main period of urban land expansion in different administrative regions varied due to different resource endowments and development stages. 2) Due to the high mobility of factors, the driving forces of urban expansion in geographically adjacent administrative regions showed some similarities. 3) Under different levels of regional collaboration, the influence of the administrative boundaries on urban land expansion also varied. Improving the coordination level of various elements in the TWL area through "strong-weak" control and reducing the negative impact of administrative boundaries on local resource integration play an important role in realizing the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.
In the era of digital economy, digital technology has brought profound changes to the production system of creative industries. The influence of virtual space built on Internet platforms on physical geographical space is increasing, which destroys the old spatiotemporal relationship, new socioeconomic organization geospatial pattern is created, and the changing importance of geographical proximity and its role in the decentralization of cultural production remain to be explored. In order to examine the impacts of new digital technologies on the geographies of cultural production and to provide a reference for exploring the high-quality development model of cultural industry in the new era, this study applied social network analysis and negative binomial gravity model to examine the urban cooperative network structure and multi-dimensional proximity mechanism of the online game industry, based on the data of Chinese online game projects from 2016 to 2020. The conclusions are as follows: First, the new digital technology has strengthened the decentralization and agglomeration trend of the online game industry. The findings demonstrate the dominant role that external networks play in the operation of online game projects. Small and medium-sized cities rely more on cross-regional cooperation networks in particular, because they lack strong and influential local companies. Second, the connections between cities based on the division of value chain of the online game industry are relatively sparse, the cooperative network presents an uneven diamond-shaped connection pattern, the spatial pattern of the network is highly imbalanced, and the industry is mainly concentrated in the economically developed eastern coastal region. There is a mismatch between the influence of cities in the network and the scale of local clusters. The network hierarchy basically follows that of China's existing urban system, and the core nodes are highly concentrated in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. Local administrative centers also play an important role in the cooperation network. Social proximity, cognitive proximity, urban industrial scale, external connectivity, and human capital have positive effects on the establishment of cooperative network in the online game industry, while the wide application of digital technology makes the effects of geographical proximity and institutional proximity insignificant. At present, the main channel for enterprises in remote areas to obtain resources is still the dominant cultural production centers, which is related to the complex and diverse urban structure system in China.
Based on the panel data of 238 countries and regions, this study examined the change of the spatial pattern of the global grain trade network at different scales from 1988 to 2018. The zero-inflated negative binomial was introduced to construct the gravity model for analyzing the driving factors of the global grain trade network. The results show that: 1) The scale of the global grain trade showed a rapid fluctuating rising trend, while the growth rate of trade fluctuated greatly between years. The structure of trade commodities was constantly diversified but is still dominated by wheat, corn, and barley. 2) The density of the global grain trade network is increasing, with polarization of some core nodes and increasing diversification of the overall trade network. For example, the position of North America, Western Europe, East Asia, and so on, in the grain trade network is relatively declining, while the position of Eastern Europe, South America, and so on, has increased. On the national scale, the interaction of grain trade among countries and regions has enhanced, as the structure of the grain trade network has changed from an "east-west axis" to "multi-point radiation" with a gradual shift from polarization to pluralism. Although the number of core nodes in the grain export network is increasing, regional grain export networks are still dominated by only several key countries and show a strong local polarization phenomenon, while the centralized characteristics of import networks are gradually weakened and more balanced. 3) Natural endowment of land resources, the structure of agriculture, and the degree of opening up to the outside world are the core driving factors for countries and regions to participate in the global grain trade network. The levels of price differences, language proximity, spatial distance, and societal governance also have a certain impact on the participation of countries and regions in the global grain trade network. The influence of other factors is relatively small.
In order to provide water resources for the economic development in karst mountainous areas, this study took Chongqing Municipality as an example and identified the development fracture and control mechanism of karst springs and their flow using 1∶200000 regional hydrogeological maps and reports, on-site hydrogeological surveys, basic feature and statistical analyses, and ArcGIS spatial analysis methods. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of karst development, this study examined the influence of topography, stratum lithology, geological structure, and surface water system on the development, distribution, and flow of karst springs. Our findings revealed that the relief amplitude of 0-200 m is most conducive to the development of karst springs. With the increase of relief of land surface, the average flow rate of karst springs begins to decrease gradually. The density of karst springs is the greatest in the carbonate and clastic rock group, followed by the limestone and dolomite interbedded rock group, limestone rock group, and dolomite rock group. Geological structural parts such as structure composite, gentle wings of anticlines, syncline shafts, and faulted structures are all conducive to the development of karst springs. Based on the hydrodynamic characteristics of karst water and the relationship with the local erosion base level, the large karst springs in Chongqing are divided into the following three types: riverbed type, riparian type, and river source (ditch) type, and the number of large karst springs is river bank type > source (ditch) type > river bed type.
Geographical synthetic thinking is the basic thinking for solving geographical problems. The concept definition and structural substantiation of this type of synthetic thinking are related to the standardization of its application in geographical research, as well as the correct cultivation direction of students' geographical synthetic thinking in geographical education. This study is an attempt to recombine subdivided categories and formulate cognitive structure model hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking based on the three mainstream categories of factor synthesis, spatiotemporal synthesis, and regional synthesis. In this study, six cognitive structure model hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking were formulated. Then the geographical synthetic thinking scale was compiled and was repeatedly revised and tested in 2017. The test results demonstrate that the scale has high reliability and good content validity. A scale structure test can be further carried out to verify the structure hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking. From 2018 to 2020, the authors used the geographical synthetic thinking scale to collect the geographical synthetic thinking level data of 2,793 student samples from eight high schools in Shanghai Municipality and Jiangsu, Hubei, and Guizhou provinces. The samples were widely distributed and were representative. Using the exploratory factor analysis method in SPSS 23.0 software and the confirmatory factor analysis method in AMOS 22.0 software, the cognitive structure hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking was tested. The structures extracted by exploratory factor analysis are dissimilar to the six structures in the hypotheses, while the main fitting indices of confirmatory factor analysis reflect that the six structure hypotheses and data fitting are not ideal. These results indicate that factor synthesis, spatiotemporal synthesis, and regional synthesis are external forms of the cognitive structure of geographical synthetic thinking, which represent the synthetic, systematic, and dynamic thinking characteristics of this type of thought. The internal cognitive structure of geographical synthetic thinking that reflects the essence of psychological development needs further study to be correctly established.
Cities provide support for tourism and their resilience level has an important impact on regional tourism development. Based on the panel data of various regions of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from 2004 to 2018 and the quantitative assessment of urban resilience, the spatial spillover effect of urban resilience on tourism economy was revealed by using the spatial panel Durbin model. The results show that the spatial difference of urban resilience level is significant, but the overall resilience level is on the rise. There is a strong spatial correlation between urban resilience and tourism economy, and urban resilience has a significant spatial spillover effect on tourism economy (ρ=0.444, P<0.01). Among the resilience dimensions, urban economic resilience and urban ecological resilience have positive spillover effects on tourism economy, while urban social resilience and urban engineering resilience have negative spillover effects on tourism economy. In the future, the development of urban tourism needs to pay attention to the level of urban resilience and its spatial spillover effects, and avoid the siphon effect. It is also necessary to strengthen regional exchanges and cooperation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to promote the high quality development of tourism economy.
Mixed land use is of great significance for improving the efficiency of use of regional land and territorial space. A framework for analyzing and optimizing multi-functional mixed use of construction land based on production-living-ecological space was developed in this study. Based on the point of interest (POI) data, entropy model, landscape pattern analysis, and association rules mining were applied to explore the spatial differentiation of mixed land use, taking Jinan City as the study area. The results show that the main types of mixed use of construction land in the city are production space, production-living space, and living space. The degree of mixed utilization of the core urban area is high, the production and living spaces are concertrated and connected, however, the ecological space is not embedded enough. The landscape fragmentation in the rural areas is obvious, and the mixed use led by production and living space is weak. The living-ecological space in the industrial parks is in a very marginal position in the network. Strengthening the internal planning of the parks or forming a complementary living and ecological space with the surrounding areas is the key to realize the sustainable development of the parks. The research of association rules shows that reasonable production space planning is an important way to guide and optimize the mixed land use. At the same time, strengthening the rational use of ecological space plays an important role in promoting mixed land use. Based on the POI data, this study explored the patterns of multi-functional combination of construction land from the perspective of behavioral spatial interaction theory, which enriches the existing land mixed use theory and methods and provides a theoretical basis for land use policy making and spatial pattern optimization.
Many rural heritage sites in China are rich in natural and cultural tourism resources. The co-creation of landscape resources, co-ownership of territorial space, and diverse ethnicities and rural social relationship provide the basis and conditions for the symbiosis development of tourism. In addition, as an open system with comprehensive multidimensional and dynamic evolution, rural heritage sites are formed by the interaction of various elements. Population, land, and industry are the core elements of rural development. Symbiosis theory is an important theory for studying the internal relationships of rural systems, which can be used to analyze the coordinated development paths of human-land-industry subsystems in rural heritage sites. Taking Tingsong cultural community in Yi County, Hebei Province as an example, this study examined the collaborative dynamic evolution process of the three subsystems of population, land, and industry driven by the returning elite from the perspective of symbiosis, and put forward the symbiotic paths of rural development: 1) Building the symbiont of rural community. 2) Promoting the regional circular economic and ecological sphere. 3) Cultivating the horizontal symbiotic chain of industries. The results of this study may provide some reference for the comprehensive revitalization of population, land, and industry in rural heritage sites.
With the continuous improvement of the strategic status of China's marine economy, enhancing the resilience of marine economy in China's coastal areas under internal and external disturbances has become an inevitable way and an important guarantee for its development. In this study, we carried out resilience research from the perspective of marine economic network structure. We used the data of sea-related A-share listed companies and their subsidiaries to build a marine economic network, and evaluated the structural resilience of the marine economic network in 2010, 2015 and 2020 from the three dimensions of hierarchy, assortativity, and transmission. The results show that: 1) The hierarchical structure of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas has been enhanced, and regional absolute polarization and relative equilibrium coexist. 2) Assortativity has changed to disassortativity, and the connection between core cities and peripheral cities has been strengthened. 3) Transmission is generally at a low level but has the tendency to improve. 4) The enhancement of hierarchical structure, disassortativity, and transmission has improved the cohesion, innovation, and openness of the marine economic network, which increased the structural resilience of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas. This study aimed to enrich the resilience research in economic geography and provide some basis and reference for the safe development of the marine economy, in order to facilitate the high-quality development of marine economy in China.
The current geographic research is insufficient in examining the service function of small towns at the township scale. To make up for this limitation, this study carried out a quantitative evaluation of the service function of small towns, from the perspective of borrowed size and agglomeration shadow. We collected point of interest (POI) data from the Amap open API platform, and selected 14 industries related to service functions. Using the kernel density method, analytic hierarchy process, and multiple linear regression model, we evaluated the service function of small towns in southern Jiangsu Province near Shanghai. The results show that: 1) The kernel density of service facilities in small towns near Shanghai is generally high. High density and medium-high density areas were mainly distributed in the downtown, district (county-level city), and surrounding areas of the cities and along the expressways, national highways, and railways, and presented the spatial structure of "point-axis". Except for a few small towns with small population, the development of small towns away from the central urban areas (towns) was relatively balanced. The spatial distribution characteristics of different service industries varied, but the differences were not significant. 2) The service function index values of small towns near Shanghai were generally high. The highest index values mainly concentrated within the 100 km buffer zone and decreased in the 150 km to 200 km buffer zone. 3) Shanghai had a significant impact on the service function index values of small towns in southern Jiangsu Province, especially within the 100 km buffer zone. The service function of small towns in southern Jiangsu coexists with the process of borrowed size and agglomeration shadow from Shanghai.
In the development of science and technology innovation centers, upgrading to complex technologies requires full consideration of the local technology capacities. Evolutionary economic geography emphasizes the impact of technology relatedness with the local technology capacities on technology evolution. This study took three international science and technology innovation center cities, Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, as examples, and incorporated complexity and relatedness into the research framework to comparatively analyze the technology relatedness and complexity of the three cities and their impact on technological change. It is found that there are significant differences in technology structure, technology relatedness, complexity, and evolutionary paths among the three cities. Shanghai has higher technology relatedness and lower complexity, Shenzhen has the lowest technology relatedness and highest technology complexity, and Beijing is in between. In terms of evolutionary trends, Beijing has experienced an obvious change to complex technologies; Shenzhen has the largest increase in overall technological complexity, but after 2006 there was a trend toward diversification into low-complexity technologies; and Shanghai has the smallest increase in technological complexity. The econometric analysis shows that technologies with stronger local technology linkages are more likely to become the dominant technologies in the next stage of development in the three cities, but technologies with high complexity are more likely to become the dominant technologies in the next stage of development in Beijing, and have no significant impact on the technology change of Shanghai and Shenzhen. The construction of science and technology innovation centers requires cities to fully consider urban technology base and evolutionary characteristics, and formulate targeted technology development strategies.
The interaction between crop growth and climate is one of the key issues in climate change studies. As an important research tool, land surface models can be used for distinct simulations with different model frameworks, algorithms, or parameterization schemes. In order to investigate the differences of the Dynamic Land Model (DLM) and Community Land Model (CLM5) in estimating crop growth and farmland heat flux and the causes of the differences, model comparisons were conducted at the agricultural stations with summer maize and winter wheat rotation in the North China Plain (NCP). The results show that the estimated leaf area index and gross primary production of DLM for summer maize were better, while for winter wheat, the opposite results were obtained. Nonetheless, DLM performed better in simulating latent heat flux, which may reflect that the Penman formula and two-leaf strategy in DLM is better than the mass conservation algorithm based on water potential gradient and big-leaf strategy in CLM5. However, the capacity of yield prediction was poor. In conclusion, with the default settings, the simulations of the two models can basically reflect the growth characteristics of summer maize and winter wheat in the study area, but there remains certain deviation from the observations. The applicability of the models for the NCP may need to be further improved through the addition of farmland management measures, algorithm optimization, and parameter localization.
Urban-rural integration has great significance for the effective implementation of rural revitalization and urban sustainable development in China, but shrinking cities have emerged in the process of rapid urbanization. Characteristics of urban-rural integration development of shrinking cities and the impact of urban shrinkage on urban-rural integration have become one of the core scientific issues to be addressed in the current research on promoting the goal of common prosperity in China. This study constructed an evaluation indicator system based on the definition of urban-rural integration, with the driving force-pathway-goal of "urban development driven-coordination of urban and rural investment-promoting the balance of basic public services and narrowing urban-rural income gaps". It took the three northeastern provinces as examples and conducted an empirical analysis of urban-rural relationship in 2010-2019 from the perspective of shrinking cities and non-shrinking cities, different development stages, and different development types of shrinking cities. The results show that: 1) The overall development of urban-rural integration in the three northeastern provinces showed an upward trend, but the development level is still low and the internal spatial differentiation is obvious. 2) Urban shrinkage has an obvious impact on urban-rural integration, and the overall level of urban-rural integration in shrinking cities is lower than that of non-shrinking cities. Urban and rural dual structure is more obvious in shrinking cities. 3) Urban-rural integration development level shows differences in cities of different shrinkage types and shrinkage development stages. The level of urban-rural integration decreased gradually from pre-shrinkage stage to post-shrinkage stage, and resource-dependent shrinking cities < comprehensive shrinking cities < "siphon" shrinking cities < location-constrained shrinking cities. Therefore, this study concluded that shrinking cities are affected by the "spatial deprivation" of development factors on urban-rural integration development. The emergence of shrinking cities is not conducive to regional coordination and the integration of urban and rural development, and the sustainable development of shrinking cities should be fully considered in the revitalization of Northeast China.