The escalating climate and environmental changes in the Arctic have a series of impacts on the local society and economy. Understanding these impacts from the perspective of the tertiary sector can provide references for the sustainable development of the Arctic and globally, as well as for the participation of non-Arctic countries in Arctic affairs. This study systematically reviewed the literature to identify the pathways and effects of Arctic changes on typical industries within the tertiary sector. The results show that various Arctic changes, such as rising temperatures, increasing precipitation, ice melting, and permafrost degradation, have widely influenced the tertiary sector through multiple pathways, presenting both benefits and challenges for most elements of the industries. These impacts offer several insights for relevant studies and for China. Further research is needed to: 1) address the knowledge gaps regarding the pathways of impacts and comprehensively integrate the beneficial and harmful effects of Arctic changes; 2) explore the indirect and cascading impacts of Arctic changes; and 3) integrate multi-source data for research. China can take advantage of the opportunities presented by the changes in the Arctic tertiary sector by: 1) increasing its participation in Arctic rule-making; 2) improving transportation infrastructure and security of the "Polar Silk Road"; and 3) diversifying Arctic tourism products and creating conditions for trade growth.
The popularization and application of smart technologies such as mobile Internet, Internet of Things, and cloud computing continuously change the matching relationship between supply and demand of urban residential services, having an impact on the efficiency and fairness of the spatial and temporal allocation of urban residential resources. The development of smart technologies also has a reconstruction effect on the spatial layout of urban residential facilities. This study first examined the research progress of the supply-demand relationship of urban residential services under the influence of smart technology application, and put forward a theoretical analysis framework of the supply-demand matching of urban residential services based on the perspective of the human-environment coordinated development in the information era, and the association between virtual and physical spaces. Then, the research prospect is outlined with four aspects. First, we should focus on the matching relationship between supply and demand of urban residential services, under the application of smart technologies, and analyze the characteristics of residents' demand for various online services. Meanwhile, we should examine the supply-demand matching process of residential services and their spatiotemporal interaction model under the application of smart technologies. Second, the mechanism of influence of supply-demand matching could be explored from four dimensions, including service quality and perception, traffic and residents' travel, use of time, and individual social connection. Third, we need to explore the function, spatial layout, and land use changes of urban residential service facilities brought about by the application of smart technologies, and propose new models for urban residential service facility location choice and land use. Finally, towards the development of smart cities in the future, we should propose different configuration strategies of urban residential services according to the differences of urban spaces and facility types. This study has theoretical significance and practical value for the improvement of public service resource allocation efficiency and spatial layout optimization in the development of future smart city.
Accelerating urban-rural integration has seen rural regional systems being more deeply embedded in the global production networks, underlining the increasing importance of sustainable rural development. The recent COVID-19 pandemic as an international public health emergency has once again reiterated the importance of public health. Most studies tend to focus on urban areas in terms of the spread, prevention, and control of the pandemic, as well as resilience improvement of countries and regions while neglecting the integrated effects of the pandemic on vast rural areas. Taking COVID-19 as an example, this study comprehensively reviewed and analyzed 952 publications on the development and evolution of human-earth relationships in rural areas under public health emergencies that were retrieved from the Web of Science database, and identified four research focuses: rural agri-food systems, rural livelihoods response, health and well-being of the population, and urban-rural relationships and governance, which correspond to the four sub-systems of rural human-earth relationships respectively. The review and analysis found that public health emergencies exacerbated the differences between urban and rural systems, revealed the vulnerability of human-earth relationships in rural areas, and led to increased instability in global rural areas. This study is expected to facilitate investigation into global rural development trends in the age of global risk society, improve the understanding of human-earth relationships in rural areas under public health emergencies, and promote urban-rural coordination and sustainability.
Urban and rural memories record and interpret the changes in social forms and cultural structures. They provide insights into human-environment relationships, local cultural spirit, and urban-rural landscape changes, and are an indispensable part of people's lives in their "ideal home". This study used the CiteSpace and VOSviewer visualization software, combined with comparative studies of urban and rural memory research in China and internationally, to explore important research progress and reflect on the development of modern society. The study found that: 1) Urban and rural memory can be divided into commemorative memory, daily memory, and media memory. 2) Urban and rural memory is a multidisciplinary research field. In China, it is mainly focused on disciplines such as architecture, planning, and tourism management, with a clear application direction; while in other countries, it is a comprehensive research field in humanities and social sciences. 3) The ideas and theories of Chinese and international research are consistent, viewing memory as a social heritage. The evolution of international research followed the route of collective memory produced by cultural turn, commemorative memory under official narratives, and daily memory under local customs, with a focus on localities and landscape analysis, emphasizing spatial perception. In contrast, the evolution of Chinese research followed archive construction and memory-urban historical context protection and memory-tourism and memory under the rural revitalization strategy, focusing on people's nostalgia as the entry point. In the future, it is necessary to define the connotations of and differences between urban and rural memory and cultural heritage, pay attention to the memory discourse rights of minority groups, and construct a more comprehensive urban and rural memory space paradigm based on the development of local culture.
Geographical sciences is a discipline that study natural and human phenomenon on the Earth's surface and their interrelationships. As an important component of geographical sciences, disaster geography focuses mainly on the spatial distribution characteristics, disaster-prone environments, and occurrence processes of natural hazards and disasters, providing support for the development of scientific disaster prevention and mitigation strategies. With the continuous deepening of disaster geography research and the gradual strengthening of research teams, the National Natural Science Foundation of China established the secondary application code "Environmental Geography and Disaster Geography" (D0104) for the first time under the discipline of geographical sciences (D01) in 2021. Based on this development, this article summarized the connotation and characteristics of disaster geography, and analyzed the application and funding status of disaster geography-related general projects, young scientist projects, and regional science foundation projects over the past two years. It also discussed the 11 research directions included in disaster geography in conjunction with keywords. The results show that: 1) The establishment of the disaster geography sub-discipline code has optimized the application and funding channels for this discipline, and the number of applications has significantly increased. 2) Disaster geography applications exhibit clustering characteristics, and the scientific problem attributes align with the "demand-driven, breaking through bottleneck" principle, but the attributes are relatively singular. Research capacity is concentrated in the North China region, with the Chinese Academy of Sciences as the main research group. 3) Disaster geography mainly focuses on climate change and related hazards and disasters such as flash floods and debris flows. The types of disasters are relatively singular, and the keyword database needs to be updated and optimized in a timely manner. Research methods and techniques in the discipline are relatively diverse. 4) The coverage of sub-directions of research in disaster geography has been preliminarily clarified, and the majority of applications are in the direction of "disaster risk analysis and management". In summary, disaster geography should enrich the attributes of scientific problems, strengthen the breadth and depth of research content, improve the matching between research directions and project applications based on the construction of research teams with regional characteristics, and promote the development of disaster geography, thereby contributing to the construction of an ecological civilization.
The urban life cycle theory was proposed by Hall and Van den Berg and colleagues based on European urban research. According to the changes in the population of the urban core and rings, the urban spatial evolution process is divided into four stages: Urbanization, suburbanization, deurbanization, and reurbanization. The stage alternation and specific stages described by the theory have also been confirmed by subsequent empirical research, and this theory has been widely applied in identifying and studying the stages of urban development. However, this theory has been criticized and questioned as follows: 1) The process of urban development cannot be measured solely from a single population change perspective; 2) There are heterogeneities in urban development under different backgrounds; 3) The division of stages is unreasonable and debatable; and 4) Urban space does not always evolve linearly in a unidirectional order. In this context, many studies have made revisions, supplements, and improvements to this theory, and some new theories have been proposed, but there is still room for breakthroughs and development. Future breakthroughs can be made in the following aspects: 1) Incorporate marginal cities, shrinking cities, gentrification, and new urban phenomena into research of the post crisis and post pandemic period, and consider changes in people's lifestyle and thinking, socioeconomic background, and so on, to expand the applicability of the theory; 2) Refine urban types to identify the diversity of evolution, and conduct comparative research to identify urban life cycle models that are suitable for China; 3) Incorporate population structure and integrate the data of population size, age, and household and socioeconomic characteristics to enhance the depth of urban spatial analysis; and 4) Increase research on the migration of residents and businesses, expand micro-scale perspectives, and integrate multiple urban systems to enhance the comprehensiveness of urban spatial evolution theory.
This study reviewed the research progress of Chinese agricultural geography, and examined the change of themes of agricultural studies in China. This article discussed the development characteristics of agricultural geography in different time periods, and summarized the experience and achievements, which has theoretical and practical values for promoting the development of agricultural geography and meet the needs of agricultural production and rural development in China. The study used literature review and comparative analysis to analyze the characteristics of Chinese agricultural geography research in different periods. The results show that: 1) From the perspective of research process, agricultural geography research can be divided into four stages—historical description period, agricultural collectivization period, reform and development period, and modern revolution period. 2) Modern agricultural geography in China, mainly involves four research fields—sustainable utilization of agricultural resources, sustainable development of regional agriculture, adjustment and transformation of agricultural structure, and comprehensive study of agricultural and rural geography. 3) Future agricultural geography research will focus on themes around climate change, urban and rural integration, adaptive resilience, and digital technologies and apply them to the practices of development of decision -making.
Submarine optical cable network is the key connectivity infrastructure in the post-Fordism production system, which is related to international telecommunications, social economic activities, and national defense and security. Human-economic geography research of submarine optical cable network is cutting-edge and much needed, and is of great significance to the disciplinary development and national policy formulation. Based on a literature review, multidisciplinary knowledge of submarine optical cable network is integrated and systematically discussed in this article. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Existing research on submarine optical cable network is relatively few, but such research activities have significantly increased in recent years. The research content is mainly focused on its own facility attributes and gradually spreads to the social and economic sectors that it is associated with. Further discussion based on human-economic geography will become an important direction for future research. 2) Submarine optical cable network research is a new field of human-economic geography, which can be developed from the multidimensional perspectives of transportation geography, infrastructure geography, information and communication geography, and cyberspace geography, thereby enriching and improving the disciplinary system of human-economic geography in the new era. 3) In the future, the research on the human-economic geography of submarine optical cable network should focus on global connectivity oriented geographic research, space-time interaction mechanism of regional development, new narratives of geopolitical issues, and space of flow and world urban network.
The government-guided investment fund, as a policy tool to promote regional development, has been widely used by governments in many countries and regions, which has been widely concerned by scholars. From the perspective of regional development, this article summarized the reasons that the governments use government-guided investment fund, the diffusion and distribution of government-guided investment fund, the operation mode of government-guided investment fund, and the influence of government-guided investment fund on regional development. The main findings of the existing studies are as follows: 1) To alleviate the financing gap and achieve regional development goals, governments actively set up government-guided investment fund. 2) Government-guided investment fund were diffusing in different geographical scales and forming an unbalanced spatial distribution pattern. 3) The operation of government-guided investment fund can be divided into four steps: Raise fund, invest, manage, and withdraw. The main features of government-guided investment fund that are different from private venture capital fund are the participation of public capital and government intervention. 4) In general, government-guided investment fund have a positive impact on the supply of regional venture capital, innovation, and industrial upgrading, but may also have widened the regional development gaps. Finally, this article proposes that geographers should strengthen the research on government-guided investment fund from the perspective of regional development, and points out related research directions.
Carbon emission accounting of prefectural and county units is the basic work of emission reduction research. Due to the lack of energy data, scholars in China and abroad have proposed many carbon emission accounting methods at the prefectural and county levels. Existing accounting methods lack comparative analysis and systematic summary. To provide a scientific reference for researchers to choose appropriate accounting methods, this study reviewed relevant literature in China and internationally from 2000 to 2022, classified prefectural and county scale carbon emission accounting methods, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and their scope of application. The main results and conclusions are as follows: 1) There are two types of accounting methods for the prefectural and county units—inventory and nighttime light data inversion. 2) The inventory methods include the top-down decomposition method, which allocates energy consumption to target units according to the proportion of the output value of each sector in the corresponding sector at the provincial level; the bottom-up method, obtaining energy data and carbon emission accounting by sector; and the combination of the top-down and bottom-up methods, which combines the available sectoral energy data with the decomposition of energy data, taking into account the feasibility of accounting work. 3) Nighttime light inversion methods include the equation parameter downscaling conduction method, which was used to construct the regression model of light brightness and total carbon emissions of different scale units in a province; and downscaling decomposition method, which takes the proportion of total nighttime light brightness in the provincial unit as the weight to decompose the provincial carbon emissions into the administrative unit at the lower level. 4) The scope of application of different methods was discussed from the aspects of spatial scale and research content. An important future development direction of carbon accounting methods is to conduct carbon emission accounting at the prefectural and county levels, investigate the energy consumption of typical prefectural/county units, and use them as samples to construct inversion equation models of nightlight brightness and carbon emissions.
E-waste has emerged as the most rapidly expanding category of solid waste globally. This article initially offered a comprehensive examination of the international scholarly advancements concerning geographies of e-waste, encapsulating three principal interconnected research topics: The global cross-border trade of e-waste, spatial distribution, and global environmental injustice; the interplay between material cycles, value circulation, and the geographical connections linking global dismantling networks and global production networks of e-waste; and the political ecology of transnational e-waste trade. Subsequently, the investigation unraveled the institutional metamorphosis of China's e-waste regimes, which transitioned from global dismantling networks orchestrated by the grassroots informal sector to a circular economy steered by state authority and market participants. International inquiries hold considerable significance in comprehending the institutional evolution at this national magnitude, encompassing China's engagement in shaping global dismantling networks, the (re)configuration of the pollution landscapes within the "dismantling hub" by national political economy and environmental governance patterns, as well as the intricate discourse surrounding environmental justice in the context of this institutional transformation. Lastly, the article deliberated on China's current execution of waste governance policies and proposed practical recommendations for integrating the interests of underprivileged populations into policy considerations, thereby facilitating a superior ecological civilization through enhancing socioecological justice.
Infrastructure investment and construction is an important factor for understanding socioeconomic development. As the large-scale cross-border infrastructure investment and construction continue to thrive in recent years, however, it is not unusual to find those failed to achieve sustainable development. Such infrastructure-led development model is increasingly questioned. This article reviewed different conceptualizations and characteristics of infrastructure and infrastructure-led development model, and examined relevant Chinese and international research focusing on the theoretical assumptions, bases, and explanation of mechanism through time: 1) During the Keynesian period, infrastructure as public goods matched national policies and provided key support for industrial and social development. 2) In the neoliberal era, infrastructure, on the one hand as an "input factor of production", influenced socioeconomic development by external effects; and on the other hand, as a "component" embedded in the socioeconomic system, adapted to and adjusted the socioeconomic environment. 3) In the post-neoliberal period, the mutual influence between complicated infrastructure and the socioeconomic environment reveals that their relationships are a dynamic process rather than simply promoting or suppressing. Therefore, combined with the theory of co-evolution, this article proposed a research framework of "infrastructure-institutions and culture-industry and trade foundations" co-evolution for sustainable development-oriented infrastructure investment and construction practices.
Driven by various natural and human factors, the land system in China is undergoing profound changes. Modeling land system changes can provide not only decision support for major national needs such as territorial spatial planning but also research support for mechanisms of land use changes and modeling of the integrated terrestrial system. This study reviewed studies of land use change modeling through analyzing the origin and development of land use change models. We summarized the development trends since the 1990s and discussed existing challenges and future prospects. The review showed that there exist two development trends in land use change models: the balance between demand and supply, and the combination and optimization of model parameters. The former trend is reflected in an ideological transformation from consideration of only supply or demand to consideration of supply-demand balance when modeling land use changes. Also, there exist two routes to realizing this ideological transformation, namely the top-down route of downscaling spatialization and the bottom-up route of coupling scientific demands and models. The latter trend is not only reflected in the changes of modeling rules from descriptive rules to combined parameterized rules but also in a series of efforts aiming at the optimization of model parameters, specifically in the improvement of regression models and the combination of machine learning methods. Existing challenges of land use change models lie in the divergence of core mathematical mechanisms, challenges of the fledging transformation from unsupervised to supervised simulation, and the deficiency of the new paradigms (vector data-based and integrated data-based) to overcome the shortcomings of the old paradigm (raster data-based). This study recommends more attention to the mathematical mechanisms of land use change models, through evaluations of existing mechanisms, and the incorporation of complexity in analytic expressions. Future land use change models could be improved through coupling series of planning policies under the new paradigms to promote the further development of supervised simulation.
The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has developed rapidly from establishing in the mid-1990s, which provides irreplaceable data support for global climate change simulation and future climate change projection. This paper reviewed systematically the development process from CMIP1 to CMIP6, including theoretical framework, future scenario construction, international participation, etc. On this basis, the paper comprehensively summarized the performance of CMIP models in simulating global and China's temperature, precipitation, and other variables. Furthermore, the simulation results of historical experiment in CMIP3, CMIP5 and CMIP6 was emphatically compared. With the development of CMIP, the simulation performance of global climate models has also been improved due to the improvements of physical parameterization scheme and spatial resolution. However, the performances of CMIP models in simulating climate characteristics at regional scale are still limited, especially for the simulations of precipitation change in small-middle scale, and the simulation performances of different models varies greatly. Finally, the paper looks forward to the possible development directions of CMIP models according to the above problems.
China's rapid urbanization is characterized by rural-to-urban migration that was mainly driven by economic opportunities in the past several decades. With the increase of income, however, the factors that influence migration are expected to change from what they were in the past. In recent years, increasingly more migrants chose to change where they live for the pursuit of amenity, which is termed amenity migration, amenity-led migration, or amenity-driven migration. Against this background, it is necessary to follow the concept and theories of amenity migration in international literature for understanding China's migration transition and its interaction with urban-rural development transformation. This article provided a comprehensive review of the progress of international research on amenity migration. It is found that the concept of amenity emphasizes a place-specific or location-specific feature. Different places have their own unique amenity, with significant differences between urban and rural areas. Amenity can be divided into natural amenity, service amenity, and social amenity. Natural amenity refers to the natural environment that makes people comfortable. Service amenity depends on various human-made facilities. Social amenity dictates a pleasant social and cultural atmosphere. Numerous empirical studies have explored the impact of amenity on migration based on the equilibrium model and found different effects of different categories of amenity, but the research on the mechanism of influence and heterogeneity is still weak. Amenity migration is defined as a kind of migration behavior mainly driven by amenity factors, which profoundly affects the urban-rural development transformation. Amenity migration of talents generates positive urban innovation and growth effects, and amenity migration of the urban middle class causes rural gentrification. Finally, this article discussed directions of the theoretical and empirical research of amenity migration and its inspiration for China's urban-rural development transformation. This article contributes to extending the international view of research on China's internal migration and to better targeting and interpreting the future changes and mechanisms of migration patterns.
Administrative division is the basic supporting unit for a country to carry out local governance. The adjustment of administrative divisions is related to the grassroots social governance system and capacity building, and constitutes a part of the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, which has a long-term impact on economic development and regional governance. This article systematically reviewed and analyzed the literature on China's administrative division research in the past 30 years, and summarized the development status of China's administrative division research from the aspects of history, type of models, effectiveness evaluation, influencing factors, and comparison within China and internationally. The research found that the setting of administrative divisions serves the national development strategy, and the research is closely related to national policies. The promulgation and implementation of relevant policies stimulate the research of administrative divisions, and vice versa. The study of administrative division has a strong historical continuity and spans multiple disciplines. Drawing on the useful experience of developed countries, it also has very strong local characteristics. In the process of integration of administrative divisions into national governance system and governance modernization, scientific and practical research on the setting and adjustment of administrative divisions should be strengthened. We should give full play to the advantages of multiple disciplines, strengthen the theoretical and methodological research on the setting and adjustment of administrative divisions, and comprehensively improve the effectiveness of national spatial governance.
Production of space systematically integrates Marxism and spatial theories into a materialistic system with both dialectical and historical thinking, opening up a new horizon for interpreting and analyzing spatial practice processes. Using the CiteSpace bibliometric method and based on publications in China and in the field of production of space, combined with in-depth reading of typical literature, this study examined the progress of the application of the theory of production of space in the field of urbanization research in China, and summarized the overview, highlights, and shortcomings of research. The results indicate that: 1) The rapid development of urbanization in China and the expansion of the dissemination and influence of the Western theory on the production of space have jointly promoted the relevant research in China, which is characterized by diverse objects, broad themes, flexible perspectives, and a combination of practical interpretation and problematic criticism, focusing on the correspondence between foreign theories and local practices. 2) The generalization of spatial patterns of urbanization and the critique of urbanization effects are the two key points of the application of the production of space theory. The former is to apply production of space to sort out diverse and specific localization practices, while the latter is the revelation of contradictions in specific spatial production practices based on human-centered values. There still exist several shortcomings: 1) The lack of attention to the richness of historical practice and the special focus on the logic of capital have led to the suspicion of economic determinism and relatively neglected other important areas such as everyday life. 2) Insufficient attention to the localization of historical practices and the biased dogmatic appropriation of Western theories has limited the growth of critical theoretical innovation. 3) Insufficient attention has been paid to the need to guide practice, and the value of Marxism for guiding practice is still limited. 4) From the standpoint of historical materialism, the outlook of theory application was proposed in the light of the specific trends and needs of high-quality development of urbanization in China, that is, from productive space analysis to living space concern, from spatial problem analysis to the construction of a Chinese system of theories, and from the interpretation of spatial theory to the guidance of spatial practice.
Urban transportation resilience reflects the ability of the transportation system to maintain its basic functions and structure through its resistance, mitigation, and absorption under extreme conditions, or the ability to restore the original equilibrium or reach a new equilibrium state within a reasonable time and with reasonable cost. Global warming, sea-level rise, and rapid urbanization all increase the risk of compound extreme weather events, presenting challenges for the operation of urban-related infrastructure including transportation infrastructure. In this context, some questions become important. For example, how to measure the strength of urban transportation resilience under extreme weather events (including the impact of different extreme weather event intensities on its strength); how to monitor its spatial and temporal features and evolution trends; and how long will it take for the entire system to restore balance? At present, effective monitoring methods for transportation resilience under the influence of extreme events are lacking, especially the monitoring of the temporal and spatial dynamic changes of transportation resilience under climate change, to answer these questions. Therefore, it is urgently needed to solve the problem of accurately identifying the state of urban transportation resilience under extreme weather events and improving the level of prevention and control of transportation system impact of natural hazard-related disasters. The development of big data mining technology and deep learning methods for spatiotemporal prediction made the construction of spatiotemporal datasets for evaluating and predicting urban transportation resilience possible. Such datasets can reveal the spatiotemporal evolution features, changing trends of urban transportation resilience intensity under the influence of extreme weather events, as well as the mechanism of influence. It indicates the key research areas that should be focused on for transportation resilience under climate warming. This article reviewed and summarized the research on transportation resilience in China and internationally in the past 50 years, analyzed the deficiencies in the existing research based on the relevant research results of transportation resilience in China and globally, and identified the key areas and directions of the research on transportation resilience under climate warming in order to provide new ideas for future research on transportation resilience.
Small towns occupy a vital position in the urban and rural settlement system and are one of the main settlement types of humankind. Since the middle of the twentieth century, small towns in Western developed countries have gradually started transitional development. Their overall decline and differentiated development have become a universal phenomenon worldwide. With the increasing interaction between urban and rural areas and global mobility, small towns are increasingly influenced by forces at the regional, national, and global scales. Therefore, this study systematically examined the relevant studies on the transformation and development of small towns in developed countries and summarized the processes and patterns of their transformation and development based on the perspective of multi-scalar characteristic and rescaling from the four dimensions of economy, society, culture, and policy, with the hope to provide a reasonable explanation for the transformation and development of small towns in developed countries. This study holds that small towns have a multi-scalar characteristic and can be embodied by ladder scale, nested scale, and network scale metaphors. The transformation and development of small towns contain the process of scale production and reproduction and can be further divided into four dimensions of economy, society, culture, and policy. Under the background of globalization and urbanization, the original core-periphery structure of small towns is undergoing a trans-scale and networked scale restructuring process. Some small towns tend to decline in this process, while others can become nodes in the global network scale, achieve a development transition in the ladder scale, and expand the hinterland in a nested scale. Finally, this article argued that it is necessary to pay attention to the differences in different contexts when we examine the transformation and development of small towns in China based on the rescaling theory. There is still a considerable gap in the research on the pluralistic differentiation and transformation and development of small towns in China, which urgently needs to be supplemented by theoretical research of urban and rural geography to provide theoretical support for the planning and construction of small towns in China.
In the context of high-quality development, the conflicting relationship between tourist areas and surrounding communities has become a severe obstacle to the realization of high-quality economic development. As a theoretical tool to describe the relationship between tourist areas and surrounding communities, the concept of tourism island is of great value in identifying, assessing, and managing the conflicts between tourist areas and surrounding communities. Therefore, it has gradually become a new topic in geography, sociology, economics, and other related disciplines. On the basis of distinguishing and analyzing the three interrelated concepts of tourism enclave, tourism bubble, and tourism island, this article systematically reviewed the research progress from the four aspects of tourism island types, key characteristics, causes of formation, and impacts, and found that the current research still has obvious deficiencies in theoretical framework, empirical research, and governance system. Finally, this article proposed three specific directions for further research based on the shortcomings of the current research. Based on the practice of Chinese tourism development, a theoretical framework of tourism island should be constructed, the formation processes and impacts of tourism island should be explored using diversified methods of analysis, and a multi-dimensional, multi-level, and multi-process regulatory mechanism should be developed. Overall, this article presented a systematic review of the previous research literature on tourism island to show their results and quality; it also clarified the starting point for further research and laid a foundation for new research works.