Content of PrizeWinning Papers from the 8th Graduate Students' Geographical Forum of Beijing in our journal

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    Modeling China’s geopolitical influence in surrounding areas:a case study of South Asia
    Wang Shufang, GE Yuejing, CAO Yuan, HU Hao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2014, 33 (6): 738-747.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.06.002
    Abstract1510)      PDF (920KB)(1251)      
    Current international society has entered an era of large-scale power transfer, and power tends to become more flexible and intangible. The proposed concept of geopolitical influence (geo-influence) conforms to this trend of power structure change in international relations, providing a new perspective for analyzing national comprehensive strength. Geo-influence includes hard power, soft power and interdependent power, which is an overall reflection of state external communication and coordination capacity. It can be an important index to measure national strength. This paper attempts to develop a method for measuring countries' national geo-influence. It defines the concept of geo-influence based on power theory, hard power and soft power theory and interdependence theory. Highlighting the dominant factors and the operational principles, the paper constructs an evaluation system and mathematical model of national geo-influence, estimates the comparative strength of China and South Asian countries in 2012, and calculates China's geo-influence values in different South Asian countries and the overall South Asian region over the past decade. The results show that: (1) The ranking of comprehensive strength ratio of China and South Asian countries in 2012 is India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives in ascending order. In South Asian countries, the gap in comprehensive strength between China and India is the smallest, while the gap between China and Maldives are the largest. It indicates that geopolitical significance of a state, especially hard power is still an important support of comprehensive strength. (2) China's geo-influence in South Asia has shown an increasing trend, indicating that China's overall influence has been rising gradually in this region over the past decade. Among these countries, China's geo-influence value is high in Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal, but relatively low in Sri Lanka and Maldives. This demonstrates that geoinfluence is restricted by location and distance, with a spatially attenuating tendency. (3) Comprehensive strength is not proportional or positively correlated to a country's geo-influence. The gap in comprehensive strength between China and India is the smallest, but China's geo-influence in India lies in the middle range. On the other hand, the gap of comprehensive strength between China and Maldives is the greatest, but China's geoinfluence in Maldives is the lowest. (4) The gap in soft power between China and South Asian countries is small in terms of policy and institutional arrangements, national image and cultural exchanges. On the whole, the China's cultural influence in South Asia is weak, but it has been increasing slowly over the past decade.
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    Cited: CSCD(12)
    Population size, distribution and factors impacting on citizenization of Chinese migrant workers
    LIU Rui, CAO Guangzhong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2014, 33 (6): 748-755.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.06.003
    Abstract949)      PDF (3111KB)(1120)      
    China's urbanization rate increased from 18% in 1978 to 52.57% in 2012, but the citizenization rate as indicated by the urban population registration (hukou) is only 27%. The gap between urbanization rate and citizenization rate is accounted for by the rural-urban migrants who live and work in cities without the social welfare provided by the city governments. Promoting the citizenization of rural-urban migrants is a long-term and arduous task. To some extent it will decide whether China's urbanization can proceed smoothly and sustainably. This paper studies rural-urban migrants who need to be citizenized. Some existing research has provided estimates on the total size and annual increase of rural-urban migrants who need to be citizenized nationwide. However, these studies generally contain no data on the population size at the provincial level and the geography distribution of such population. This paper tries to fill this gap. Based on the data from the Sixth Census in 2010 and the county-level population statistics published by the Ministry of Public Security yearly, we estimate the migrants' population size of each province and the proportion of migrants with urban hukou among total migrants (short for M h M). The result indicates a clear difficulty for rural-urban migrants to get an urban hukou. Firstly, the annual increase of migrants who need to be citizenized is 15.76 million nationwide. The coastal areas have the highest annual increase in the size of migrant population. Inland areas take the second place. Coastal areas mainly receive inter-provincial migrants. The proportion of inter-provincial migrants is more than 70% in coastal areas such as Guangdong, Shanghai and Zhejiang as well as Beijing. In inland areas migrants mainly move within the same province. The proportion of inter-provincial migrants is less than 10%. Secondly, nationwide the M h M is 40.85%, which means more than half of the migrants did not have an urban hukou in the cities they work. The migrants in inland areas can get the city hukou with the least effort. In Henan, Guizhou and Chongqing the M h M is higher than 70%. The most difficult area to receive an urban hukou locates in the coastal area of southeast China. The M h M of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Guangdong and Beijing are less than 30%. Inter-provincial migrants get urban hukou more easily than intra-provincial migrants. The M h M of inter-provincial migrants is 2 percentage points higher than intra-provincial migrants. Thirdly, with correlation analysis of 10 influencing factors and the M h M, we found that high cost of citizenization, especially the huge public spending required for providing social welfare for migrants; the unreasonable budget-sharing mechanism; and the rigid restrictions of the current policy on settling in cities are the main obstacles for migrants to receive urban hokou and social welfare. Based on these conclusions, some suggestions about the citizenization of rural-urban migrants are put forward. The current social security financing mechanism should be reformed to increase the proportion of financial expenditures of the central government. Meanwhile, the central government should make different settlement policies based on the migration characteristics and urbanization processes in different provinces. The inland areas should relax restrictions on settlement and allow more migrants to receive urban hukou. The coastal areas should link the financial subsidies with migrants' residence permits instead of hukou.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Neighborhood influences on adolescent development under the background of urban residential space differentiation:a case study of Lujiang Village and Yijing Community
    SUN Yukang, YUAN Yuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2014, 33 (6): 756-764.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.06.004
    Abstract1029)      PDF (1466KB)(1237)      
    In recent years, with the rapid urbanization and economic and social transitions, social class stratification began to emerge in China, and residential space differentiation in Chinese cities has become increasingly apparent. Chinese scholars have started to examine the residential space differentiation phenomenon and its effects. Using survey data and in-depth interviews, this research explores the effects of neighborhood characteristics on adolescent education and development, taking Lujiang Village and Yijing Community in the haizhu district of Guangzhou as cases. Neighborhood characteristics include its socioeconomic, institutional resource, education concept, and peer interaction characteristics. The development results of teenagers include aspects such as learning ability, psychological states, personality and future development opportunities. Based on the selected variables, this paper uses a logistic regression model to analyze the relationship between the variables. At first, the research preliminarily determines whether the independent variables affect the dependent variable according to the results of model analysis. It then uses data from the questionnaire survey and interviews in the two communities to confirm whether the results of model analysis are consistent with the actual situation. This study shows that these four aspects do have various degrees of effects on adolescent education and development. Firstly, neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics affect the adolescents' learning ability. Parents who live in a highly educated, affluent and prestigous neighborhood have more experience and can spend more time and money on their children's education. Secondly, the education concepts and behavioral characteristics of families affect the adolescents' psychological states. More communication between parents and children and emphasis on the children's education make the relationship between the children and their parents more harmonious and reduce stresses of children. By comparing similar poorly educated families in two different communities, this research found that the poorly educated families living in the upscale neighborhood are obviously affected by the highly educated families—they share similar education concepts and adopt similar behaviors, and their children have similar development results. The same is true for the poor neighborhood, Lujiang Village. Thirdly, peer interaction characteristics affect adolescents' personality. Teenagers living in poor communities face more intense relationships and are more marginalized and they are more easily bullied by other teenagers, leading to their introverted character and more negative emotions. Lastly, institutional resource characteristics affect the adolescents' development opportunities. High quality of teaching, good facilities and rich campus activities increase the probability of students to enter key middle schools. The mechanism of neighborhood effects can be explained by the neighborhood institutional resource model and the collective socialization model put forward by Jencks and Mayer. In the institutional neighborhood resource model, neighborhoods affect the development opportunities of adolescents by providing different qualities of public services such as schools and sports facility. In the collective socialization model, neighborhoods influence adolescents' values, personality and behaviors and habits by affecting families' concepts and behavioral characteristics and interpersonal relationships between peers.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Impact of rail transit on the residential property prices of submarkets:a case of the Longgang Line of Shenzhen
    WANG Fuliang, FENG Changchun, GAN Lin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2014, 33 (6): 765-772.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.06.005
    Abstract921)      PDF (1744KB)(1012)      
    Studying the impact of rail transit on residential property prices along rail lines will facilitate the internalization of external benefits of rail traffic. It has significant importance for the construction and operation of city subways. In real urban space, because of the presence of spatial heterogeneity the impact of rail transport is not always the same in different areas, thus it requires the examination of submarkets. This research takes the suburb segment of the Longgang Line in Shenzhen as a case. Firstly, Moran'I index is used to confirm the effect of spatial autocorrelation. Then a variable representing spatial autocorrelation are constructed to be included in the model. In total four models are constructed. Chow Statistics is then adopted to divide the submarkets into suburbs near central city and suburbs at the city periphery. After that, the Hedonic pricing model is selected to study the submarket impact of the rail transit on housing prices along the rail line. The results show that: (1) rail transit has a positive impact on housing prices along the rail line in the close to central city segment. (2) Concerning the impact of rail transit on housing prices, submarket effect does exist. In different submarkets, the impacts of rail transit on housing prices vary, sometimes are even in opposite directions. In the close to urban center segment, rail transit has a positive impact on housing prices. In the remote suburban segment, rail transit has a negative impact on housing prices. (3) Submarkets can be divided by Chow Statistics test. The dividing point of the Longgang Line is Liuyue-Danzhutou. The spatial extent of the close to center suburban submarket may be related to the city's average commuting time. (4) The cause of submarket division is spatial heterogeneity. The submarkets of the Longgang Line suburban segment is determined by the spatial differences between the two regional centers.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Spatial temporal characteristics of development efficiencies for urban tourism:a case study of three urban agglomerations in the Bohai Rim
    LI Rui, GUO Qian, HE Ji, WU Dianting, YIN Hongmei, YE Qian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2014, 33 (6): 773-785.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.06.006
    Abstract953)      PDF (17436KB)(1061)      
    Taking prefecture-level cities, provincial cities and provincial capitals of three urban agglomerations in the Bohai Rim as analytical units, this paper measures and analyzes urban tourism development efficiency and spatial characteristics and development stages of these urban agglomerations by adopting the traditional DEA and Malmquist models. Major conclusions include: (1) The average comprehensive resource utilization efficiencies of urban tourism of municipalities, provincial capitals and main prefecture-level cities of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Shandong Peninsula urban agglomerations have transformed from ineffective to moderately effective, and those of Eastern Liaoning Peninsula urban agglomerations have been always ineffective. The comprehensive resource utilization efficiencies of prefecture-level cities, provincial cities and provincial capitals of the three urban agglomerations have transformed from ineffective to moderately effective. (2) Since 2000, the comprehensive efficiencies of urban tourism of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Shandong Peninsula urban agglomerations have been affected by pure technical efficiency slightly more than scale efficiency, while it is the opposite for Eastern Liaoning Peninsula urban agglomerations. (3) The Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of most cities in the three urban agglomerations has substantially increased since 2000; the TFP increasing rates of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Shandong Peninsula urban agglomerations are both slightly higher than those of Eastern Liaoning Peninsula urban agglomerations; however, the overall rates of increase of TFP have declined. Meanwhile, the average TFP increasing rates of urban tourism of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Shandong Peninsula and Eastern Liaoning Peninsula urban agglomerations also have declined. (4) The development efficiencies of urban tourism of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations have been affected by urban tourism investment, urban tourism technology and urban tourism markets; those of Shandong Peninsula urban agglomerations have been affected by urban tourism products and urban tourism technology; development efficiencies of urban tourism of Eastern Liaoning Peninsula urban agglomerations have been affected by urban tourism resources, urban tourism policies and urban tourism projects (products). The comprehensive efficiency of urban tourism of the three urban agglomerations has been in the technology innovation stage, the technology imitation stage and the scale dominance stage, respectively. These conclusions provide a theoretical basis for the scientific development of urban tourism of the three urban agglomerations in the Bohai Rim and other coastal urban agglomerations in China.
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
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