Social spatial segregation is a concept of sociality and spatiality. Its measurement directly impacts the validity of the classification of segregation degrees. According to the different focuses of spatial segregation research through its development, the author divides social spatial segregation study into the following stages: the beginning from the 1950s to the 1970s; the multi-dimensional group assessment stage in the 1980s; switching to a spatial focus in the 1990s; multi-modeling and multi-perspective period in the 2000s to date. This review introduces the main features of different approaches, the social background against which the developments occurred, and the main measurement indices and models of each stage. Socio-spatial segregation research started relatively late in China. It can be divided into an early embryonic stage from the 1980s to the 1990s and the vigorous development stage from 2000 to present. Socio-spatial segregation research in China involved mostly empirical studies with aspatial measures of segregation, which cannot solve the modifiable areal unit problem beyond the census tract and thus made little theoretical contribution to the ongoing debates. Segregation research often used more traditional segregation indices, lacking multi-dimensional spatial-correction segregation methods. The papers reviewed were not based on previous research and cross-fertilization did not seem to occur. As a result, a unified paradigm has not appeared. The rapid development of mobile Internet and social network space in the past few years put forward new demands to the social spatial segregation calculation method. On the other hand, location-based personal behavioral data and virtual network-based cyberspace interactive data provide a new perspective for socio-spatial segregation study .
Geography of home is becoming an important research field in the western academic world. Both the quantity and the citation rate of the publications on this topic are growing significantly, in cultural geography study in particular. This article reviews the diverse literature on the geography of home and calls for domestic study in China in the context of great social and cultural transitions. First, the conceptualization of home was interpreted by tracing back in the literature. Home was treated as "heaven" in early research of the 1970s inspired by the humanistic trend at the time, while was criticized for its ignorance of the negative feelings and experiences of the subordinate groups. At present, this concept is understood increasingly as political and embedded with critical interpretations. The review found that the geography of home is closely related to identity, including gender, sexuality, class, and ethnicity. These identities shape and are shaped by home. Finally the article reviews studies on two key phenomena examined from the perspective of home: transnational migration and homelessness. These studies focus on the impacts of the wider economic and social contexts as well as related policies. More importantly, growing attention has been paid to the home making practice and the meanings of home experience of the migrants and the homeless people. Despite of the abundant research on the geography of home, such study in China is relatively rare although the idea of home occupies a key position in traditional cultures of China. Especially during the recent development of globalization and social transformation, the theory of home may be helpful to explain and interpret new topics that have emerged in China such as the growth of forced migration, flow of labor force, and empty nester family. The existing body of literature on the geography of home provides insightful ideas for related studies in China. However, empirical studies should be conducted in the context of China, which may enrich or challenge the theory of home.
Studying urban social space by means of maps has a long history and diverse patterns of research have developed in different contexts. In recent years, along with the rapid development of GIS technology and Big Data, social data are becoming increasingly diversified and accurate, which offers the possibility for re-recognizing social spaces. This article examines the research of social atlas in China and abroad since the 1900s with regard to cartographic organization and methods and data, aiming for providing some guidance for future studies of social atlas in China. The map-based social research and applications evolved from the initial purpose of comprehensive description to thematic interpretation, and theoretical verification. With regard to cartographic method, the four main types are cartogram map, grid map, dot map, and density map. This article illustrates the effectiveness of social atlas study and reviews its applications in China. It stresses that social atlas, as an efficient method to present sociospatial relations, is able to describe the complicated spatial features of social elements, which is significant for understanding the social reality of a city under transition. However, research of social atlas in China is still in need of further development and greater attentions should be paid to such study in the future.