Residents' daily life circle is one of the key issues in relation to the national spatial planning in the "new era". Supply of public service facilities is the primary condition for plan-making of this type of circle. Spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities reveals the human-environment relationship at the community level. There exist many studies on spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities. However, the existing findings are mainly based on survey data, which have disadvantages such as insufficient samples, small geography coverage, and so on. This study investigated the spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities in large cities by taking Beijing as an example. Using mobile phone data and point-of-interest (POI) data collected in 2018, this study measured the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities, and analyzed the relationship between the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities by the bivariate spatial autocorrelation method. It also analyzed the geographical variations in the relationship. The results of analysis show that residents' daily life circle has a multi-centric structure at the city level. The length of radius of the circle increases from the central areas to the periphery. Accessibility of public service facilities is featured with a zonal structure but its level decreases with the distance away from the centers. The level of accessibility is negatively related with radius of the circle, which means that the higher level of accessibility, the smaller radius of the circle. There are geographical variations in the relationship. The relationship is "high-low" in the city center and new town centers, but dominated by "low-low" and "low-high" pattern in the fringe of the city center and new town centers. There are also variations in the relationship between different types of public service facilities. For the cultural and leisure facilities, the degree of spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities is obvious lower than other facilities. The conclusion of this research provides new evidence for residents' daily life circle study, and has policy implications for residents' daily life circle planning.
As the basic institutional arrangement for resource allocation and social integration in China during the era of planned economy, the danwei system played an important role in shaping the daily activity space and life circle structure of urban residents. However, currently studies on the relationship between the danwei system and life circle mostly focus on cities with a long history of planned economy and strong state-owned economy. Few studies have attempted to focus on the danwei system in emerging cities, although the danwei system practice existed in these cities. In addition, few studies have explained the formation and development of life circle from the perspective of public service facility supply mechanism. This study first analyzed the evolving role of the danwei system in the process of urban construction and development in Shenzhen City. Seven communities with features of danwei compounds, named as pan-danwei communities, together with one commercial housing community and one urban village community, were selected to depict the life circles of residents in these communities from the dimensions of spatial behavior and social relations. We believe that the path differences of the danwei system on the spatial and social practice that occurred in these communities have resulted in different community life circle structures and patterns. The life circle of these pan-danwei communities has similar features with the traditional danwei communities. These features include work-housing balance, self-contained amenity provision, and strong sense of community. On the other hand, because residents have no personal attachment to the danwei or the neighborhoods, they can make full use of various urban facilities to meet diverse demands. It provides a new model of reconstructing life circle in China, learning from the danwei communities. It is essential to encourage the development of various types of pan-danwei communities. Especially, various enterprise units or community developers should be supported to participate in the public good provision mechanism, and the construction mechanism of community life circles should be improved. Analyzing the localized practice of community life circles of this type of danwei compound can enrich the concept and construction models of community life circle in a market economy environment.
China is in a period of comprehensive transformation of economic and social developments. Urban development has shifted from expansion to focusing on the improvement of quality, and gradually began to focus on the quality of life of residents. Living space has become an important factor reflecting the quality of urban development. With the increasingly clear social class stratification and residential space differentiation in Shanghai, the complex background and multiple attributes of different residential areas shape a variety of living spaces, reflecting different life styles and quality of life. This study selected 253 typical residential areas as the research samples, and used mobile signaling data, supplemented by questionnaire survey data, to explore the structural pattern of living space of typical residential areas in Shanghai. Both the mobile signaling data and the questionnaire survey data were used to calculate the scope and boundary of daily activities, as well as the main nodes and channels of the activity network. It is found that the main center, subcenters, and other urban centers attract residents' daily activities and thus become nodes of the network; while rail transit makes activities extend and spread and become channels of activities by shortening travel time cost. The influence degree of urban centers and rail transit stations on residential areas can basically explain the spatial distribution of daily activities. Under the influence of these factors, 15 typical structural patterns have been formed. Among them, the main center has medium-strong influence, the subcenters have medium influence, and the structural mode of rail transit has the highest influence. Exploring the structure of living space in typical residential areas is of practical significance for the development of planning policies such as life circle construction, urban center system planning, and transportation facility construction.
In the new era of China's development, people's needs for living space have become diversified. At the community level, the transformation of the planning of a human-oriented community life circle needs to pay attention to residents' daily activities to use the community space, thereby reflecting residents' use of community public service facilities. This demands to identify the daily activity space of residents. However, current research has paid little attention to the differentiated spatial and temporal behavior characteristics of different types of residents, and cannot effectively respond to the diverse needs of community residents. Based on the theory of behavioral geography, this research proposed a method of using mobile phone signaling data to measure the core activity space and flexible activity space based on the frequency and density of residents' travel activities, and then analyze the characteristics of daily activities of different types of people. Taking Shazhou and Nanyuan streets in Nanjing City as examples, the daily activity space of adolescent, youth, middle-aged, and elderly resident groups in different communities was delineated, and the basic characteristics of residents'use of community space were analyzed from the perspective of daily activity range and vitality differences among groups. The research results show that the daily activity space of residents shows hierarchical, sharing, and directional features, and there are significant differences in the daily activity space of different age groups. Further, by using the correlation test to analyze the influencing factors of the vitality of different groups of the communities, we proposed a differentiated supply strategy for public service facilities that considers the activity space and facility needs of different groups. This research is helpful for improving the method of measuring the daily activity space of community based on the spatiotemporal behavior of residents, and enriching the understanding of the diverse behavior needs of community residents. The conclusions of the empirical research have certain guiding significance for the allocation of community public service facilities based on residents' diverse space and facility needs.
Family is an important context of individuals' everyday life. Solo and joint activity participation of family members is strongly affected by spatiotemporal constraints and resources. An extensive literature has focused on intra-household interaction and its impacts on households' daily activity patterns, but most studies are limited to aggregated time use and activity participation, and implicitly examine the interaction between family members. Using one-week GPS-based activity-travel diary dataset of three families in the Shangdi-Qinghe area of Beijing, this study applied the concept of project context in time geography to extend the study of household task division to a one-week period, to describe the characteristics and understand the strategies of household task division in suburban families. Spatiotemporal paths were used to describe and analyze solo and joint activity participation of family members. We found that working status, age of children, presence of extended family members, and ownership of private cars have complicated impacts on the allocation of household tasks, resulting in different patterns of allocation of household responsibility among family members. In this process, the dynamic transformation of constraints and resources reflects the construction and reconstruction of family local order, and routine-forming and routine-changing of individual behavior. To conclude, the introduction of family project helps to explicitly understand tasks and constraints of family members of suburban residents, and to provide sophisticated and nuanced planning and services.
Public service facilities (PSF) are the basic guarantee for urban production and living. Whether the distribution of public service facilities is equitable is related to the healthy development of cities and the society. At present, due to the lack of urban micro-scale population distribution data, there are few studies that consider both the supply side (PSF) and the demand side (population). In view of this, using the Internet maps application programming interface (API), this study established the 5-minute, 10-minute, and 15-minute community life circle of Lanzhou City, and then used Worldpop grid data, population census data, and Baidu heat map data to simulate the population distribution at high spatial resolution and with high accuracy. We evaluated the matching relationships between population and public service facilities in Lanzhou City. The study found that: 1) The matching relationships between different types of PSF and population are very different. However, they show a common phenomenon that the matching degree close to district administrative centers is often better than that of urban fringe. 2) In Lanzhou City, the matching relationships between PSFs and population are highly polarized, that is, there are more highly matched and mismatched life circles, and the number of moderately matched and relatively poorly matched life circles is fewer. 3) Based on the coverage of moderately and highly matched life circles, the coverage of all levels of travel, medical (except community health service centers corresponding to 10-minute life circle), dining, and entertainment facilities is the widest. The allocation of elderly care facilities at all levels and grass-roots cultural facilities is seriously inadequate, and other facilities are between the two types. The study concludes that the problems that have been identified need to be addressed. It suggests that urban planning should focus on the allocation of various PSF in the urban fringe, and improve the coverage of all levels of elderly care facilities.