As the use of digital technology gradually pervades all aspects of rural production and life, the countryside is no longer a traditional, stable, and endogenous representation. In parallel, the interaction between digital technology and rural subjects has made the rural economy, society, and culture increasingly complex, and the interaction of the two dynamically reconstructs rural areas. Digital technology has gradually infiltrated from the external system of the countryside to its internal system, changing the internal operation and self-organization mechanism of the countryside. In addition, the transformation of rural space under the impact of informatization is not only embodied in the material aspect, but also in the reconstruction of the social and cultural spatial significance as well as the reconstruction of the territorial system of human-environment relationship, which reshapes rural discourse-power system and the subject identity in endogenous logic. From the perspective of humanism, it is of great significance to think deeply about the interaction between digital technology and people in the information age, such as the subject-object relationship between people and technology on the countryside, the change of discourse-power of rural society, and the change of people's family roles. However, these issues have not been discussed in depth at present. Accordingly, by discussing the multi-dimensional relationship between digital technology and rural development and its multiple effects on the rural space, and paying attention to the alienation and freedom brought by digital technology, the change of discourse and power caused by digital economy, and the reconstruction of the status and identity of women in rural areas, this article explains how digital technology as a non-human actor constructs the rural daily economic life and social relations. This article also provides theoretical analysis for explaining the subjectivity of digital technology as a non-human actor and studying hybrid rurality. It contributes a useful supplement for the analytical framework of rurality and provides a new perspective for digital rural construction and rural revitalization.
Cultivated land use system has a great impact on global change and human well-being. This study used the theories and methods of system science to explore the concept, composition, operation, functions, and characteristics of cultivated land use system and constructed the research framework of cultivated land use system, in order to promote the deepening of land system research and solve various problems. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Cultivated land use system is a compound natural-human system in which agricultural producers and operators invest an appropriate amount of production factors in a certain amount and quality of cultivated land to plant crops, and obtain agricultural products and corresponding benefits. Cultivated land use system consists of cultivated land subsystem, economic subsystem, and social subsystem. It has explicit and implicit structures. 2) The operation and evolution of cultivated land use system is the result of natural ecological processes, economic development processes, and social evolution processes. It also has compound, open, resilient, and multi-level characteristics. 3) The study of cultivated land use system should follow the theoretical framework of element-structure-function-mechanism-regulation. This study revealed the action mechanism of different elements from the composition and influence relationship of various elements; analyzed the structure and transformation of cultivated land use from two aspects of explicit and implicit structure; revealed the impact of functions on structure from three aspects of economic, social, and ecological functions; analyzed the operation mechanism of cultivated land use system from the adaptation and adjustment mechanism of the system to the changes of external environment, the interaction and competition substitution mechanism of system elements, the information transmission mechanism of system operation, the coordination and organization operation mechanism of cultivated land use subjects at different levels, and the emergence mechanism of cultivated land use functions; and used scenario simulation method, multi-objective optimization method, and comprehensive regulation balance method to explore regulation strategies of cultivated land use.
Planetary boundaries is a conceptual framework proposed by Johan Rockstr?m in recent years, which is aimed to build a safe operating space for safeguarding humans' survival and development. Since this framework was put forward, it has attracted widespread attention. The skeptics criticized the scientific significance and evaluation methods of the conceptual framework. However, the proponents have gradually improved its evaluation methods and research contents, and explored the downscaling results. In order to promote the understanding and application of this concept and framework, after reviewing the relevant literature we first introduced the conceptual connotation of planetary boundaries and its evaluation results, and then compared them with concepts such as environmental carrying capacity that have been well known to Chinese scholars. We also summarized the controversial views of the conceptual framework, and reviewed its recent development status. Finally, combined with China's current development situation, we analyzed the implications of the conceptual framework of planetary boundaries for China's sustainable development research, and put forward the prospect of future research, including: 1) improving the assessment system of planetary boundaries through making further exploration on the interrelationship between different Earth system processes; 2) defining the links between planetary boundaries, ecosystem services, and human well-being; 3) strengthening research on transformative environmental governance in conjunction with the assessment of planetary boundaries.