On the basis of clarifying the background and connotation of structural reform on the supply side, field observations and in-depth interviews were conducted to examine how land consolidation was used to promote the restructuring of rural areas, and the Huashan Model of Hubei Province was taken as an example. The results show that: (1) It is necessary to carry out the structural reform on the supply side of land consolidation on the basis of background-means-path-objectives; (2) The structural reform on the supply side of land consolidation include structural adjustments, reducing inventories, removing bottlenecks, reducing costs, and facilitating integration. The starting point is to realize the rational allocation of labor, land, capital, institution, industry, and technology factors; (3) The Huashan Model realizes land circulation-shrimp and rice co-production-township enterprise cooperation-market guidance-win win situation for multiple stakeholders, and has become a success case of structural reform on the supply side of land consolidation for rural restructuring. It is suggested that in the process of implementing land consolidation, it is necessary to adopt green development concepts, pay attention to regional planning, rely on scientific and technological supports, develop local industries according to the local conditions, and strengthen institutional supply, so as to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of land consolidation to promote rural restructuring.
Based on the academic discussion of multivariate differentiation of rural space, this article analyzes the spatial development process and effects of homestay area in Guanhu Village in Shenzhen using the in-depth interview method and the actor-network theory. The results show that: (1) Homestay place owners and acquaintance networks are the key actors in the development of Guanhu Village, which helped realizing the transformation and restructuring of the rural material space as well as the social space. (2) In the spatial restructuring process of Guanhu Village, the actor-network space of homestay tourism was formed with the continuous construction and translation of acquaintance network, and increasingly the previously dispersed human, economic, and social capitals became concentrated and transformed to social resources. Therefore, the homestay place owners and acquaintance networks forms the nonstructural driving force in the development of Guanhu Village. (3) The new social acquaintance network constructed by external actors and the traditional social acquaintance network of Guanhu Village cannot complete the process of translation and communicate, not only causing the social differentiation between homestay place owners and the local residents and isolation, but also bringing about power struggle within the relationship network, which results in the transformation of dynamic mechanism from nonstructural to binary dynamic mechanism and further restructuring of material space. (4) Based on the social acquaintance network, Guanhu Village has formed a new model of shared economy, which is combined with the Internet platform for sharing goods and services as a cheaper alternative compared with the Internet intermediaries.
Rural ecological environment issues in the process of rural-urban transition in China have influenced the production and daily living of residents in rural areas. This article reviews the sources and characteristics of rural environmental pollution, and proposes the restructuring strategies of rural ecological environment from the aspects of resources, production, and living. The research shows that unreasonable resource use, intensive production activities, and changed life style resulted in rural land contamination and water and air pollution. Rural environmental pollution is characterized by diversified sources, sporadic discharges, and inefficient management. These problems call for the highly efficient use of resources, cleaning of production processes, and agglomeration of living space to realize the coordination of rural production development, enhancement of quality of living, and ecological environment improvement.
Agricultural structure adjustment and upgrading is the main engine of Chinese rural transformation development, while large-scale and specialized production is the direction of such transformation in agriculture internationally. This study took an industrialized transformation county—Gongyi City and an agricultural modernization transformation county—Yanling County as examples, and used location quotient, structural change index, and specialization index, to analyze agricultural structure adjustment and reconstruction of rural landscape on the township level under the background of rural economic transformation. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The interaction between demand-based agricultural structure adjustment and rural transformation comes into being through the modernized change of cultivated land use, the quality improvement of agricultural products, and the multi-functional reconstruction of rural landscape. In the future, large-scale agriculture in grain production and specialized precision agriculture will co-exist in China; (2) Basically non-agricultural transformation and agricultural modernization transformation of rural economy both can bring the large-scale as well as specialized use of rural land and internal structure adjustment of agriculture. The industrialized transformation county takes grain crops as the main agricultural structure adjustment direction, and the county with agricultural modernization transformation adjusts towards grain crops and featured crops, forming specialized villages or agricultural clusters for production; (3) The adjustment of agricultural structure is aligned with natural conditions and resource endowments better than before, and spatial distribution is more optimized.
Spatial network of village and town communities is a spatial organization form that relies on the town and takes the village and town communities as nodes and connections between nodes as edges. Exploring its structural characteristics and optimization strategies is of great significance for guiding the sound flow of factors and improving network operation efficiency. By selecting 19 village and town communities in Fenghuang Town of Shapingba District, Chongqing Municipality as network nodes, this study applied the modified gravitational intensity model to explore the connections between these nodes. Using GIS tools, social network analysis method, and correlation analysis method, this study examined the general characteristics, node characteristics, and characteristics of difference of the spatial network structure of the village and town communities, and established the network optimization strategies. The results show that the spatial network of the village and town communities is in a low level, unbalanced stage of development, which possess characters of both general looseness and local agglomeration, the small world characteristic, and the association difference between cohesive subgroups is significant. The spatial network of the village and town communities exhibited a 3-level node structure that takes the town community as the core, community 5, 7, 4, 10, and 14 as secondary cores, and contains the other communities, among which the structural hole advantage of the core nodes needs further enhancing. Various social attributes of community residents cause different effects to the network structure. On these bases, this study constructed a "one axis, one core, eighteen nodes, one network, and fifty-seven links" spatial network pattern by improving functions of the nodes, building the node hierarchy, and strengthening economic relations among nodes, and therefore providing a demonstration for current and future rural community construction.
Under the background of rapid urbanization and rural tourism development, this study explored the characteristics and development mechanism of human settlement change in Lanxi Village, Jiangyong County, Hunan Province from the perspective of living-production-ecological space, which to some extent can reflect the general patterns of traditional village development in China. Based on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and GIS spatial analysis, this study examined the process, pattern, and mechanism of change of living-production-ecological space of Lanxi Village. The results show that: (1) Through analyzing the system coupling features of traditional villages’ human settlement environment and living-production-ecological space and based on the living-production-ecological space theory, we believe that traditional villages’ human settlement environment should contain livable living space, coordinated production functions, and beautiful ecological space, which accord with the goals and features of living-production-ecological space system. (2) The living space of Lanxi Village transformed from consanguineous concentration to expansion to the periphery; the production space transformed from agricultural function to tourism function; and the ecological space transformed from external overall contraction to patchy distribution. The processes of change of living-production-ecological space were intertwined and interpenetrative. Also living-production-ecological space of Lanxi Village gradually transformed from traditional human settlement space to new multiple use complex space. (3) Change in living-production-ecological space pattern was caused by both internal and external driving factors that include tourism market demand, government policies, spatial behavior transformation, and self-organizing reactions. The internal driving forces focused on the continuation and transformation of living space structural features, while the external driving factors were mainly embodied at the transformation and replacement of production and ecological space structures. Seen from the degree of adaptation to change of Lanxi Village, there are still many problems that remain to be solved. So this article suggests reconstitute the living-production-ecological space and explore sustainable human settlement construction mode of traditional villages.