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    Measuring polycentric urban structure using Easygo big data: A case study of Chongqing metropolitan area
    DUAN Yaming, LIU Yong, LIU Xiuhua, HE Dong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1957-1967.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.011
    Abstract711)   HTML35)    PDF (9096KB)(259)      

    Polycentricity has become the spatial development strategy in many Chinese cities. Effective identification of polycentric urban form is of great significance for assessing planning performance and formulating better planning strategy. Compared with Baidu Heat Map and cell phone call data, Tencent Easygo data have the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution and low acquisition cost, which can be used to compare the population agglomeration capabilities of different urban centers, and dynamically identify and monitor polycentric urban form. Taking Chongqing metropolitan area as an example, this study applied the method of Kernel density analysis to identify its polycentric urban form and the size and rank of the urban centers based on Tencent Easygo data of one week. The results show that Chongqing as a mountainous city has developed a polycentric urban structure with multiple subcenters and urban clusters due to the constraint of natural environment, the drive of economic forces, and the guidance of urban planning. The main center and several subcenters inside the inner ring road have comparable degrees of population aggregation, land use scales, and urban development levels. These subcenters are also stronger than the other subcenters outside the inner ring road. The study pointed out that the urban development degree and population aggregation capacity of Xiyong, Chayuan, and peripheral urban clusters need to be improved.

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    Impacts of street and public transport network centralities on housing rent:A case study of Beijing
    DU Chao, WANG Jiaoe, LIU Binquan, HUANG Dingxi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1831-1842.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.001
    Abstract574)   HTML82)    PDF (12584KB)(599)      

    Higher housing demand leads to housing price increasing rapidly, with lower housing affordability. Under these circumstances, renting a place has progressively become an alternative way for residents of cities. Urban transportation is one of the most significant influencing factors for housing rent, which needs to be examined at greater depth. This study used complex network analysis to explore how transportation centrality impacts housing rent. The conclusions are: transportation network shows significant impacts on housing rent, with higher impacts of public transport network than street network. Closeness in public transport has the highest impact on housing rent. Each centrality aspect influences housing rent differently, and relative accessibility in public transport network and transfer capacity in street network have the greatest impacts on housing rent. This article discussed two modes of urban transportation and their spatial characteristics. By refining the impacts of different transportation modes by network analysis, it provides a new perspective of urban transportation research and its spatial effects.

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    Spatial reconstruction and optimization of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration
    LUO Kui, LI Guangdong, LAO Xin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 179-194.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.001
    Abstract573)   HTML11)    PDF (29622KB)(101)      

    Scientific analysis of the spatial reconstruction of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration not only can contribute to expanding the scope and depth of research on industrial spatial change, but also can serve the national strategy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development. From the perspective of global value chain (GVC), this study employed the method of measuring the industrial proportion change after calibration based on the statistical data from 2000 to 2014 and the national industrial enterprise database for 2001, 2006, and 2013 to investigate the spatial pattern of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, and proposed the optimization strategies accordingly. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The industrial spatial reconstruction is an important driving force for promoting the development and maturation of an urban agglomeration. Following the trend of globalization and embedding in global value chains are of great significance to advancing the upgrading of urban agglomerations, and domestic industrial spatial reconstruction is an important approach for improving the industrial cooperation network and accelerating the integration of urban agglomerations. In addition, the interaction of GVC restructuring, industrial suburbanization, and resource and environmental carrying capacity is the foudation of the double C-shaped spatial pattern. 2) With regard to the international industrial spatial reconstruction, Tianjin has become the core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration to undertake international industrial transfer, followed by Beijing, while the development of other cities is relatively lagging behind. On the whole, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is still in a lower position in the GVC, which is not conducive to the promotion of regional competitiveness. 3) In repect to the industrial spatial change within the urban agglomeration, industrial reconstruction is mailny concentrated in the inner C-shape region consisting of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, and Cangzhou cities, while the intensity of spatial reconstruction in other regions is relatively weak. Different industries present diverse features of reconstruction: texile and garment industry is market-dominated within the GVC; chemical industry is influenced by both environmental regulations and dependence on water resources; steel industry is government-dominated; and pharmaceutical industry is regulated by the government under the influences of the GVC. 4) Based on the development of industrial spatial reconstruction, resource and environmental carrying capacity, and the double C-shaped spatial pattern, this article puts forward some suggestions on optimizing the industrial spatial patterns of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. As the economic core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, the inner C-shaped region is recommended to accelerate industrial upgrading to become a world-class industrial highland. The northern part of the outer C-shaped area is proposed to strengthen ecological environment protection for the sustainable development of the urban agglomeration, while the southern part of the outer C-shaped area should promote industrial transformation to become a solid support for industrial upgrading in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. The two C-shaped regions should be interconnected to ensure the implementation of the coordinated development strategy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.

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    Market structure and competition of the three major airlines in China
    DU Delin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Yi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 367-376.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.002
    Abstract571)   HTML17)    PDF (11750KB)(215)      

    Air China, China Eastern Airlines, and China Southern Airlines are the three major state-owned airlines in China, and they have significant influences in the air transportation market. Market competition of the three airlines has always been an important research topic in economics, management, and geography. Based on the flight schedule data, this study constructed a market share index and a market overlap index and used them to examine the structure and competition of the three major airlines on the Chinese and international markets in 2005 and 2015. The results are as follow: 1) The markets of the three major airlines have expanded rapidly over the decade of 2005-2015. In China, the three airlines have added navigation airports mainly in the central and western regions, especially in Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and Guizhou Province. These provinces are the new major market competition places. Among the three major airlines, China Southern Airlines has the largest number of absolutely dominant airports and flight routes, China Eastern Airlines has the largest increase, and Air China has a relatively small market. 2) Spatially, the three major airlines show significant regional differences in the domestic key markets, and each has a great advantage in its respective hub airports. The dominant routes of the three major airlines mainly form radial networks around their hub airports. Routes concentrated in domestic air transportation are mainly represented by competition among two of the three major airlines. With increasing market competition, the market shares of the three airlines in most of the major domestic airports and routes decreased. 3) In the international market, East Asia and Southeast Asia are areas where the three major airlines have focused. Their navigation airports, flights, and competing airports are mostly located here. In particular, Japan and South Korea are the countries of most severe competition of the three major airlines. However, the competition of the three major airlines in the international flight routes is not obvious—this is because they mainly set up routes between their hub airports and international airports, and their operating bases are very different.

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    Spatio-temporal change of population distribution and its influencing factors in a poor mountainous county: A case study of Song County, Henan Province
    LUO Qing, WANG Bingbing, FAN Xinsheng, LI Xiaojiian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (7): 1073-1084.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.07.001
    Abstract554)   HTML29)    PDF (18618KB)(136)      

    The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and change of mountain populations are of great significance for coordinating human-land relationship and implementing the rural revitalization strategy in the process of urbanization. Based on the data of three agricultural censuses in Luoyang City, this study selected 318 administrative villages in Song County as the research objects, and used a GIS spatial analysis tool and geographically weighted regression to analyze the spatial pattern of population distribution and its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The population of Song County is extremely uneven in spatial distribution. The high density areas are clustered near the main traffic lines and in areas with relatively flat terrain, and over time, they changed from point to spread and strip distribution. 2) On the whole, the population growth is bounded by the high-speed Luoluan Highway, and shows a pattern of rapid growth to the northwest and slow growth to the southeast. The high-speed growth areas are mainly concentrated in the county seat and a few townships around the northwestern part of the Luoluan Highway. 3) The population growth centers are also located in the towns around the county seat and the Luhun Reservoir, and the towns in the southern mountainous areas are expected to form new population agglomeration areas. 4) The population distribution pattern of the county is the result of the interaction of natural conditions, geographical location, and public services. Among them, the accessibility time of county seat has the greatest impact on population distribution, followed by topography. The impact of arable land area and accessibility time of middle school are relatively small, but the impact of different factors has spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The above conclusions imply that mountainous counties can take into account the differences in natural conditions and resource endowments, and make use of urbanization layout, infrastructure construction, and public services adjustments to promote the optimization of population distribution.

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    Progress and implications of international rural space research
    WANG Dan, LIU Zuyun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1991-2002.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.014
    Abstract540)   HTML19)    PDF (755KB)(311)      

    Space is a product of society. Driven by industrialization, urbanization, informationization, and government policies, China's rural space is going through drastic reconstructions. As one of the core contents of international rural geography research, rural space studies are multi-disciplinary, multi-perspective, multi-dimensional, and multi-methods, forming a rich research field. In order to grasp the progress of rural space research more comprehensively, this study reviewed international rural space research literature in recent 40 years. The study found that international researchers described the connotation of rural space from the perspectives of material, imagination, and practice. The three-fold architecture was established to emphasize the practice of everyday life. It introduced living space to build the systematic research framework of rural space. With regard to the theoretical perspective, international research of rural space has gone through functionalism, political economy, and social constructivism; it transformed from productivism to post productivism; the research included settlement space, economic space, social space, and cultural space. As a whole, international research of rural space realized the change from material level to social representation, from object space to subject space, and from static one-dimensional space to dynamic multi-dimensional space, which revealed the importance of interdisciplinary and sociocultural approaches in rural space studies. The construction of rural space in China needs to pay attention to the subject status of farmers and multifunction of rural space, respect the role of locality and difference of various places, and recover the function of production of meaning of rural space.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    An empirical analysis of factors leading to typical urban problems in China
    SHEN Jie, ZHANG Keyun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 1-12.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.001
    Abstract513)   HTML12)    PDF (2591KB)(114)      

    Based on the results of existing research, typical urban problems can be divided into three categories—traffic congestion, resources shortage, and environmental pollution. This study used cross-section data of 204 Chinese prefecture-level cities in 2013 to build a population spatial distribution index on the basis of nighttime light data for an empirical study. First, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was applied to examine the impacts of city size, spatial imbalance, lagged infrastructure construction, industrial transformation, and institutional obstacles on urban problems. Second, a threshold effect model was constructed to further investigate possible nonlinear relationships between the influencing factors and urban problems. The empirical results prove that the various aspects of urban problems should be attributed to different influencing factors since these problems are complex. The main reasons leading to traffic congestion are big city size and centralized distribution of urban population, as well as the lack of transportation infrastructure. While resources shortage is not a universal problem in most big cities, in contrast, the improvement of industrial structure, increasing supply of public services, and concentration of administrative power are helpful for big cities to attract and bring in resources. The expansion of urban population and the agglomerated structure of population distribution both hinder environmental pollution control. Besides, the growth in the proportion of non-agricultural industries and expansion of urban road area both can damage urban ecosystems.

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    Research progress and prospect of land-use conflicts in China
    ZOU Lilin, LIU Yansui, WANG Yongsheng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 298-309.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.011
    Abstract509)   HTML8)    PDF (1185KB)(135)      

    China is in a critical period of economic transformation and social development, which brings great pressure and challenges to land use. Therefore, imbalanced land-use structure and conflicting land utilization become more common, which result in more attention to land-use conflicts and thus increasingly more related studies has appeared, but there is a lack of systematic review and compilation of existing research. This study examined the research related to land-use conflicts in China through literature analysis and comparative analysis, and identified the research trends. First, this article points out that land-use conflict refers to the phenomenon of spatial competition and conflicting interests between people and land caused by the way and structure of land use by stakeholders in the process of land use, which was defined by the comparison and identification among relevant concepts related to land-use conflicts in the existing literature. Second, the Chinese land-use conflict research results were summarized and elaborated from six aspects, including the theoretical basis of land-use conflicts, the stakeholders in land-use conflicts, the identification and intensity diagnosis of land-use conflicts, the forms and classification of land-use conflicts, the evolution of land-use conflicts and its driving mechanisms, and the reconciliation program of land-use conflicts. Finally, through reviewing and comparing Chinese and international research results, this article puts forward the future direction of China's land-use conflict research: 1) Complement and improvement of land-use conflicts theoretical system under the background of economic and social transformation. 2) Content expansion and paradigm innovation of land-use conflict research considering the global scale. 3) Spatial justice and efficiency of land-use conflict resolution in the context of rural revitalization strategy. 4) Quantitative and precision management of land-use conflicts with the support of participatory GIS. 5) Coordination and trade-off of land-use conflict resolution under the integration of national spatial planning systems. 6) Comprehensive analysis and results application of land-use conflicts from the perspective of multidisciplinary integration.

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    Spatial distribution and influencing factors of innovation platforms in urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin
    TANG Chengli, GUO Xiashuang, ZHOU Guohua, WU Jiamin, CHEN Weiyang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 531-541.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.001
    Abstract484)   HTML16)    PDF (9618KB)(89)      

    Innovation is the primary driving force behind development. As an important part of the regional innovation system and the core supporting carrier for the accumulation of innovative resources, innovation platforms are the main way to promote innovation-driven development. This study took the urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin as the research area and used the nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation, Ripley's K function, and geo-detector to explore the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of the innovation platforms above provincial level in the urban agglomerations in 2017. The results show that: 1) The overall spatial distribution of the innovation platforms in the urban agglomerations is clustered, showing a triangular distribution pattern with Wuhan, Changsha, and Nanchang as the cores. 2) Innovation platforms of various scales and functional types exhibit significant agglomeration characteristics, but there exist certain differences in agglomeration intensity and state among them. 3) The overall innovation platforms and various types of innovation platforms show scale effect, which first strengthens and then weakens with the change of geographical distance. 4) The spatial differentiation of the innovation platforms is the result of multiple factors. Strength of financial resources, degree of informationalization, level of foreign investment, and conditions of human capital are most significant, followed by traffic accessibility, urbanization level, economic base, and innovation atmosphere.

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    Poverty pattern and influencing factors in typical deep poverty-stricken counties:A case study of Hailun City in Heilongjiang Province
    DU Guoming, FENG Yue, YU Jiaxing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 69-77.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.007
    Abstract463)   HTML9)    PDF (3123KB)(60)      

    Deep poverty-stricken counties are the key areas for targeted poverty alleviation, and objective analysis of the poverty pattern and influencing factors in these areas can provide a scientific basis for developing the tactics of poverty relief. This study applied spatial analysis and mathematical statistics methods to explore the poverty pattern and influencing factors of Hailun City, Heilongjiang Province, by taking poverty villages and poverty population as the focus. The results show that: 1) As a deep poverty-stricken county, Hailun's poverty villages and poverty population are unbalanced, and their spatial patterns are related and different. 2) The poverty villages of Hailun City centralize in the terrain transition zone of 150-250 m, presenting a multi-core zonal distribution pattern. 3) The distribution pattern of poverty population in Hailun results from the joint effects of natural and human factors. Physical geographic conditions, agricultural production, rural infrastructure, and social welfare are key factors. In order to strengthen targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, it is important to strengthen agricultural infrastructure and improve the ability of resisting natural hazards and disasters; accelerate planting structure adjustment and layout optimization and improve rural industrial development level; improve social insurance level and reduce the risks of causing and returning to poverty; optimize settlement system and promote space reorganization, restructuring, and functional readjustment of various key rural factors.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Spatial pattern of China’s urban agglomerations:Theoretical background, formation mechanisms, and latest progress of research of dispersed regional concentration
    ZHENG Yanting
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 339-352.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.014
    Abstract439)   HTML6)    PDF (2208KB)(74)      

    From the spatial perspective, an urban agglomeration can be understood as the concentration of population and economic activities within a large urban region. In this urban region, the original rural areas were densely involved in industrialization and economic development. On the basis of a comprehensive review of classical theories, this article proposes to understand urban agglomeration from the unique characteristics of spatial patterns, namely, dispersed regional concentration. We believe that the dispersed regional concentration is the result of spatial choices of economic globalization and information technology revolution, and also the product of the unique policies and institutional background of China. As a unique reflection of global manufacturing platform and coordinated control center in space, this fundamental attribute makes urban agglomeration different from traditional regions and not ubiquitous in space. Its dispersive development characteristics represents the most serious resource and environmental constraints, which deserve special attention. The planning strategy based on these decentralized regional units may be easier to implement and achieve results than the current overall urban agglomeration strategy. At the same time, with the implementation of domestic consumption demand strategy and the Belt and Road initiative, the Chinese and international backgrounds of urban agglomeration development are undergoing important transformations. The spatial pattern of dispersed regional concentration does not necessarily apply to all regions of China. This fact is of great significance and must be carefully considered in future regional planning and management.

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    Progress and prospect of geopolitical risk research
    XIONG Chenran, WANG Limao, QU Qiushi, XIANG Ning, WANG Bo
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 695-706.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.016
    Abstract438)   HTML3)    PDF (3720KB)(50)      

    Geopolitical risk is one of the five categories of risk identified in the World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report, with significant effects on the global and regional peace, stability, and development. How to identify, measure, forecast, and manage the impact that geopolitical risks on human well-being are taken into consideration by researchers worldwide. Global scientific researchers have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of geopolitical risks. Geopolitical risk research has made notable progress in the fields of 1) analyzing the causal factors of geopolitical risks; 2) identifying the impact of geopolitical risks; and 3) measuring and mapping geopolitical risks. Considering the fact that challenges come from the spatiotemporal differences and variability of geopolitical risk factors, the complexity of the various risk causing factors on interaction and response mechanisms, and the unpredictability and uncertainty of geopolitical risks, geopolitical risk research has made further progress on the following frontier issues: 1) identification of geopolitical risk causing factors; 2) occurrence mechanism of geopolitical risks; and 3) monitoring and simulation of geopolitical risks. Future directions of geopolitical risk research in China include: 1) research on national geo-security with spatial differentiation, especially forthesurrounding areas of China; 2) quantitative reconstruction and numerical simulation of the geopolitical risks across multiple scales and multiple geo-factors; 3) new computation ways supporting the interaction of other scientific disciplines and the use of big data, and new platform integrating early warning of geopolitical risks; 4) focusing on scientific issues and promoting the ability of theoretical and practical research output in dealing with geopolitical issues.

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    Research progress and prospect of telecoupling of Human-Earth system
    MA Enpu, CAI Jianming, HAN Yan, LIAO Liuwen, LIN Jing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 310-326.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.012
    Abstract435)   HTML3)    PDF (3424KB)(70)      

    Achieving sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected globalized world requires cross-system thinking and more integrated regional policy. First, it requires disciplines devoted to sustainable development research to improve their insights into trans-regional resource and environmental issues. Accordingly, it is necessary to promote the adaptive innovation and transformation of the traditional research framework of geography. Telecoupling, as a theoretical framework focusing on socioeconomic and environmental interactions among coupled human and natural systems over distances, has great potential and advantages to facilitate the process of theoretical innovation. In order to narrow the gap between Chinese and international research in the field of telecoupling, we introduce the telecoupling framework and its application progress from theoretical construction, empirical evidence, key research areas, and research methods based on literature review, document analysis, and our own understanding of telecoupling, and further give some suggests. The review shows that there is a large amount of empirical evidence of telecoupling in the dimensions of teleconnection, globalization, and urbanization due to the continuous growth of long-distance human activities and their interaction with large-scale natural processes. Currently, the application of the telecoupling framework in academia mainly focuses on three aspects: ecosystem services, the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of telecoupling, and land change science. Due to the progress in operationalizing the theories, current telecoupling research has been well supported methodologically. We further argue that geographical research based on the telecoupling framework should make breakthroughs in the theoretical innovation of Human-Earth relationship network system, telecoupling mechanism, and telecoupling regulatory tool sets, so that scientific research can keep up with the latest trends and solve the emerging real world problems.

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    Change of ice phenology in the Hulun Lake from 1986 to 2017
    WU Qihui, LI Changyou, SUN Biao, SHI Xiaohong, ZHAO Shengnan, HAN Zhiming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1933-1943.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.009
    Abstract433)   HTML29)    PDF (15492KB)(314)      

    Lake ice phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change. This study examined lake ice phenology of the Hulun Lake in Inner Mongolia, China based on multi-source remote sensing imageries including MODIS, Landsat, GF-1, and HJ-1 and meteorological data. We used GIS technology to comprehensively analyze the phenological characteristics of ice in the Hulun Lake and its response to regional climate from 1986 to 2017. The results show that: 1) The average freezing time of the Hulun Lake began in late October to early November, and the average time from freezing to complete freezing was 6.4 days. The melting start was usually in early April of the following year, and the ablation period averaged about 32 days. At the beginning of early May, the lake ice completely melted. 2) From 1986 to 2017, the complete freezing period of the Hulun Lake showed a significant shortening trend, with an average shortening of 18.5 days. The complete freezing time showed some delay, with an average delay of 8.4 days. The complete ice melting time advanced, with an average advancement of 11.2 days. 3) The spatial characteristics of freezing and melting of lake ice are different. Freezing starts from the complex shoreline areas of the lake, then rapidly propagate from the east coast to the west coast, but melting starts from the northwest coast of the lake and gradually spread toward the east shore. 4) The characteristics of ice conditions in the Hulun Lake are mainly affected by regional air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, among other factors.

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    Development pattern of trade facilitation of the countries along the Belt and Road
    SONG Zhouying, YU Yang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 355-366.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.001
    Abstract425)   HTML12)    PDF (8399KB)(154)      

    Trade facilitation plays an important role in the economic cooperation of the countries along the Belt and Road. Increasing the level of trade facilitation is conducive to promote the orderly and freely flow of economic factors in the region. Based on the perspective of trade facilitation and existing literature review, this study constructed an evaluation system of trade facilitation with 29 indicators, analyzed the development trend, spatial pattern, and development mode of trade facilitation in the countries along the Belt and Road from 2013 to 2017, and put forward some policy recommendations. The results show that: 1) Since 2013, the level of trade facilitation in the countries along the Belt and Road has been slowly rising, and the six subregions ranked from high to low according to the increase in trade facilitation levels are Mongolia and Russia, Central Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, West Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. 2) Trade facilitation level of the countries along the Belt and Road showed a spatial pattern of high in the east and west and low in the center, and high in the south and low in the north. And the spatial differences gradually narrowed. 3) The change of the second-level indicators was relatively consistent with the overall trade facilitation. China ranks high among the Belt and Road countries on the second-level indicators except business environment. 4) Trade facilitation can be divided into eight modes through k-means cluster analysis. "High level comprehensive development" and "Low level comprehensive development" were the main development modes of the countries along the Belt and Road. "Lagging behind in customs clearance costs and international cooperation", "Leading in domestic trading environment" and "Leading in infrastructure construction" have become important development modes for some countries in Southeast Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia.

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    Advance of geographic sciences and new technology applications
    LIAO Xiaohan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (5): 709-715.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.05.001
    Abstract420)   HTML6)    PDF (1841KB)(65)      

    Modern technologies develop rapidly in the areas of computers, Internet, aerospace and aeronautics, automation and sensor network, environmental remediation and ecological restoration, and so on, which overlap with a large number of basic and applied basic research disciplines. With the application of new technologies, the geography, which characterizes of integrity, interdisciplinary and regionality, has been strongly promoted. The highlights include: 1) The spatial and temporal coverage of research can expand to the entire globe at near real-time, and the accessibility of data on remote and extreme geographical environments has greatly improved. 2) Multi-methods and multi-channels of data acquisition promote the explosive growth of data. The analysis of rules and patterns has been developed from relying on limited spatiotemporal information to relying on new technologies to acquire high spatiotemporal dynamic data for big data mining. 3) The research scopes expand from static knowledge acquisition and mechanism analysis to dynamic works including ecological restoration and environmental management. 4) The disciplines developed at broadened scopes, and embedded with cross-cutting new technologies that in return brought about new vitality to geography. With the help of new technologies and the injection of big data "fuel", the development of geographic sciences in the new era will play an important role by providing "complex" solutions in the process of global and regional social and economic development.

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    Regional differences and types of rural functions in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    WANG Guangyao, ZHAO Zhongqiu, ZHU Peitian, LI Yufeng, SU Zhijie, LIU Jian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1854-1864.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.003
    Abstract398)   HTML23)    PDF (7537KB)(190)      

    Making use of the advantages of different rural functions is an important way to realize rural revitalization. By constructing an index system of rural function evaluation and using GIS and the Theil index, the characteristics of production-living-ecological functions and source of regional differences in rural areas in the Yangtze River Economic Belt in 2016 were revealed. The results show that: 1) The spatial differentiation of production-living-ecological functions in rural areas of the Yangtze River Economic Belt was obvious. Midstream and downstream plain areas have a strong agricultural production function, downstream provincial capital cities and core development cities have powerful living function, and upstream and midstream mountainous and hilly areas have a strong ecological conservation function. 2) The overall regional differences in rural functions are derived from intraregional differences. The agricultural production function is significantly different within the upstream region, and the life and ecological conservation function is significantly different within the downstream region. The overall differences in rural functions in the midstream area are not significant. 3) Based on the evaluation results, the study area is divided into eight types of functional areas, namely, agricultural production area, living area, ecological conservation area, living-agricultural production area, living-ecological conservation area, agricultural production-ecological conservation area, agricultural production-living-ecological conservation development area, agricultural production-living-ecological conservation coordination area, thus providing a scientific basis for improving the spatial layout of rural functions in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

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    Research progress of the identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces
    HUANG An, XU Yueqing, LU Longhui, LIU Chao, ZHANG Yibin, HAO Jinmin, WANG hui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 503-518.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.014
    Abstract387)   HTML7)    PDF (3005KB)(83)      

    The study on identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces is to optimize the layout of future space based on identifying the structure, pattern, and problems of current spaces, which is a more comprehensive land spatial zoning approach and an urgent practical problem in national spatial planning, as well as a frontier of academic research. In this study, literature review methods, comparative analysis, and induction were performed to systematically summarize the current research situation of the concept and connotation, identification, and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces. At present, the research on the identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces has made a major breakthrough. However, the internal mechanism and concept of the formation of production-living-ecological spaces were insufficiently examined. The quantitative identification method and technical system of production-living-ecological spaces need to be improved. The dynamic change and driving mechanism, spatial conflict diagnosis, and problem analysis of production-living-ecological spaces were weakly researched. Optimization theory and technology system of production-living-ecological spaces were still in the initial stage. We propose the following future directions: Forming the concept of quality and quantity in future research; Attaching importance to lessons-learned from the existing research results of international spatial planning; With formation mechanism and concept definition, quantitative identification, mechanism of change examination, conflict diagnosis, and problem analysis and optimization control and simulation of production-living-ecological spaces as the main research lines, constructing the theory and technical system of identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to mountainous areas with horizontal and vertical features.

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    Study on the concept and analytical framework of city network resilience
    WEI Ye, XIU Chunliang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 488-502.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.013
    Abstract374)   HTML10)    PDF (1565KB)(61)      

    As a new organizational form and research paradigm of urban spatial system, city network has been widely concerned in recent years. However, most of the studies on city networks were based on a positive perspective, while the negative effects, security, and sustainable development of city networks were rarely addressed. By reviewing the literature of city network and regional resilience, this article tentatively proposed a concept and an analytical framework of city network resilience based on evolutionary resilience theory to explore the "negative problems" of city networks. In brief, city network resilience could be comprehended as the ability of city network systems to prevent, resist, respond to, and adapt to the impact of external acute shocks and chronic pressures and recover from them or switch into another development path by means of the cooperation and complementarity of social, economic, organizational, and engineering fields among cities. Based on this concept, combining evolutionary resilience and adaptive cycle theory, a city network was regarded as a complex adaptive system with dynamic changes. Based on the social network, economic network, organizational network, and infrastructure network, considering both adaptation and adaptability, a framework of urban network resilience analysis from the perspective of resilience characteristics and resilience processes was proposed. Furthermore, the analysis and optimization methods of urban network resilience were prospected, and some core issues involved were discussed. The research aimed to provide a scientific basis for regional planning, regional policy formulation, and regional organization establishment with the goal of achieving safe development, and provide valuable references for each city node to identify its role in a region and participate in regional governance.

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    Spatiotemporal relationships between urban system and water system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    ZHANG Feng, CHEN Yanguang, LIU Peng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 377-388.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.003
    Abstract374)   HTML12)    PDF (8788KB)(78)      

    With the rapid development of cities in China, urban environmental problems become increasingly more severe. Clarifying the relationships between urban development and the environment can help solve urban environmental problems. In this study, we took the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as the research area and used fractal method to describe urban system and water system in the region, then to explore the interactions between urban and water systems. The main results and conclusions are: 1) From 1990 to 2010, the fractal dimension of construction land in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased, while the fractal dimension of the water system decreased; the bi-fractal characteristic of construction land in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region decreased, while the bi-fractal characteristic of the water system increased; the spatial structure of construction land changed from concentration to dispersion from 1990 to 2015 and the water system became more concentrated. These phenomena illustrate that the spatiotemporal change of construction land and water system had opposite trends in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. 2) The fractal structure of urban centers is more complete than suburbs. 3) In the second decade of the 21st century, the human-water relationship became tenser. The South-to-North Water Transfer Project eased the severe stress of water in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which mainly improved the structure of water system at the large scale. 4) The degradation of water system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1990 to 2010 was caused by both natural and human factors. In the 21st century, the influence of human factors is more significant. According to the results and conclusions, some policy recommendations are proposed: On the one hand, more consideration should be given to the role of water in the process of urban planning, especially the protection of small-scale water sources and saving water by improving the mechanism of water resources management. On the other hand, more attention should be paid to the improvement of suburban spatial structure by avoiding unlimited urban expansion.

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    Research progress on human settlements: From traditional data to big data+
    YANG Jun, YOU Haolin, ZHANG Yuqing, JIN Cui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 166-176.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.016
    Abstract366)   HTML4)    PDF (6373KB)(71)      

    With the rapid development of urbanization, environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and research on human settlements has become a hot topic in academia. Based on the literature about human settlements in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science databases, this study analyzed the important research areas of human settlements in China and internationally with CiteSpace software, and discussed the progress of data acquisition methods, research methods and technologies, and research perspectives. The results show that: 1) The data acquisition method has changed from traditional sampling survey and official statistics acquisition to satellite remote sensing, equipment perception, thus realizing the transformation of traditional data to network big data acquisition. 2) The research methods are becoming increasingly more advanced, focusing on the combination of questionnaire survey, new geometrics models, and GIS, and introducing advanced technologies such as Internet of Things big data and artificial intelligence to make research methods more diverse and research results more accurate. 3) Social perception, rural revitalization, and mimicry of human habitat have become the research directions in recent years. In the future, the study of human settlements should make comprehensive use of the data acquired by traditional methods and modern technological means, learn and mine big data at much greater depth, and strengthen the study of rural revitalization and virtual human settlements.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Effects of weather factors on the spatial and temporal distributions of metro passenger flows: An empirical study based on smart card data
    XU Manling, FU Xiao, TANG Junyou, LIU Zhiyuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 45-55.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.005
    Abstract363)   HTML6)    PDF (7586KB)(52)      

    Urban geographic space, climate, and transportation system are interrelated, and recently available traffic and spatial big data bring new opportunities for understanding the relationship among them. Urban rail transit is an important transport mode for residents to travel green and relieve traffic congestion in big cities in China. In-depth study of factors that affect the changes in the spatial and temporal distributions of metro passenger flows is conducive to the formulation of reasonable land use and traffic demand management policies, and can also provide a theoretical basis for real-time response to the changes in travel demand under specific weather conditions and optimization of transit service operation. To study the impact of weather conditions on metro usage in densely populated areas, in this research the influence of local weather factors (including temperature, humidity, rainfall and so on) on hourly metro passenger flows was investigated based on metro smart card data and weather data from Nanjing City, China. A time series model—seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average with explanatory variables (SARIMAX)—was developed to investigate the impact of weather conditions on metro passenger flows. It is found that some weather factors such as rainfall have significant influence on metro passenger flows. Except for some special sites (large residential areas and large transportation hubs), the influence of weather factors on metro passenger flows reduces gradually from the city center to suburban areas. The effects of weather conditions on regular metro passengers and irregular metro passengers were explicitly compared in this study. Irregular metro passengers are found more vulnerable to adverse weather conditions than regular metro passengers.

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    Rebuild place: The thoughts of place in human geography and their connections with GIS
    YE Chao, TA Na
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (8): 1249-1259.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.08.001
    Abstract363)   HTML8)    PDF (718KB)(56)      

    Place is a very important geographical concept. Scholars especially geographers have conducted extensive studies on place. Focusing on the issues and theories of place, this article explores how to couple human geography with Geographic Information System (GIS), with a focus on geographic issues in large-scale urban space and small-scale communities. This is particularly critical for geographic study in China. The main title of this article, "rebuild place", has three meanings. First, it is necessary to break disciplinary boundaries in order to rediscover the new field of "place", especially based on complex and changing theories and practice of place. Second, we should strive to change the "place" in everyday life according to the new theories. Last but not least, rebuilding place in our lives or minds will be achieved by means of coupling theories and practice, thoughts and technology, as well as human geography and GIS. Through using volunteered geographic information (VGI), 3D-VQGIS, and other new GIS methods, the theories and methods on place research can be enriched with big data and other types of data. The combination of human geography and GIS not only has practical significance, but also helps developing new methodologies. Place and scale are complex in reality and in research. For instance, issues in community and in city interact and can be transformed because some micro-scale individual or community events can affect the whole city or urban culture. Interactions at city level or community level are the same to some extent but often different. In the study of China's urbanization and rural-urban relations, it is urgent to introduce, use, and recreate the theories on place with GIS and multi-scale cases. In terms of methodology, combining human geography with GIS will reshape geography. In addition to being an indispensable concept of geography, place is also closely related to everyday life. Dealing with the challenges from evolving globalization and information and communication technologies, place is changing, and the concepts on place or placelessness are also evolving correspondingly. It is significant in geographic research and practice to couple human geography with GIS and explore the way to apply the methodology to explain changing issues in the real world with different temporal, spatial, and social scales, so as to rebuild the place theoretically and practically.

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    International research on the evolution mechanisms of innovation networks
    GU Weinan, LIU Hui, WANG Liang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1977-1990.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.013
    Abstract337)   HTML14)    PDF (6024KB)(210)      

    The research of innovation networks is a hot topic in innovation geography, and the evolution mechanisms of innovation networks are one of the core issues in the research of innovation networks. Based on CiteSpace knowledge map and deep literature analysis, this article summarizes the international research on the evolution mechanisms of innovation networks. The results show that: The endogenous effects of networks, including the overall characteristics, embeddedness, externality, technology gatekeeper, and absorptive capacity of networks, mainly reflect the evolution of innovation networks in terms of the degree of dependence of organizations on local areas, the absorptive capacity of external knowledge, and the ability to control overall networks. The characteristics of network organizations, which are embodied in the scale, nature, and size of different organizations, also have effects on the evolution of innovation networks. Multidimensional proximities play an important role in the evolution of innovation networks, and the single proximity and multidimensional proximities have periodic characteristics for the evolution of innovation networks. The evolution mechanisms of innovation networks differ at various stages of development, and the combination modes among mechanisms are also different. Finally, based on the analysis of the contents and methods of international research on the evolution mechanisms of innovation networks, the shortcomings of current research and directions for future research are put forward.

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    Dynamics of manufacturing industry and change of its spatial pattern in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration
    LIU Hanchu, FAN Jie, ZHANG Haipeng, Wang Fuyuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 195-206.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.002
    Abstract334)   HTML4)    PDF (6243KB)(67)      

    The spatial restructuring of regional manufacturing industry involves the dispersion of different types of industries and change in industrial spatial structure. It is an important driving force for optimizing regional spatial organization and increasing regional competitiveness. Based on the aggregated data of manufacturing enterprises, this study used county as the basic unit of analysis to explore the spatial reconstruction features of manufacturing space in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. The result shows that, the differences in spatial agglomeration and diffusion of different types of manufacturing industries have led to further change of the "core-periphery" structure of the urban agglomeration. Core cities have become more specialized in the development of technology-intensive industries, while peripheral cities have accommodated labor-intensive industries. Resource and environmental carrying capacity has significantly affected the changes in the spatial pattern of manufacturing industry. The shortage of land resources has prompted the manufacturing industry in general and particularly labor-intensive industries to shift to areas with more abundant land resources. Environmental stress has facilitated the proliferation of labor-intensive and capital-intensive industries in places with greater environmental carrying capacity. However, the impact of resource and environmental carrying capacity on technology-intensive industries is not obvious. In addition, the impact of traffic conditions, technological levels, policies, and other factors on different types of industries is significantly different, which jointly promote the industrial transformation of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration.

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    Recent advances in remote sensing of river characteristics
    SHI Zhuolin, HUANG Chang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 670-684.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.014
    Abstract330)   HTML5)    PDF (3283KB)(29)      

    River is one of the most significant factors in driving the formation and evolution of landforms as well as one of the most important freshwater resources on the Earth. River characteristics, including water extent, water level/water depth, river discharge, water quality, and ice coverage, are vital to the dynamic monitoring of water resources and protection of eco-hydrological systems. Traditional methods of acquiring river characteristics are to use in situ data that were collected on hydrological gauges, which costs large amount of financial and material resources. It is urgent to develop a way of supplementing in situ data of rivers quickly and accurately for the increasing demand of river information. With the ability of omnidirectional and multi-temporal Earth observation, remote sensing has greatly improved the efficiency of acquiring river characteristics. It has been applied broadly in multi-scale river monitoring and hydrological simulation in ungauged basins. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize recent progresses in the field of remote sensing based river characteristics inversion, in order to further promote the application of remote sensing data and methods in this field. This article, therefore, focusing on remote sensing of river characteristics, summarizes recent progresses systematically on the extraction of water extent, inversion of water level/water depth, estimation of river discharge, and monitoring of water quality and ice coverage. Advantages and disadvantages of applying optical and microwave remote sensors for obtaining water extent and water level/depth are discussed in detail. The advanced data, specific methods, and related emerging technologies in this field are discussed and the following conclusions are made: 1) Newly available remotely sensed data have been making creative breakthroughs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and spectral resolution, which dramatically enrich data sources for river studies. 2) Most optical images still face the challenge of mixed pixels, while the application of SAR images is suffering from difficulties in developing complex processing algorithms. Meanwhile, accurate extractions of narrow and non-open waters need further research in the future. 3) The development of big data and cloud computing technologies provide excellent means for monitoring river characteristics at large spatial scales and long temporal scales, with both high spatial and high temporal resolutions.

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    Sustainable poverty reduction of China in a view of development geography
    LIU Xiaopeng, CHENG Jing, ZHAO Xiaoyong, MIAO Hong, WEI Jingyi, ZENG Duan, MA Cunxia
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (6): 892-901.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.001
    Abstract325)   HTML8)    PDF (3222KB)(58)      

    After the turn of China's poverty reduction in 2020, relative poverty will run through the whole process of modernization, and sustainable development and poverty reduction are facing great challenges. Based on the study of poverty geography in China, this article expounds the connotation, scale analysis model, objects, evaluation and monitoring, path design, and development intervention of sustainable poverty reduction from the perspective of development geography. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Sustainable poverty reduction refers to the ideological and practical paradigm of continuously reducing poverty and narrowing the development gap on the basis of establishing the development potential and motivation of households and local development. 2) The process of scale transformation reflects the spatial scale deconstruction and reconstruction of poverty reduction factors and decision-making implementation. 3) The objects of sustainable poverty reduction include absolute poverty families, relative poverty families, relative poverty villages, relative poverty townships (towns), and relative poverty counties. 4) The effect of sustainable poverty reduction and regional convergence can be analyzed using the five dimensional geographic capital indices and Euclidean spatial distance. 5) Sustainable poverty reduction requires the spatial integration of localization, regionalization, and globalization to promote the transition from traditional growth to high-quality development. 6) The development intervention of sustainable poverty reduction should highlight the local-dominant integration of endogenous and exogenous forces.

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    Population exposure to heatwaves in Shenzhen based on mobile phone location data
    XIE Cheng, HUANG Bo, LIU Xiaoqian, ZHOU Tao, WANG Yu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 231-242.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.005
    Abstract320)   HTML6)    PDF (17777KB)(44)      

    As one of the characteristic disasters of urbanization, heatwaves seriously affect the life and health of urban residents. Existing research on heatwaves mainly focuses on the spatial and temporal pattern based on static data, risk management, and vulnerability assessment, and studies on dynamic population exposure are relatively few. This study first integrated spatial and temporal distribution models of population and temperature hourly in Shenzhen to reveal the dynamic population exposure to heatwaves based on mobile phone location data. Then a set of geographically weighted regression models in different time were built based on seven types of points of interest (POIs) and population distribution to explore the influencing mechanisms of POIs on crowd behavior patterns during the heatwaves. The results show that: 1) Compared with the baseline (12:00 to 18:00 on 28 July 2018), the average radiation range of the heatwaves increases by 8.66 times on 29 July, and jumped to the peak of 18.93 times on 30 July from 26 July to 1 August 2018. The overall coverage shows that temperature in the west was higher than the east and temperature in the south was lower than the north. 2) Population distribution exhibited an obvious zonal distribution of aggregates in different time periods, and population exposure was closely related to the dynamic evolution of temperature and population. The population exposure was similar to that of heatwaves, showing 2.29 times proportional growth. The coverage included densely populated urban commercial, industrial, and residential centers such as Nanshan District, Futian District, and Luohu District. 3) The same type of POIs at different times and the different types of POIs at the same time showed obvious spatial-temporal differences as driving mechanisms and selection preferences in the interactive mobility behavior of reducing population exposure. Under the background of sustainable urbanization, this research can provide a scientific reference for the analysis of population exposure to similar urban hazards and disasters.

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    Phenological changes of desert steppe vegetation and its effect on net primary productivity in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2017
    DONG Xiaoyu, YAO Huarong, DAI Junhu, ZHU Mengyao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 24-35.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.003
    Abstract312)   HTML8)    PDF (8095KB)(98)      

    Desert steppe is distributed in the semiarid and arid areas and is extremely sensitive to climate change. However, limited field observations and lack of community surveys have resulted in insufficient research on the vegetation phenology and productivity of the desert steppe. Based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the MODIS dataset during 2000-2017, we used a relative threshold method to extract the phenological parameters in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, including the start of growing season (SOS), the end of growing season (EOS), and the length of growing season (LOS). We then estimated the spatiotemporal changes in net primary productivity (NPP) of the desert steppe vegetation by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between desert steppe productivity, phenophases, and climate variables. Our results show that: 1) during the study period, SOS advanced significantly at a rate of 0.88 d/a (P<0.05), while EOS advanced at a rate of 0.13 d/a (non-significant). The average LOS lengthened significantly by 0.76 d/a (P<0.05). The SOS was correlated negatively with mean temperature from February to April in 81.53% pixels (8.21% was significant) and negatively correlated with April precipitation in 60.80% pixels (6.12% was significant). The EOS showed a negative relationship with mean temperature in September in 65.16% pixels (5.03% was significant) but positively correlated with precipitation from July to September in 78.61% pixels (10.12% was significant). 2) The average annual NPP from 2000 to 2017 was 104.71gC/(m 2·a) in the study area, showing regional differences with an obviously decreasing trend from east to west. Net primary productivity in spring, summer, and the growing season increased insignificantly, while NPP in autumn showed an insignificant decreasing trend. The increase of precipitation in the growing season is beneficial to the accumulation of ecosystem NPP. 3) Advance of SOS was conducive to the accumulation of spring NPP, and the delay of EOS promoted the accumulation of autumn NPP. There was a significant correlation between the LOS and NPP during the growing season (P<0.05). This study revealed the impacts of climate change on vegetation phenology and productivity of the desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, which is significant for ecosystem management and ecological construction of the region.

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    A literature review of urban growth boundary: Theory, modeling, and effectiveness evaluation
    TAN Ronghui, LIU Yaolin, LIU Yanfang, HE Qingsong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 327-338.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.013
    Abstract310)   HTML8)    PDF (1571KB)(78)      

    The traditional extensive urban land use will not meet the requirements of new urbanization. As a result, controlling urban sprawl and land use optimization have become one of the key tasks of land resources management. The purpose of this study is to provide new perspectives and identify research areas for urban growth boundary study through the review and analysis of existing theoretical models, methods, and effectiveness evaluation cases. The research methods we employed are literature review and induction and deduction. The results indicate that the theoretical basis of urban growth analysis came from monocentric city model. Most studies in China mainly focused on the impact of economic factors, industrial structure, and accessibility on urban growth while public policies and services, externality, and stakeholder power struggles are also thought to have effects on urban growth. Urban growth rigid boundary design is mainly based on suitability and carrying capacity assessments, and elastic boundary is usually modeled by using cellular automata. The effectiveness of urban growth boundary on controlling urban sprawl is different in different cities in developed countries. There are few case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of urban growth boundary in China. We should adopt diversified theories to study the mechanism of urban growth. The effects of multilevel drivers on urban growth should be considered in future research. Most importantly, stakeholder power struggles should be taken into consideration in future elastic boundary modeling. In order to make urban growth boundary policies sustainable and balance regional development, legal and management systems of urban growth boundary should be designed in the future.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)