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    Market structure and competition of the three major airlines in China
    DU Delin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Yi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 367-376.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.002
    Abstract719)   HTML24)    PDF (11750KB)(243)      

    Air China, China Eastern Airlines, and China Southern Airlines are the three major state-owned airlines in China, and they have significant influences in the air transportation market. Market competition of the three airlines has always been an important research topic in economics, management, and geography. Based on the flight schedule data, this study constructed a market share index and a market overlap index and used them to examine the structure and competition of the three major airlines on the Chinese and international markets in 2005 and 2015. The results are as follow: 1) The markets of the three major airlines have expanded rapidly over the decade of 2005-2015. In China, the three airlines have added navigation airports mainly in the central and western regions, especially in Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and Guizhou Province. These provinces are the new major market competition places. Among the three major airlines, China Southern Airlines has the largest number of absolutely dominant airports and flight routes, China Eastern Airlines has the largest increase, and Air China has a relatively small market. 2) Spatially, the three major airlines show significant regional differences in the domestic key markets, and each has a great advantage in its respective hub airports. The dominant routes of the three major airlines mainly form radial networks around their hub airports. Routes concentrated in domestic air transportation are mainly represented by competition among two of the three major airlines. With increasing market competition, the market shares of the three airlines in most of the major domestic airports and routes decreased. 3) In the international market, East Asia and Southeast Asia are areas where the three major airlines have focused. Their navigation airports, flights, and competing airports are mostly located here. In particular, Japan and South Korea are the countries of most severe competition of the three major airlines. However, the competition of the three major airlines in the international flight routes is not obvious—this is because they mainly set up routes between their hub airports and international airports, and their operating bases are very different.

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    Spatio-temporal change of population distribution and its influencing factors in a poor mountainous county: A case study of Song County, Henan Province
    LUO Qing, WANG Bingbing, FAN Xinsheng, LI Xiaojiian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (7): 1073-1084.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.07.001
    Abstract637)   HTML34)    PDF (18618KB)(178)      

    The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and change of mountain populations are of great significance for coordinating human-land relationship and implementing the rural revitalization strategy in the process of urbanization. Based on the data of three agricultural censuses in Luoyang City, this study selected 318 administrative villages in Song County as the research objects, and used a GIS spatial analysis tool and geographically weighted regression to analyze the spatial pattern of population distribution and its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The population of Song County is extremely uneven in spatial distribution. The high density areas are clustered near the main traffic lines and in areas with relatively flat terrain, and over time, they changed from point to spread and strip distribution. 2) On the whole, the population growth is bounded by the high-speed Luoluan Highway, and shows a pattern of rapid growth to the northwest and slow growth to the southeast. The high-speed growth areas are mainly concentrated in the county seat and a few townships around the northwestern part of the Luoluan Highway. 3) The population growth centers are also located in the towns around the county seat and the Luhun Reservoir, and the towns in the southern mountainous areas are expected to form new population agglomeration areas. 4) The population distribution pattern of the county is the result of the interaction of natural conditions, geographical location, and public services. Among them, the accessibility time of county seat has the greatest impact on population distribution, followed by topography. The impact of arable land area and accessibility time of middle school are relatively small, but the impact of different factors has spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The above conclusions imply that mountainous counties can take into account the differences in natural conditions and resource endowments, and make use of urbanization layout, infrastructure construction, and public services adjustments to promote the optimization of population distribution.

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    Spatial distribution and influencing factors of innovation platforms in urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin
    TANG Chengli, GUO Xiashuang, ZHOU Guohua, WU Jiamin, CHEN Weiyang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 531-541.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.001
    Abstract551)   HTML20)    PDF (9618KB)(110)      

    Innovation is the primary driving force behind development. As an important part of the regional innovation system and the core supporting carrier for the accumulation of innovative resources, innovation platforms are the main way to promote innovation-driven development. This study took the urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin as the research area and used the nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation, Ripley's K function, and geo-detector to explore the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of the innovation platforms above provincial level in the urban agglomerations in 2017. The results show that: 1) The overall spatial distribution of the innovation platforms in the urban agglomerations is clustered, showing a triangular distribution pattern with Wuhan, Changsha, and Nanchang as the cores. 2) Innovation platforms of various scales and functional types exhibit significant agglomeration characteristics, but there exist certain differences in agglomeration intensity and state among them. 3) The overall innovation platforms and various types of innovation platforms show scale effect, which first strengthens and then weakens with the change of geographical distance. 4) The spatial differentiation of the innovation platforms is the result of multiple factors. Strength of financial resources, degree of informationalization, level of foreign investment, and conditions of human capital are most significant, followed by traffic accessibility, urbanization level, economic base, and innovation atmosphere.

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    Progress and prospect of geopolitical risk research
    XIONG Chenran, WANG Limao, QU Qiushi, XIANG Ning, WANG Bo
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 695-706.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.016
    Abstract525)   HTML5)    PDF (3720KB)(72)      

    Geopolitical risk is one of the five categories of risk identified in the World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report, with significant effects on the global and regional peace, stability, and development. How to identify, measure, forecast, and manage the impact that geopolitical risks on human well-being are taken into consideration by researchers worldwide. Global scientific researchers have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of geopolitical risks. Geopolitical risk research has made notable progress in the fields of 1) analyzing the causal factors of geopolitical risks; 2) identifying the impact of geopolitical risks; and 3) measuring and mapping geopolitical risks. Considering the fact that challenges come from the spatiotemporal differences and variability of geopolitical risk factors, the complexity of the various risk causing factors on interaction and response mechanisms, and the unpredictability and uncertainty of geopolitical risks, geopolitical risk research has made further progress on the following frontier issues: 1) identification of geopolitical risk causing factors; 2) occurrence mechanism of geopolitical risks; and 3) monitoring and simulation of geopolitical risks. Future directions of geopolitical risk research in China include: 1) research on national geo-security with spatial differentiation, especially forthesurrounding areas of China; 2) quantitative reconstruction and numerical simulation of the geopolitical risks across multiple scales and multiple geo-factors; 3) new computation ways supporting the interaction of other scientific disciplines and the use of big data, and new platform integrating early warning of geopolitical risks; 4) focusing on scientific issues and promoting the ability of theoretical and practical research output in dealing with geopolitical issues.

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    Rebuild place: The thoughts of place in human geography and their connections with GIS
    YE Chao, TA Na
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (8): 1249-1259.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.08.001
    Abstract497)   HTML16)    PDF (718KB)(133)      

    Place is a very important geographical concept. Scholars especially geographers have conducted extensive studies on place. Focusing on the issues and theories of place, this article explores how to couple human geography with Geographic Information System (GIS), with a focus on geographic issues in large-scale urban space and small-scale communities. This is particularly critical for geographic study in China. The main title of this article, "rebuild place", has three meanings. First, it is necessary to break disciplinary boundaries in order to rediscover the new field of "place", especially based on complex and changing theories and practice of place. Second, we should strive to change the "place" in everyday life according to the new theories. Last but not least, rebuilding place in our lives or minds will be achieved by means of coupling theories and practice, thoughts and technology, as well as human geography and GIS. Through using volunteered geographic information (VGI), 3D-VQGIS, and other new GIS methods, the theories and methods on place research can be enriched with big data and other types of data. The combination of human geography and GIS not only has practical significance, but also helps developing new methodologies. Place and scale are complex in reality and in research. For instance, issues in community and in city interact and can be transformed because some micro-scale individual or community events can affect the whole city or urban culture. Interactions at city level or community level are the same to some extent but often different. In the study of China's urbanization and rural-urban relations, it is urgent to introduce, use, and recreate the theories on place with GIS and multi-scale cases. In terms of methodology, combining human geography with GIS will reshape geography. In addition to being an indispensable concept of geography, place is also closely related to everyday life. Dealing with the challenges from evolving globalization and information and communication technologies, place is changing, and the concepts on place or placelessness are also evolving correspondingly. It is significant in geographic research and practice to couple human geography with GIS and explore the way to apply the methodology to explain changing issues in the real world with different temporal, spatial, and social scales, so as to rebuild the place theoretically and practically.

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    Development pattern of trade facilitation of the countries along the Belt and Road
    SONG Zhouying, YU Yang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 355-366.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.001
    Abstract483)   HTML12)    PDF (8399KB)(170)      

    Trade facilitation plays an important role in the economic cooperation of the countries along the Belt and Road. Increasing the level of trade facilitation is conducive to promote the orderly and freely flow of economic factors in the region. Based on the perspective of trade facilitation and existing literature review, this study constructed an evaluation system of trade facilitation with 29 indicators, analyzed the development trend, spatial pattern, and development mode of trade facilitation in the countries along the Belt and Road from 2013 to 2017, and put forward some policy recommendations. The results show that: 1) Since 2013, the level of trade facilitation in the countries along the Belt and Road has been slowly rising, and the six subregions ranked from high to low according to the increase in trade facilitation levels are Mongolia and Russia, Central Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, West Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. 2) Trade facilitation level of the countries along the Belt and Road showed a spatial pattern of high in the east and west and low in the center, and high in the south and low in the north. And the spatial differences gradually narrowed. 3) The change of the second-level indicators was relatively consistent with the overall trade facilitation. China ranks high among the Belt and Road countries on the second-level indicators except business environment. 4) Trade facilitation can be divided into eight modes through k-means cluster analysis. "High level comprehensive development" and "Low level comprehensive development" were the main development modes of the countries along the Belt and Road. "Lagging behind in customs clearance costs and international cooperation", "Leading in domestic trading environment" and "Leading in infrastructure construction" have become important development modes for some countries in Southeast Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia.

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    Study on the concept and analytical framework of city network resilience
    WEI Ye, XIU Chunliang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 488-502.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.013
    Abstract477)   HTML11)    PDF (1565KB)(94)      

    As a new organizational form and research paradigm of urban spatial system, city network has been widely concerned in recent years. However, most of the studies on city networks were based on a positive perspective, while the negative effects, security, and sustainable development of city networks were rarely addressed. By reviewing the literature of city network and regional resilience, this article tentatively proposed a concept and an analytical framework of city network resilience based on evolutionary resilience theory to explore the "negative problems" of city networks. In brief, city network resilience could be comprehended as the ability of city network systems to prevent, resist, respond to, and adapt to the impact of external acute shocks and chronic pressures and recover from them or switch into another development path by means of the cooperation and complementarity of social, economic, organizational, and engineering fields among cities. Based on this concept, combining evolutionary resilience and adaptive cycle theory, a city network was regarded as a complex adaptive system with dynamic changes. Based on the social network, economic network, organizational network, and infrastructure network, considering both adaptation and adaptability, a framework of urban network resilience analysis from the perspective of resilience characteristics and resilience processes was proposed. Furthermore, the analysis and optimization methods of urban network resilience were prospected, and some core issues involved were discussed. The research aimed to provide a scientific basis for regional planning, regional policy formulation, and regional organization establishment with the goal of achieving safe development, and provide valuable references for each city node to identify its role in a region and participate in regional governance.

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    Advance of geographic sciences and new technology applications
    LIAO Xiaohan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (5): 709-715.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.05.001
    Abstract469)   HTML10)    PDF (1841KB)(96)      

    Modern technologies develop rapidly in the areas of computers, Internet, aerospace and aeronautics, automation and sensor network, environmental remediation and ecological restoration, and so on, which overlap with a large number of basic and applied basic research disciplines. With the application of new technologies, the geography, which characterizes of integrity, interdisciplinary and regionality, has been strongly promoted. The highlights include: 1) The spatial and temporal coverage of research can expand to the entire globe at near real-time, and the accessibility of data on remote and extreme geographical environments has greatly improved. 2) Multi-methods and multi-channels of data acquisition promote the explosive growth of data. The analysis of rules and patterns has been developed from relying on limited spatiotemporal information to relying on new technologies to acquire high spatiotemporal dynamic data for big data mining. 3) The research scopes expand from static knowledge acquisition and mechanism analysis to dynamic works including ecological restoration and environmental management. 4) The disciplines developed at broadened scopes, and embedded with cross-cutting new technologies that in return brought about new vitality to geography. With the help of new technologies and the injection of big data "fuel", the development of geographic sciences in the new era will play an important role by providing "complex" solutions in the process of global and regional social and economic development.

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    Research progress of the identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces
    HUANG An, XU Yueqing, LU Longhui, LIU Chao, ZHANG Yibin, HAO Jinmin, WANG hui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 503-518.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.014
    Abstract457)   HTML9)    PDF (3005KB)(117)      

    The study on identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces is to optimize the layout of future space based on identifying the structure, pattern, and problems of current spaces, which is a more comprehensive land spatial zoning approach and an urgent practical problem in national spatial planning, as well as a frontier of academic research. In this study, literature review methods, comparative analysis, and induction were performed to systematically summarize the current research situation of the concept and connotation, identification, and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces. At present, the research on the identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces has made a major breakthrough. However, the internal mechanism and concept of the formation of production-living-ecological spaces were insufficiently examined. The quantitative identification method and technical system of production-living-ecological spaces need to be improved. The dynamic change and driving mechanism, spatial conflict diagnosis, and problem analysis of production-living-ecological spaces were weakly researched. Optimization theory and technology system of production-living-ecological spaces were still in the initial stage. We propose the following future directions: Forming the concept of quality and quantity in future research; Attaching importance to lessons-learned from the existing research results of international spatial planning; With formation mechanism and concept definition, quantitative identification, mechanism of change examination, conflict diagnosis, and problem analysis and optimization control and simulation of production-living-ecological spaces as the main research lines, constructing the theory and technical system of identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to mountainous areas with horizontal and vertical features.

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    Recent advances in remote sensing of river characteristics
    SHI Zhuolin, HUANG Chang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 670-684.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.014
    Abstract426)   HTML5)    PDF (3283KB)(38)      

    River is one of the most significant factors in driving the formation and evolution of landforms as well as one of the most important freshwater resources on the Earth. River characteristics, including water extent, water level/water depth, river discharge, water quality, and ice coverage, are vital to the dynamic monitoring of water resources and protection of eco-hydrological systems. Traditional methods of acquiring river characteristics are to use in situ data that were collected on hydrological gauges, which costs large amount of financial and material resources. It is urgent to develop a way of supplementing in situ data of rivers quickly and accurately for the increasing demand of river information. With the ability of omnidirectional and multi-temporal Earth observation, remote sensing has greatly improved the efficiency of acquiring river characteristics. It has been applied broadly in multi-scale river monitoring and hydrological simulation in ungauged basins. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize recent progresses in the field of remote sensing based river characteristics inversion, in order to further promote the application of remote sensing data and methods in this field. This article, therefore, focusing on remote sensing of river characteristics, summarizes recent progresses systematically on the extraction of water extent, inversion of water level/water depth, estimation of river discharge, and monitoring of water quality and ice coverage. Advantages and disadvantages of applying optical and microwave remote sensors for obtaining water extent and water level/depth are discussed in detail. The advanced data, specific methods, and related emerging technologies in this field are discussed and the following conclusions are made: 1) Newly available remotely sensed data have been making creative breakthroughs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and spectral resolution, which dramatically enrich data sources for river studies. 2) Most optical images still face the challenge of mixed pixels, while the application of SAR images is suffering from difficulties in developing complex processing algorithms. Meanwhile, accurate extractions of narrow and non-open waters need further research in the future. 3) The development of big data and cloud computing technologies provide excellent means for monitoring river characteristics at large spatial scales and long temporal scales, with both high spatial and high temporal resolutions.

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    Climate change assessments for the main economic zones of China during recent decades
    ZHANG Xuezhen, ZHENG Jingyun, HAO Zhixin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1609-1618.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.001
    Abstract406)   HTML11)    PDF (2313KB)(54)      

    On the basis of the Third National Report on Climate Change of China and using the latest scientific literature on climate change of China since 2012 and China climate bulletins, this study assessed the climate changes of four national-level economic zones of China—the Bohai Economic Rim (BER), the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), the South China Economic Zone (SCEZ), and the Northeast China Economic Zone (NEEZ)—during recent decades. The main conclusions are: 1) Annual temperature increased at a rate of 0.35 ℃/10 a, 0.20 ℃/10 a, 0.20 ℃/10 a, and 0.33 ℃/10 a for the BER, YREB, SCEZ, and NEEZ, respectively, over the period 1961 to 2018. Although there was a climate warming slowdown in these regions during 1998-2014, the annual temperature after 2014 broke the warmest records for the BER, YREB, and SCEZ. 2) Precipitation changes over the period 1961 to 2018 were lower than 1 mm/10 a for each region, but there were significant inter-annual and inter-decadal oscillations. Precipitation during 2012-2018 were mostly more than normal, but with large spatiotemporal variability. The precipitation of NEEZ in 2013 and precipitation of YREB in 2016 respectively reached the highest values since 1961, but precipitation of Liaoning Province in 2014 reached the lowest since 1961. 3) During 2014-2018, there were more frequent extreme heat events in each region, whose maximum temperature broke historical heat extremes or exceeded the extreme high temperature threshold, that is, the 9th decile. Meanwhile, there were increases in the frequency of inter-seasonal droughts and extreme rainstorms in the BER and NEEZ; and there were more rainstorm days in the YREB and more severe impacts of typhoons in the SCEZ. There were also extensive extreme low temperature events in the context of climate warming in the YREB and NEEZ.

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    Spatiotemporal relationships between urban system and water system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    ZHANG Feng, CHEN Yanguang, LIU Peng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 377-388.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.003
    Abstract402)   HTML12)    PDF (8788KB)(102)      

    With the rapid development of cities in China, urban environmental problems become increasingly more severe. Clarifying the relationships between urban development and the environment can help solve urban environmental problems. In this study, we took the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as the research area and used fractal method to describe urban system and water system in the region, then to explore the interactions between urban and water systems. The main results and conclusions are: 1) From 1990 to 2010, the fractal dimension of construction land in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased, while the fractal dimension of the water system decreased; the bi-fractal characteristic of construction land in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region decreased, while the bi-fractal characteristic of the water system increased; the spatial structure of construction land changed from concentration to dispersion from 1990 to 2015 and the water system became more concentrated. These phenomena illustrate that the spatiotemporal change of construction land and water system had opposite trends in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. 2) The fractal structure of urban centers is more complete than suburbs. 3) In the second decade of the 21st century, the human-water relationship became tenser. The South-to-North Water Transfer Project eased the severe stress of water in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which mainly improved the structure of water system at the large scale. 4) The degradation of water system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1990 to 2010 was caused by both natural and human factors. In the 21st century, the influence of human factors is more significant. According to the results and conclusions, some policy recommendations are proposed: On the one hand, more consideration should be given to the role of water in the process of urban planning, especially the protection of small-scale water sources and saving water by improving the mechanism of water resources management. On the other hand, more attention should be paid to the improvement of suburban spatial structure by avoiding unlimited urban expansion.

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    Sustainable poverty reduction of China in a view of development geography
    LIU Xiaopeng, CHENG Jing, ZHAO Xiaoyong, MIAO Hong, WEI Jingyi, ZENG Duan, MA Cunxia
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (6): 892-901.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.001
    Abstract375)   HTML10)    PDF (3222KB)(79)      

    After the turn of China's poverty reduction in 2020, relative poverty will run through the whole process of modernization, and sustainable development and poverty reduction are facing great challenges. Based on the study of poverty geography in China, this article expounds the connotation, scale analysis model, objects, evaluation and monitoring, path design, and development intervention of sustainable poverty reduction from the perspective of development geography. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Sustainable poverty reduction refers to the ideological and practical paradigm of continuously reducing poverty and narrowing the development gap on the basis of establishing the development potential and motivation of households and local development. 2) The process of scale transformation reflects the spatial scale deconstruction and reconstruction of poverty reduction factors and decision-making implementation. 3) The objects of sustainable poverty reduction include absolute poverty families, relative poverty families, relative poverty villages, relative poverty townships (towns), and relative poverty counties. 4) The effect of sustainable poverty reduction and regional convergence can be analyzed using the five dimensional geographic capital indices and Euclidean spatial distance. 5) Sustainable poverty reduction requires the spatial integration of localization, regionalization, and globalization to promote the transition from traditional growth to high-quality development. 6) The development intervention of sustainable poverty reduction should highlight the local-dominant integration of endogenous and exogenous forces.

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    Monitoring land-use change in Hetian Tarim Basin, China using satellite remote sensing observation between 1990 and 2016
    HU Xu, NIE Yong, XU Xia, JIANG Sheng, ZHANG Yili
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 577-590.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.005
    Abstract371)   HTML10)    PDF (24286KB)(80)      

    Rapid land use changes in the arid area of western China make the region a hotspot of global land use change research. In this study, land use inventories in the Hetian Tarim Basin in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2016 were completed by using stratified and object-oriented image processing method based on Landsat images with a consistent spatial resolution of 30 m to reveal the characteristics of land-use change, patterns and trend, and spatial heterogeneity. The results show that from 1990 to 2016: 1) Cropland continuously expanded with an increase rate of 2.9%/a, with gradual expansion and sudden reclamation. 2) The area of construction land increased significantly at a rate of 12.1%/a, which can be mainly attributed to the increase in area of urbanization, rural residential land, and transportation land. 3) The increase in cropland and construction land resulted in the decrease of forests, shrubs, and grasslands. 4) Spatial heterogeneity in land use developments among counties of Hetian Prefecture are significant: Hetian City had the highest percentage of construction lands; Hetian County and Moyu County experienced the greatest expansion in total area and rates of change in both cropland and construction land, followed by Luopu County, Yutian County, Pishan County, Cele County, and Minfeng County with relatively slow development in cropland and construction land. The increase rates of cropland and construction land in Hetian Tarim Basin are above average in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Attention should be focused on the impact of the rapid land-use changes on eco-environmental issues in the near future.

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    Research progress on design hyetographs in small and medium-scale basins
    YAN Zhengxiao, XIA Jun, SONG Jinxi, ZHAO Lingling, PANG Guowei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (7): 1224-1235.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.07.014
    Abstract363)   HTML0)    PDF (2299KB)(44)      

    Designing hyetographs is the basis of deducing design flood for small and medium-sized watersheds lacking flow data. It has a significant impact on construction standards of water conservancy facilities and municipal engineering design. Therefore, a large number of studies on design hyetograph has been carried out in China and internationally. In recent years, due to the impact of climate and environmental changes, great floods occur frequently. Mountain floods and waterlogging in urban areas pose a threat to the property and personal safety of mountain people and urban residents, and have caused many disasters. Therefore, higher requirements are put forward for the design of hyetographs. This article systematically summarized the principles and methods for selecting typical hyetographs and the classification of hyetographs, and reviewed the methods of deducing hyetographs in China and abroad, including the Chicago Hyetographs, the Huff Hyetographs, the Triangle Rainfall Hyetographs, and the Pilgrim & Cordery (P&C) Hyetographs—our short-duration design hyetographs in total, as well as the long-duration Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Hyetographs and the same-frequency method. Finally, the problems in designing hyetographs in small and medium-sized watersheds and the prospects for future research are put forward.

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    Optimization of rural settlements and the governance of rural relative poverty
    ZHOU Guohua, ZHANG Rujiao, HE Yanhua, DAI Liuyan, ZHANG Li
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (6): 902-912.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.002
    Abstract358)   HTML2)    PDF (1426KB)(48)      

    After 2020, China's anti-poverty program will move into a new stage of relative poverty governance. The inadequate development and multidimensional deprivation of functions such as housing, employment, education, medical care, sanitation, culture, and disaster prevention and reduction in rural settlements are important manifestations and causes of rural relative poverty. The governance of rural relative poverty must start from the overall optimization of rural settlements. In this study, on the basis of reviewing the relative poverty concept and by focusing on the internal connection of rural settlements and relative poverty governance, we analyzed the relationship between rural settlements and the occurrence of rural relative poverty, the optimization of rural settlements, and the establishment of a long-term mechanism of relative poverty governance; and proposed the optimization strategy of rural settlements based on relative poverty governance, in order to provide a theoretical basis for relative poverty governance and rural revitalization after 2020. The results show that: 1) The formation of rural relative poverty is closely related to the factors and functions of settlements, and is different spatially due to the differences in location, layout, scale, and form of rural settlements. 2) Rural settlements are the spatial basis for the establishment of a long-term mechanism to alleviate rural relative poverty; the establishment of the long-term governance mechanism of rural relative poverty should give full play to the functions of supporting factors and spatial carriers of rural settlements. 3) The optimization strategy of rural settlements based on relative poverty governance includes six aspects: revitalizing village industry, optimizing village spatial organization, strengthening village cultural identity, establishing green ecological villages, promoting multifunctional collaborative transformation of villages, and adopting targeted strategies.

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    Historical development and prospect of rural living space research in China
    GAO Li, LI Hongbo, ZHANG Xiaolin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 660-669.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.013
    Abstract342)   HTML3)    PDF (746KB)(57)      

    Rural living space is the microcosm of rural development, which reflects the human-environment relationship in rural areas. With the implementation of the Urban-Rural Integration Strategy and the Rural Revitalization Strategy, coupled with the development of the new-type urbanization and globalization, rural space, including rural living space, has been restructured as a whole, and the countryside has entered a new period of development. In this process, how rural living space map and influence rural development is a topic worthy of discussion from multiple perspectives. Based on the review of literature, this article holds that the rural living space is the space of the daily life behavior of rural residents, a multi-level territorial complex of rural residents' living, leisure, socializing, consumption, and public service activities, and an important part of rural social space. The study of rural living space in Chinese academia started in the 1920s. According to the characteristics of different stages of economic and social development of China, this study divided the research of rural living space into four periods: the exploration period before the founding of the People's Republic of China; the stagnation period before the Reform and Opening-up; the revival period after the Reform and Opening-up; and the rapid development period since the 21st century. However, compared with international rural living space research and Chinese urban living space research, the study of rural life in China tends to be empirical, lacking comprehensive deep examination and theoretical model construction. In the new era of development, the study of rural living space in China should construct a complete research framework and carry out multi-level and all dimensional exploration on basic theories, research subjects, and diverse research perspectives.

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    Theoretical foundation and framework for understanding urban centers
    YAN Longxu, WANG De, ZHANG Shangwu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (9): 1576-1586.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.09.014
    Abstract341)   HTML4)    PDF (2209KB)(51)      

    Under the "economic space" perspective, theories and empirical studies regarding urban centers system have developed in isolation from each other. This study aimed at filling this gap with a synthesized theoretical framework. Based on a general survey of theoretical models, we argued that the formation and development of urban centers system are mainly determined by two mechanisms—spatial competition and spatial connection, generating the spatial organization of local and non-local services respectively. Then we characterized the urban centers as a "semi-lattice" system that any center in a tree-structure of local service centers could be linked to higher-level centers or even global cities by non-local functions such as those derived from the space of flow. After an in-depth discussion of this framework, we proposed several research implications regarding empirical studies. We argued that empirical identification of urban centers should be consistent with theoretical concepts; reflection from empirical studies should be further linked to the refinement of the framework; and the potential of planning intervention on centers and their spatial effects is the premise of spatial policies.

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    Measurement and mechanism analysis of relative poverty of farming households in the post-2020 period:A case study of Changshou District, Chongqing Municipality
    LIU Yuanli, LIAO Heping, LI Jing, LI Tao, CAI Jin, HE Tian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (6): 960-971.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.007
    Abstract340)   HTML4)    PDF (4833KB)(57)      

    Absolute poverty will be completely eliminated in China in 2020. However, due to the imbalance between urban and rural development, the differentiation of basic public services between urban and rural areas, and the lack of robust internal motivations in some special groups of people, relative poverty will become a long-lasting problem and a key factor hindering social and economic progress and social stability. Therefore, the study of China's relative poverty will provide a theoretical reference for the establishment of a long-term mechanism to solve the problem of relative poverty in rural China in the post-2020 period. Taking farming households as the research object and 2018 as the time frame of the research, this study systematically analyzed the connotation and characteristics of relative poverty in the post-2020 period and built a measurement and evaluation index system for relative poverty. It also defined the relative poverty line based on a multidimensional perspective and conducted an empirical analysis with Changshou District of Chongqing Municipality as an example. The research generated the following results: 1) The relative poverty index is a useful measure that defines the relative poverty line from a multidimensional perspective of materials, development, ability, and social security. The empirical analysis demonstrates that the relative poverty index is more in line with the actual situation than the single income method in defining the relative poverty line and it can fully meet the needs of reflecting or quantifying actual living conditions of people. 2) Because of the weak support from industry, less opportunities to participate in the cooperative development and skill training of labors, lower level of education, and the fact that more than a third of the relatively poor households are elderly, disabled and seriously ill persons, the relative poverty population are less likely to improve their quality of life, strengthen their capacities, and have access to development. 3) Poverty alleviation policies, economic foundations, social security, and personal conditions are important factors affecting relative poverty. Among them, regional policies are the external causes of relative poverty, economic factors are the key to stimulate the formation of relative poverty, social factors are the basic impetus to prevent the formation of relative poverty, and personal factors are the internal cause of relative poverty.

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    Re-examination of urbanization paths and mechanism in population outflow areas: A case study of counties in Sichuan Province
    XIAO Lei, PAN Jie
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 402-409.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.005
    Abstract337)   HTML13)    PDF (2128KB)(82)      

    Taking the county unit of Sichuan Province as the research object, the characteristics and mechanism of urbanization in population outflow areas are discussed. The study found that: different from the experience of coastal cities, urbanization of counties in Sichuan Province is dominated by living-oriented type, and the main driving forces for the urbanization of rural population are consumption and education demands. The main body of the newly urbanized population is the left-behind population after considerable labor losses, and their financial resource of living in cities depends to a large extent on the remittance sent back by migrant workers. Industry shows weak support to urbanization, forming a special mode of urbanization, that is, remote industrialization driven local urbanization, which leads to many unique phenomena. For example, the more population outflow, the faster urbanization speed; counties continued to grow and flourish without manufacturing development; and the urbanization speed of counties is faster than that of city. Based on these new findings, this article discussed the relevant understanding of urbanization mechanism and the prospect of long-term trend and potential problems of urbanization development in such areas.

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    Livelihood sustainability and livelihood intervention of out-of-poverty farming households in poor mountainous areas: A case of Longnan mountainous area
    ZHAO Xueyan, LIU Jianghua, WANG Weijun, LAN Haixia, MA Pingyi, DU Yuxuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (6): 982-995.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.009
    Abstract335)   HTML4)    PDF (7548KB)(33)      

    Enhancing the livelihood sustainability of out-of-poverty farming households in poor mountainous areas is not only the realistic demand for rural poverty alleviation in the new era, but also the urgent demand of rural revitalization. Taking into consideration livelihood capital, livelihood strategy and livelihood environment, this study established a livelihood sustainability evaluation index system of out-of-poverty farming households, and used the household survey data of the out-of-poverty households in the Longnan mountainous area to evaluate their livelihood sustainability and identify livelihood barriers. The results show that: 1) From river valley, the middle mountain to the high mountain area, and with the passage of time since a household was out of poverty, livelihood sustainability of the out-of-poverty households decreased in turn, and the livelihood sustainability of work-oriented type and agriculture-industry complementary type are higher than other farmers. 2) The proportion of farmers whose livelihood is unsustainable in Longnan mountain area is 28.83%, and the proportion of farming households with unsustainable livelihoods is higher in high-mountain area, traditional farming type, and late out-of-poverty households, while the proportion of farmers who have unsustainable livelihoods is lower in river valleys, agriculture-industry complementary type, work-oriented type, and early out-of-poverty households. 3) Out-of-poverty households with unsustainable livelihoods are all faced with multiple livelihood barriers, and nearly two-thirds of them are faced with multidimensional capital environment barriers and multi-factor barriers. 4) In view of the multiple livelihood barriers faced by the out-of-poverty households with unsustainable livelihoods, targeted multidimensional livelihood intervention should be implemented for different categories of households.

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    Characteristics of main flood event types and their temporal-spatial variations in the upper and middle reaches of the Huai River Basin
    ZHANG Yongyong, CHEN Qiutan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 627-635.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.009
    Abstract329)   HTML10)    PDF (7652KB)(60)      

    Flood similarity identification has important practical significance for floodwater utilization, flood control of reservoirs, and river ecological restoration. In this study, the observations of 125 flood events at the 16 hydrological stations in the middle and upper reaches of the Huai River Basin from 2006 to 2015 were collected, and the metrics of flood magnitude, timing, and rate of changes and patterns were adopted to characterize the entire flood events. Multivariate statistical analysis—principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering method—were adopted to identify the representative flood event types. Finally the temporal and spatial distributions of each flood event type were identified. The results show that: 1) there are five types of representative flood events in the upper and middle reaches of the Huai River Basin, including long duration and extreme variability type, multiple peaks and long duration type, thin and short duration type, fat and short duration type, and conventional type. 2) From the perspective of temporal distribution, the number of flood event types showed a decreasing trend during 2006-2015, and the proportion of conventional floods gradually increased. More flood event types were found in the high flow years ( e.g. 2007) and normal flow years ( e.g. 2006), and fewer types were in the low flow years (2011-2013) with high frequency of conventional and fat and short duration flood event types. 3) From the perspective of spatial distribution, many flood event types appeared at the source regions, and the flood event types at the middle reaches and downstream regions were relatively few. The flood event type of thin and short duration gradually changed to fat and short duration due to the increased water source conservation capacity, reservoirs' storage capacity, and precipitation diversity in the basin. The study provides some reference for flood information mining and characteristics analysis at the basin scale, and provides scientific foundations for decision makers in flood event analysis, reservoir flood control, and floodwater utilization in the Huai River Basin.

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    Progress and prospect of research on spatial reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas of China
    FENG Yingbin, LONG Hualou
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (5): 866-879.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.05.014
    Abstract327)   HTML6)    PDF (2573KB)(54)      

    China has large mountain areas with low level of economic and social development. Promoting the sustainable development of mountain areas is the key to the process of modernization in China. As the core spatial unit of the regional system of human-land relationship, rural settlements in mountainous areas are the research focus and hotspot of rural geography in China. Based on the method of literature backtracking and review, this article systematically analyzed the general situation of mountain development and the influencing factors, characteristics of change, and driving mechanisms of rural settlements spatial distribution, and clarified the conceptual connotation and strategies and methods of rural settlements spatial reconstruction. Also, the main models and optimization strategies of spatial reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas of China were summarized. This study considered that the spatial reconstruction of rural settlements has many typical characteristics, such as multiple subjects, multiple objectives, and diverse models, which is a dynamic and complex spatial optimization and reorganization process. In the new era of development in China, research on the reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas should focus on the following five aspects: 1) The mechanism and model of rural settlements spatial reconstruction under the background of rural revitalization in mountainous areas. 2) The mechanism of impact of land use transformation on the spatial reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas. 3) The impact of rural housing land system reform on the spatial reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas. 4) The interactive relationship between the development of emerging industries and the spatial reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas. 5) The innovation of research methods on spatial reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas in the era of big data. Through the empirical analysis of the background, economic and social driving factors, mechanism, and research methods of spatial reconstruction of rural settlementsin mountainous areas, this study enriches and improves the theory of spatial reconstruction of rural settlements in mountainous areas, with a view to promoting sustainable development in mountainous areas and promoting the process of modernization.

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    Multi-objective development evaluation of poverty-stricken households based on G-TOPSIS model: A case study from Fugong County, Yunnan Province
    QI Wenping, WANG Yanhui, WAN Yuan, HUANG Tao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (6): 1024-1036.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.012
    Abstract315)   HTML4)    PDF (3142KB)(25)      

    Establishing a multi-objective development evaluation system for poverty-stricken households to realize the accurate identification and dynamic monitoring of relative poverty under different development goals has become an urgent need of poverty alleviation and development in the new stage of rural poverty alleviation. Taking into consideration the strategies of targeted poverty alleviation, rural revitalization, and sustainable development, this study designed a "goal fulfillment degree" Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (G-TOPSIS) multi-objective development evaluation model that reveals the development level and development gap of poverty-stricken households under the short-, medium-, and long-term goals, and detected the influencing factors of poverty reduction of farming households at different development levels based on geographical detector. Taking Fugong County, Yunnan Province as the study area, the results show that: 1) At present, there is a large number of farming households in the study area that are still in absolute poverty, and there is still a great pressure to tackle the poverty problem. Therefore, comprehensive poverty alleviation is the most urgent development goal of Fugong County. Farming households that are out of absolute poverty are still in relative poverty and have high poverty vulnerability. They are still far from the average development level of rural residents nation-wide and in the province. Therefore, the task of preventing and alleviating relative poverty in Fugong County is arduous. 2) Under the short-term goal, the main factors contributing to poverty are the number of years of education for the labor force, sanitary toilets, safe housing, per capita net income of the family, and family health; under the medium- and long-term goals, compared with the national and provincial levels, the main development weaknesses are per capita net income of the family, education for the labor force, and safe housing. 3) Affected by infrastructure, terrain, economic geographical location, natural resources, and traffic location, the spatial distribution characteristics of poor farming households at different development levels are very different. The lower the development level of farming households, the stronger the spatial heterogeneity, and the greater the impact of geographical environment. The research results can provide efficient technical decision-making support for the implementation of national precision poverty reduction strategies, rural revitalization strategies, and sustainable development strategies.

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    Daily runoff predication using LSTM at the Ankang Station, Hanjing River
    HU Qingfang, CAO Shiyi, YANG Huibin, WANG Yintang, LI Linjie, WANG Lihui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 636-642.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.010
    Abstract315)   HTML2)    PDF (3077KB)(29)      

    Based on the hydrological data from 2003 to 2014, Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) was used to construct a daily runoff prediction model for the Ankang discharge station in the upper reaches of the Hanjiang River. The accuracy of daily runoff prediction was evaluated under different input conditions. The result shows that when the foreseeing period is one day, the efficiency coefficient of the LSTM in the calibration period and the validation period can reach 0.68 and 0.74 respectively under the condition that only the previous daily runoff of the Ankang Station is used as input. When the previous areal rainfall of the catchment and the previous daily runoff of the upstream Shiquan Station were added to the LSTM model as input variables, the daily runoff prediction precision was improved. The efficiency coefficient of the training period and the validation period could reach 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. The root mean square error was also significantly reduced. The accuracy of the main flood peak flow forecasting also increased. The LSTM can effectively avoid the problem of over-fitting, and has better generalization performance. However, when the foreseeable period is extended from one day to two or three days, the performance of LSTM is significantly reduced.

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    Spatiotemporal changes of droughts and heatwaves on the Loess Plateau during 1960-2016
    SUN Yijie, LIU Xianfeng, REN Zhiyuan, DUAN Yifang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 591-601.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.006
    Abstract315)   HTML6)    PDF (11035KB)(76)      

    Based on daily maximum temperature and monthly precipitation data of 49 meteorological stations on the Loess Plateau during 1960-2016 and using the 90th percentile of the temperature as extreme temperature thresholds and standardized precipitation index (SPI), this study examined the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of heatwaves and droughts and the dynamics of concurrent droughts and heatwaves across the Loess Plateau. The results show that: 1) The occurrence frequency of heatwaves presented an increasing trend on the Loess Plateau during the recent 57 years with a liner tendency of 0.29 times/a, of which a significant increasing trend was detected after 1995. The significantly increasing areas were mainly distributed in the northeast of Shanxi Province, eastern Qinghai Province, and southern and central Gansu Province. 2) Standardized precipitation index (SPI) showed a downward trend in the recent 57 years, indicating a trend from water-logging to drought, and the early 1990s was a turning point. Particularly, areas with the declining trend of SPI12 accounted for 62% of the whole study area, and regions with significant drought were mainly distributed in the south of the gully areas of the Loess Plateau, the southern part of Northern Shaanxi, the south of Shanxi Province, and the east of Gansu Province. 3) The simultaneous occurrence frequency of droughts and heatwaves showed an overall increasing trend, with a growth rate of 0.66 times/10 a. From 1960 to 1979 it showed a declining trend of -0.26 times/a, then an increasing trend of 0.52 times/a from 1980 to 2002, while a steady increasing trend was detected after 2003. Spatially, the high incidence of droughts and heatwaves was observed in the eastern of Shanxi, the south of Northern Shaanxi, and the southwest of Gansu; areas with increasing trend were mainly concentrated in the northeast of Shanxi, central and eastern Gansu, and northern Ningxia.

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    Research progress on urban heat wave vulnerability assessment: A geographical perspective
    XUE Qian, XIE Miaomiao, GUO Qiang, WANG Yanan, WU Rongrong, LIU Qi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 685-694.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.015
    Abstract305)   HTML5)    PDF (2181KB)(95)      

    With global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events have become much more frequent. As one of the most typical extreme weather events caused by climate change, heat wave has been enhancing the heat-related health risks, and continuously attracting widespread attention from meteorologists, medical professionals and geographers. As a bridging actor integrating meteorological and medical fields, geography provides spatial indicators for heat wave vulnerability assessment, ideas and methods for mapping, spatial solutions for practical work such as planning and early warning. This article systematically reviews the progress of spatial assessment of heat wave vulnerability based on the perspective of geography. The contents include the definition of heat wave, spatial indicators and mapping methods. The literature reviews indicate that heat wave vulnerability assessment has gradually deepened from single perspective to the interdisciplinary study of meteorology, medicine, geography and other disciplines. In the future, more detailed exploration will be carried out, such as the construction of spatial indicators to integrate the advantages and research demands of various disciplines; the exploration about small-scale community to regional large-scale links and cross-regional research expression by mapping. Spatial approaches require differentiated research among different groups, which provide a scientific basis for climate change adaptation of cities.

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    Distribution characteristics and influencing factors of commercial center and hotspots based on big data: A case of the main urban area of Urumqi City
    CHEN Hongxing, YANG Degang, LI Jiangyue, WU Rongwei, HUO Jinwei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (5): 738-750.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.05.004
    Abstract302)   HTML7)    PDF (9952KB)(77)      

    The structure of commercial space is vital to the vitality of cities, therefore it is essential to quantitatively identify and analyze the distribution of different types of commercial sites so as to optimize the configuration of commercial resources and facilitate the orderly development of cities. Taking the main urban area of Urumqi City as the case study area, using 136975 business-related points of interest (POIs) including six types of businesses in 2018 and open street map (OSM) road network, and based on head/tail division rule, this study identified high-density commercial parcels and used kernel density estimation to estimate the core region of business activities. The Getis-Ord G * method was used to identify the overall and different types of commercial hot spot areas. Geographic detector analysis was performed to explore the determinants of overall and different types of commercial site distribution in Urumqi, and Pearson correlation coefficient matrix of commercial sites was established to estimate the impact of the combination and coordination of business forms on commercial space. The findings of this study suggest that the key features of high-density commercial parcel distribution are central-peripheral, separated by highways and internal loops; the number of high value parcels from the center to the peripheral area reduces progressively; and the distribution of the six types of commercial sites varies. Commercial zone presents multi-core distribution characteristics, the agglomeration characteristic is apparent in the urban center region, and the northern commercial agglomeration is gradually becoming obvious. There are six main commercial centers including Nanhu, Zhongshan Road, Youhao, Huizhan Center, Midong New Area, and Tieluju. Tuwu Expressway and Wukui Expressway together constitute the two axes of commercial hotspots. Hotspots of the six types of commercial sites can be divided into three spatial structures. Business and finance show a single-center distribution trend; accommodation and food & restraurant are of banded extension type; while services and shopping spots are of banded dual-core type. The primary determinants of the spatial distribution of commercial sites are: land price, agglomeration effect, and road network density. The influence of population and central accessibility is secondary; elevation has no significant effect. In particular, for business and financial services, land price and center accessibility are the main factors affecting the distribution. Accommodation and food & restraurant are affected by road network density. Shopping and services are significantly affected by population density. Business and finance sites, food & restraurant and shopping sites all have strong synergistic effects on the formation of urban commercial space, while others are not significance.

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    Measurement of economic resilience of contiguous poverty-stricken areas in China and influencing factor analysis
    DING Jianjun, WANG Zhang, LIU Yanhong, YU Fangwei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (6): 924-937.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.004
    Abstract295)   HTML8)    PDF (8356KB)(52)      

    It is of great significance to consolidate the achievements of poverty alleviation and enhance development capacity and the ability to resist shocks in contiguous poverty-stricken areas. Economic resilience, as an indicator of the resistance, recovery, adjustment, and transformation ability of regional economic systems in response to shocks, can effectively reflect the ability to resist shocks and the risk of returning to poverty in contiguous poverty-stricken areas. Based on the data of 12 contiguous poverty-stricken areas in China, economic resilience was measured and compared by constructing a comprehensive index system and core evaluation variables, and a variety of regression models were used to identify the main influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The economic resilience of contiguous poverty-stricken areas is lower than non-contiguous poverty-stricken areas. In both types of areas economic resilience has been increasing year by year, but the growth rate of non-contiguous poverty-stricken areas is slightly faster. After decomposing the index, it was found that the difference in economic resilience between contiguous poverty-stricken areas and non-contiguous poverty-stricken areas is primarily due to the ability to adapt and adjust. 2) Luoxiao Mountains, Yanshan-Taihang Mountains, and Dabie Mountains have the highest mean values of economic resilience, while the border mountainous areas in western Yunnan Province, Liupan Mountains, and the Tibetan area of four provinces have the lowest mean values of economic resilience. 3) The economic resilience of most areas was increasing. The areas with higher economic resilience tend to grow faster, but the economic resilience of the Tibetan area of four provinces, Liupan Mountains, and Lvliang Mountains showed a downward trend. Among them, the decline in Lvliang Mountains is the most obvious. After decomposing the economic resilience of different regions, it was found that the differences in adaptation and adjustment capabilities were the largest in different regions, and the differences in innovation and transformation capabilities were the smallest. 4) Variables such as geographical location, assets investment per capita, dependence on international trade, the level of self-sufficiency in finance, expenditure on education, and the number of patents have significant effects on the economic resilience and its growth in poverty-stricken areas. 5) Poverty alleviation policy is conducive to enhancing economic resilience. Areas with low economic resilience are highly dependent on poverty alleviation policies, among which the Tibetan areas in four provinces, Liupan Mountains, and the border mountainous areas of western Yunnan are most heavily dependent on poverty alleviation policies.

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    Temporal and spatial changes of urban forests in major cities in China and abroad
    DUAN Qianwen, TAN Minghong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 410-419.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.006
    Abstract292)   HTML6)    PDF (8723KB)(103)      

    Increasing urbanization is a global phenomenon that has led to numerous urban problems, including noise, deteriorating air quality, and reduced biodiversity. Urban forests are able to effectively alleviate these problems through their ecosystem services. Therefore, in 2018, the theme of the World Forest Day is "Forests and Sustainable Cities"; and China has started the assessment of "National Forest Cities" since 2004. Under this background, examining the distributions of urban forests in major Chinese cities and then comparing them with large foreign cities could help understand the current situation of Chinese urban forests and provide theoretical references for their management. The main difficulty in cross-regional urban forest research is that differences in urban definitions lead to poor comparability between cities. This study used the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) / Operational Linescan System (OLS) nighttime lighting image and the GlobeLand30 surface cover product to extract urban forest data of 12 major international cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Tokyo, Seoul, New Delhi, Jakarta, Sao Paulo, Lagos, New York, London, and Moscow) in 2000 and 2010 based on the intensity gradient method and using ArcGIS tools, and examined their spatial and temporal changes. The results show that among the 12 cities, from the perspective of existing urban forests, urban forest coverage and per capita urban forest area are generally high in developed cities, while in Asian developing cities they are low. From the perspective of temporal change, the urban forest growth rate of cities in developed countries is mostly less than 70%, while in most cities of developing countries, it is more than 100% during 2000-2010. The major source of the increase is the expansion of urban area, while the decrease is mainly due to the conversion to artificial surface and urban lawn. According to the spatial distribution of urban forest coverage based on buffer analysis, these cities can be divided into three categories: low in the central area and high in the surrounding areas (Beijing and Seoul); low in the surrounding areas and high in the central area (Guangzhou, Tokyo, Sao Paulo, and so on); and low in the whole urban area (Shanghai, New Delhi, and Jakarta). Finally, based on the results of comparison, recommendations for the future development of urban forests in China are provided.

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