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    Spatiotemporal change of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China and influencing factors
    LI Fengjiao, LIU Jiaming, JIANG Lili
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 541-553.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.001
    Abstract628)   HTML32)    PDF (6614KB)(152)      

    Strategic emerging industries are important support for national economic development. It is of great significance to explore the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the development level of related industries in Northeast China to promote regional economy and industrial innovation development. Using the Tianyancha software to extract the A-shares and the new over-the-counter market listed company data in 2009, 2014, and 2019 for Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces and applying the methods of Markov chain, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographical detector model, this study explored the spatial and temporal change of strategic emerging industry development level and analyzed its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is constantly improving, and the growth rate is slowing down. All types of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China have achieved leap-forward development, while the industries at a high development level have achieved steady development. 2) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is characterized by a "polar area" in the central part of the region and a "S-shaped polar zone" in the south. Spatial agglomeration is weakened, and the spatial differentiation of the provinces is gradually enhanced. The spatial centers of gravity of development level of various industries have shifted southward, with both diffusion and agglomeration effects. 3) Different factors play different roles, and multiple factors jointly affect the change of the development level and spatial pattern of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China.

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    Location choice and influencing factors of out-of-school hours care places: A case study of Yanta District of Xi'an City
    YU Yue, LI Gang, JIN Annan, HUANG Yushan, XU Lanqing, YANG Zhuo
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (8): 1440-1452.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.08.008
    Abstract502)   HTML15)    PDF (8771KB)(100)      

    Out-of-school hours care place (OSHCP) is a new type of educational auxiliary facility, mainly provides meals and rest places for primary and secondary school students, has gradually become the third activity space for students outside their homes and schools, and worth further examination from a spatial perspective. Based on the data of OSHCPs and related points of interest (POIs) in Yanta District of Xi'an City, we used spatial analysis, statistical analysis, and field investigation methods to explore the basic functions and location choice and its influencing factors of OSHCPs. The results indicate that: 1) The service demands of OSHCPs are from families with childcare needs in the lower grades of compulsory education for childcare assistance and children's "transfer" and "deposit", and the service types include student care, catering, help with homework, and so on. 2) The distribution of OSHCPs generally showed a trend of extending along the east-west direction, which is consistent with the urban morphology and the development status of residential committees, mainly in the traditional neighborhoods, high-rise housing estates, and work unit housing areas, concentrated in the low floors (1-5 floors). 3) Regional population, educational environment, investment costs, and spatial location influence the layout and location of OSHCPs, with the number and distribution of primary and secondary schools, the number and distribution of residential neighborhoods, and the distance from the central city having significant impacts. Finally, we summarized the influencing factors of location choice from three scales including urban area, residential committee, and care place in combination with the needs of the population, and provide an outlook on future research directions in conjunction with the "double reduction" education policy.

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    Identification of rural development types and revitalization paths in poor mountainous areas: Taking Luanchuan County, Henan Province as an example
    LUO Qing, CHEN Siyi, WANG Yifei, LI Menglin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (10): 1783-1794.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.10.001
    Abstract501)   HTML21)    PDF (9986KB)(69)      

    Accurate assessment and classification of rural development levels is an important issue in rural revitalization research, which can provide a scientific basis for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies by development type and stage. Taking Luanchuan County, Henan Province as an example, this study integrated multi-source data such as administrative village census and electronic maps to construct a multi-dimensional development potential measurement indicator system for the village scale, and carry out multi-dimensional evaluation and type identification of rural development potential. The results show that: 1) The overall situation of rural multi-dimensional development potential in Luanchuan County is poor, with only 45.89% of the villages having medium and above development potential, and the interaction between any two dimensions has a nonlinear enhancement effect on explaining the spatial differentiation of multi-dimensional development potential. 2) The spatial differentiation characteristics of rural multi-dimensional development levels are obvious. Villages with high development potential are concentrated near the county seat and where key township centers are located, while villages with low and medium-low development potential are mainly distributed in the border areas of the county and in the areas between the towns in the central part. 3) The development level of each dimension shows relatively significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, but the spatial agglomeration pattern is different for different dimensions. Villages with higher development level in geographical location and natural background are mainly concentrated in areas with good resource endowment and relatively flat terrain; and villages with higher development level in the four dimensions of geographical location, population development, economic foundation, and social welfare gather near the county seat, township centers, and tourist attractions. 4) According to the multi-dimensional development assessment results, the villages are divided into five types: priority revitalization, preliminary revitalization, maintaining the status quo, decline and relocation, and priority relocation. Based on the characteristics of different types of villages, revitalization paths and development strategies are proposed to improve the development quality of villages.

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    Cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China’s automobile production network from the perspective of “global-local”: A case study of FAW-Volkswagen
    ZHAO Ziyu, WANG Shijun, CHEN Xiaofei, HAN Zhonghui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (5): 741-754.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.001
    Abstract500)   HTML28)    PDF (9464KB)(151)      

    Under the background of global production network development, the research on "global-local" cross-regional relatedness of production organizations has important theoretical significance. The cross-regional network characteristics and geospatial representations of China's joint venture automobile production network have been explored in the global-local interactive situation. Based on the perspective of global-local production relatedness and multi-scale integration and using primary supply data of automobile manufacturing, this study analyzed the cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China's joint venture automobile production network represented by FAW-Volkswagen. The results show that: 1) The global-local multi-scale integration provides a good perspective for understanding the industrial transfer footprint of multinational corporations in building global production networks. The German company Volkswagen is embedded into China's automobile manufacturing system by building global production network, and the structure of the production network shows a typical characteristic of global-local relatedness. 2) The spatial distribution of local primary suppliers in the FAW-Volkswagen automobile production network is highly consistent with the "T"-shaped pattern of China's territorial development strategy. Investment type / technology control of automobile suppliers presents a regional organization model of the same type of spatial agglomeration, and the agglomeration degree presents the characteristic of sole proprietorship ≈ joint venture > local investment business. 3) Through the production transfer of automobile assembly plants and the procurement by cross-regional supply chains, the production organization of FAW-Volkswagen has formed a cross-regional cluster network structure with the core of cities where the automobile assembly plants are located and are restricted by geographical boundaries. 4) Spatial and temporal constraints, location advantages and agglomeration effects, technological innovation represented by modular production, venture strategies of multinational groups, and foreign investement club strategies jointly influence the spatial organization structure of the FAW-Volkswagen production network. Through a typical case study, this study provides theoretical and practical bases for understanding the organizational structure of China's key industrial production networks under the global-local multi-scale.

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    Sedimentary evidence and age of the Zoige Basin dissected by the Yellow River in eastern Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Na, ZHA Xiaochun, HUANG Chunchang, ZHANG Yuzhu, ZHOU Yali, PANG Jiangli, RONG Xiaoqing, SHANG Ruiqing, CHAI Jianan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (8): 1453-1466.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.08.009
    Abstract463)   HTML36)    PDF (13345KB)(92)      

    Through extensive and detailed field investigation inside and outside the Zoige Basin in eastern Tibet Plateau, a typical sedimentary profile containing the stratigraphic sequence of paleolake facies and paleo-riverbed floodplain facies was found in the front of the second terrace of the Yellow River in the Maqu section at the outlet of the Zoige Basin. Through grain size characteristic analysis and Optically Stimulated Luminescence(OSL) dating, we found that: 1) The pale-blue-grey paleolake sedimentary layer in the profile indicates that the lacustrine sediment formed in the deep-water anoxic environment, while the mottled pebble layer covered by the pale-yellow-orange lenticular sand layer was a typical fluvial floodplain sediment, which indicates the process of strong dynamic flow. The unconformable contact relationship between the two layers indicates that the profile is a typical sedimentary evidence for studying the Zoige Basin dissected by the Yellow River. 2) The OSL dating results of the top boundary of the pale-blue-gray paleolake sedimentary layer and the bottom boundary of the paleoshore-shallow lake sedimentary layer show that the Yellow River dissected the Zoige Basin at 37 ka BP, resulting in the leakage of lake water. At 35 ka BP, the lake water became shallow and disappeared, and then the Yellow River connected the water system of the Zoige Basin. 3) The strong neotectonic movement of the East Kunlun fault in late Pleistocene and the warm and humid climate of the Tibet Plateau in 37 ka resulted in the aggravation of the headward erosion of the paleo-Yellow River source in the rift valley grassland, and the Zoige Basin was dissected by the paleo-Yellow River from the west to the east in the Maqu bottleneck reach, resulting in the discharge of the paleolake water through the Yellow River, thus connecting the water system of the Zoige Basin and making it the source of the Yellow River. The study results have important scientific significance for an in-depth understanding of the evolution of river-lake water system and the formation of Yellow River water system in northeastern Tibet Plateau.

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    Spatial pattern change of the network structure of China's inter-provincial virtual tourism flow
    YANG Yong, SUI Xiayun, LIU Zhen
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (8): 1349-1363.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.08.001
    Abstract412)   HTML22)    PDF (13104KB)(324)      

    Virtual tourism flow (VTF) to some extent represents geographic biases of tourist demands. It is a crucial entry point for analyzing the spatial structure of China's tourism and promoting the formation of domestic circulation. From the perspective of VTF, this study built models of virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness using Baidu index search data from 2016 to 2020. Coefficient of variation and spatial autocorrelation were employed to analyze its spatial distribution characteristics. Virtual tourism dominance degree and correlation of each provincial node were analyzed to further investigate the characteristics of the spatial change of VTF network structure. The results show that: 1) Beijing, Shanghai, and Yunnan are the radiating centers in the spatial structure of China's VTF. Based on this, a virtual spatial structure with the core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta region, and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region is formed. 2) The polarization and diffusion features of VTF are manifested in the obvious diffusion effect of the Yangtze River Delta, and the significant polarization effect of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region. Among them, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south has changed from a dual core to a single core structure, while the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region has formed a robust regional circulation structure with multiple cores and multiple levels due to the region's continuously strengthened internal and external ties. 3) According to the spatial change of VTF network structure, intra-regional circulation is an effective way to balance the development of tourism within and outside a region. Meanwhile, provinces with strong virtual tourism advantage degree have stronger resilience, which can well boost the circulation of inter-regional tourism flow. 4) The change of VTF network structure is mainly affected by economic development level, tourism resource endowment, infrastructure development, and temporal and spatial proximity. This study broadens the horizon of tourism flow research by introducing the concept of VTF and analyzing both virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness. Its results provide a reference for the geographic direction of tourist demands, which can help to promote the coordinated regional development of tourism.

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    Influence of administrative boundary on land use change in the cross-boundary area of urban agglomerations: A case study of Tongzhou-Wuqing-Langfang
    ZHAN Zixin, DAI Linlin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (12): 2271-2285.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.12.007
    Abstract396)   HTML20)    PDF (14695KB)(90)      

    Due to the differences in resource endowments and the complex relationship between governments at all levels, there are inevitable conflicts and imbalances in socialeco development in the cross-boundary regions of urban agglomerations. Scholars have revealed that the administrative boundary effect is common in different scales such as provincial and urban agglomeration, and its influence on land use change varies in different development stages. However, previous studies have mostly transformed administrative boundaries into virtual variables rather than as spatial geographical elements, which is insufficient for understanding the complex interactions between various factors at the meso and micro scales. This study analyzed the expansion mechanism of impervious surface area (ISA) in Tongzhou-Wuqing-Langfang (TWL)—a typical cross-boundary region of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration—by using China's Land-Use/Cover Datasets from 1985 to 2020. Taking districts and counties as the units of analysis, we used centroid migration, kernel density analysis, and Logistic regression methods to measure the impact of administrative boundaries. The results show that: 1) The speed and main period of urban land expansion in different administrative regions varied due to different resource endowments and development stages. 2) Due to the high mobility of factors, the driving forces of urban expansion in geographically adjacent administrative regions showed some similarities. 3) Under different levels of regional collaboration, the influence of the administrative boundaries on urban land expansion also varied. Improving the coordination level of various elements in the TWL area through "strong-weak" control and reducing the negative impact of administrative boundaries on local resource integration play an important role in realizing the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.

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    Spatial distribution and location correlation of the semiconductor industry in the Pearl River Delta region
    REN Yawen, YANG Yu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (9): 1622-1634.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.09.006
    Abstract364)   HTML17)    PDF (11978KB)(55)      

    The locational association of industrial layout is an important element in the study of the spatial structure of regional industries and their spatial relationship. In this study, we constructed a database of semiconductor enterprises in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and examined the spatial pattern of the semiconductor industry and its locational association characteristics in the region by using kernel density analysis and synergistic locational analysis. The results show that: 1) Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Dongguan formed important spatial clusters of the semiconductor industry in the PRD region, and the semiconductor design segment is a common choice for entering the semiconductor industry chain in the PRD region. 2) Although Guangzhou has formed specialized clusters in design, materials, and discrete device manufacturing, only its discrete device manufacturing segment has formed a locational synergy with the design and packaging segments; while Shenzhen has formed a synergistic relationship with the design equipment. 3) Guangzhou's specialization in discrete device manufacturing is a transitional state in the construction of the semiconductor industry chain, while Shenzhen's advantage in the construction of the whole industry chain is based on the high concentration of digital technology enterprises in the city and the establishment of common knowledge, technology, and human resources bases through the semiconductor design segment and other segments.

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    Progress, problems, and strategies of innovation and development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LIU Yi, REN Yawen, MA Li, WANG Yun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (9): 1555-1565.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.09.001
    Abstract356)   HTML10)    PDF (3059KB)(53)      

    Building an international science and innovation center is the strategic direction for the sustainable development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), and it is also an important spatial carrier for China to cope with future global competitions. On the occasion of the third anniversary of the promulgation and implementation of the "Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Development Plan Outline", by reviewing the main progress and problems of the innovation and development of the region, this article presents the strategic re-thinking of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area international science and technology innovation center under the new situation. The GBA has initially entered the stage of "innovative economy" development. Platform construction, talent agglomeration, and policy support have continued to be strengthened. Diversified cross-regional innovation collaboration models have emerged, but real challenges also exist in the areas of R&D output quality, resource allocation, and structure of talents. On the basis of continuing to consolidate the progress made in the construction of an international science and technology innovation center in the region, it is necessary to focus on the acquisition of innovation resources and improvement of innovation capabilities and the coordination and redistribution of innovation resources in the future, with continuous strategic optimization and adjustment.

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    Characteristics and multi-dimensional proximity mechanism of the online game industry cooperative network in China
    ZHAN Yarong, GU Renxu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (7): 1145-1155.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.07.001
    Abstract354)   HTML28)    PDF (4716KB)(84)      

    In the era of digital economy, digital technology has brought profound changes to the production system of creative industries. The influence of virtual space built on Internet platforms on physical geographical space is increasing, which destroys the old spatiotemporal relationship, new socioeconomic organization geospatial pattern is created, and the changing importance of geographical proximity and its role in the decentralization of cultural production remain to be explored. In order to examine the impacts of new digital technologies on the geographies of cultural production and to provide a reference for exploring the high-quality development model of cultural industry in the new era, this study applied social network analysis and negative binomial gravity model to examine the urban cooperative network structure and multi-dimensional proximity mechanism of the online game industry, based on the data of Chinese online game projects from 2016 to 2020. The conclusions are as follows: First, the new digital technology has strengthened the decentralization and agglomeration trend of the online game industry. The findings demonstrate the dominant role that external networks play in the operation of online game projects. Small and medium-sized cities rely more on cross-regional cooperation networks in particular, because they lack strong and influential local companies. Second, the connections between cities based on the division of value chain of the online game industry are relatively sparse, the cooperative network presents an uneven diamond-shaped connection pattern, the spatial pattern of the network is highly imbalanced, and the industry is mainly concentrated in the economically developed eastern coastal region. There is a mismatch between the influence of cities in the network and the scale of local clusters. The network hierarchy basically follows that of China's existing urban system, and the core nodes are highly concentrated in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. Local administrative centers also play an important role in the cooperation network. Social proximity, cognitive proximity, urban industrial scale, external connectivity, and human capital have positive effects on the establishment of cooperative network in the online game industry, while the wide application of digital technology makes the effects of geographical proximity and institutional proximity insignificant. At present, the main channel for enterprises in remote areas to obtain resources is still the dominant cultural production centers, which is related to the complex and diverse urban structure system in China.

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    Selection of homestead reuse types from the perspective of rural spatial governance: A study based on 56 pilot villages of homestead reform in Jinghai District, Tianjin Municipality
    CAI Weimin, ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Bailin, YIN Jian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (10): 1806-1818.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.10.003
    Abstract352)   HTML3)    PDF (12839KB)(31)      

    The type of homestead reuse is affected by factors mainly including village and homestead utilization characteristics. Taking Jinghai District of Tianjin Municipality as an example, this study constructed a theoretical analysis framework for the selection of homestead reuse types by coupling "village-land use". By constructing the measurement models of village characteristics and homestead utilization characteristics, this study classified and determined the types of village homestead reuse from these two aspects for the 56 pilot villages of homestead reform in the district, to provide policy recommendations for rural spatial governance. The results show that: 1) The characteristics of villages are identified as three types: industry-oriented, resource-oriented, and balanced development. 2) The utilization characteristics of homesteads are identified as single-function dominant and multi-function dominant based on the village as a unit. 3) Based on the characteristics of village and land use, the relationship function is constructed to identify the types of homestead reuse in three categories: multi-subject category, factor flow category, and characteristic resource category. The research suggests that using multi-source data to identify the types of homestead reuse based on the characteristics of village and land use is an effective way to provide guidance for homestead reuse and the reform of the homestead system.

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    Change of the global grain trade network and its driving factors
    GUAN Jing, SONG Zhouying, LIU Weidong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (5): 755-769.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.002
    Abstract341)   HTML20)    PDF (11192KB)(229)      

    Based on the panel data of 238 countries and regions, this study examined the change of the spatial pattern of the global grain trade network at different scales from 1988 to 2018. The zero-inflated negative binomial was introduced to construct the gravity model for analyzing the driving factors of the global grain trade network. The results show that: 1) The scale of the global grain trade showed a rapid fluctuating rising trend, while the growth rate of trade fluctuated greatly between years. The structure of trade commodities was constantly diversified but is still dominated by wheat, corn, and barley. 2) The density of the global grain trade network is increasing, with polarization of some core nodes and increasing diversification of the overall trade network. For example, the position of North America, Western Europe, East Asia, and so on, in the grain trade network is relatively declining, while the position of Eastern Europe, South America, and so on, has increased. On the national scale, the interaction of grain trade among countries and regions has enhanced, as the structure of the grain trade network has changed from an "east-west axis" to "multi-point radiation" with a gradual shift from polarization to pluralism. Although the number of core nodes in the grain export network is increasing, regional grain export networks are still dominated by only several key countries and show a strong local polarization phenomenon, while the centralized characteristics of import networks are gradually weakened and more balanced. 3) Natural endowment of land resources, the structure of agriculture, and the degree of opening up to the outside world are the core driving factors for countries and regions to participate in the global grain trade network. The levels of price differences, language proximity, spatial distance, and societal governance also have a certain impact on the participation of countries and regions in the global grain trade network. The influence of other factors is relatively small.

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    Development characteristics and flow control mechanism of karst springs in Chongqing Municipality
    XIAO Chengfang, WEI Xingping, ZHANG Aiguo, CHEN Ying
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 693-706.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.013
    Abstract340)   HTML19)    PDF (11341KB)(92)      

    In order to provide water resources for the economic development in karst mountainous areas, this study took Chongqing Municipality as an example and identified the development fracture and control mechanism of karst springs and their flow using 1∶200000 regional hydrogeological maps and reports, on-site hydrogeological surveys, basic feature and statistical analyses, and ArcGIS spatial analysis methods. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of karst development, this study examined the influence of topography, stratum lithology, geological structure, and surface water system on the development, distribution, and flow of karst springs. Our findings revealed that the relief amplitude of 0-200 m is most conducive to the development of karst springs. With the increase of relief of land surface, the average flow rate of karst springs begins to decrease gradually. The density of karst springs is the greatest in the carbonate and clastic rock group, followed by the limestone and dolomite interbedded rock group, limestone rock group, and dolomite rock group. Geological structural parts such as structure composite, gentle wings of anticlines, syncline shafts, and faulted structures are all conducive to the development of karst springs. Based on the hydrodynamic characteristics of karst water and the relationship with the local erosion base level, the large karst springs in Chongqing are divided into the following three types: riverbed type, riparian type, and river source (ditch) type, and the number of large karst springs is river bank type > source (ditch) type > river bed type.

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    Is there a borrowed size in China’s urban agglomerations?
    YANG Tongbin, ZHU Yingming, DU Jiazhen
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (7): 1156-1167.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.07.002
    Abstract339)   HTML18)    PDF (6608KB)(69)      

    The existing research lacks attention to the borrowed size of cities in urban agglomerations. To fill this research gap, this study examined the existence, spatial conditions, and formation mechanism of borrowed size in 14 urban agglomerations of China from the dimensions of function and performance based on the data of cities above prefecture level in 2008-2019. The results show that: 1) Cities in seven urban agglomerations, namely, Chang-Zhu-Tan, Pearl River Delta, Wuhan, Central and Southern Liaoning, Harbin and Changchun, Beibu Gulf, and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions, have borrowed size. Large cities are more likely to borrow function and borrow performance, that is, there is borrowed size, while small and medium cities are more likely to borrow function. Five urban agglomerations, namely, Chengdu-Chongqing, Central Plains, Shandong Peninsula, Guangdong-Fujian-Zhejiang Coast, and Yangtze River Delta regions, have agglomeration shadow. 2) Borrowed size occurs more frequently in urban agglomerations with polycentric structure. Large, medium, and small cities can borrow function by being embedded into urban agglomerations of polycentric structure, but only medium and large cities can borrow performance in urban agglomerations of polycentric structure. Polycentric structure has the most obvious impact on the borrowed function and borrowed performance of medium cities. 3) Enhancing the geographical proximity of cities will reduce the borrowed function, but can improve the borrowed performance. Enhancing the network relevance of cities can improve the borrowed function and borrowed performance. For borrowed function, there is a substitution effect between network relevance and geographical proximity, and for borrowed performance, there is a complementary effect between network relevance and geographical proximity. The stimulation of network relevance on borrowed function and borrowed performance can only be seen in large cities.

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    Urban shrinkage: Connotation-sinicization-framework of analysis
    SUN Pingjun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (8): 1478-1491.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.08.011
    Abstract329)   HTML11)    PDF (3499KB)(86)      

    Urban shrinkage is a new phenomenon in the process of China's rapid urbanization, which brings great impact and challenge to the traditional regional-urban planning cognitive theory and planning paradigm based on "growth scenario simulation". How to construct the theoretical and analytical framework of urban shrinkage research in China has become the focus of academia and planning management departments. The following issues were analyzed in the study: 1) Systematically reviewed the origin of the concept of urban shrinkage, the relationship between urban shrinkage and urban growth, urbanization, and its relationship with localization and internationalization. It pointed out that urban shrinkage and urban growth are the products of different process in two directions in the development of regional urbanization, also a product embedded in globalization and rooted in localization. It is necessary to avoid "discussing urban shrinkage based only on shrinking cities" in the study. 2) Distinguished and defined the concept and connotation of urban shrinkage and shrinking city. It pointed out that the inconsistency of current identification standards for shrinking cities stems from the confusion between the concept of shrinking city and urban shrinkage, the emphasis on the description of shrinkage concepts, and the negligence of the development correlation between factors and functions. 3) Conducted a preliminary study on the connotation of urban shrinkage research "sinicization" from the aspects of research scope, research period, definition standard, research background, and regional differences. It proposed to take the urban built-up area as the research scope and 10 years as the investigation period, use comprehensive indicators to replace single population indicator to construct the identification standard and method system of shrinking city, and use the analysis of the overall development environment of the city and its related areas and prediction of and response to the formation and development of shrinking city as the bases, to realize "sinicization". 4) Constructed a framework and path of shrinking city research in the Chinese context based on property right region, field theory, regional association, and regional difference. This study aimed to engage geographers in China for an in-depth discussion of the "sinicization" of urban shrinkage research, so as to provide Chinese experience for the study of urban shrinkage globally.

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    Symbiosis and integration: Coordinated development of human-land-industry in rural heritage sites: A case study of the Tingsong cultural community
    TAO Hui, ZHANG Mengzhen, LIU Jiaming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 582-594.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.004
    Abstract318)   HTML13)    PDF (5759KB)(87)      

    Many rural heritage sites in China are rich in natural and cultural tourism resources. The co-creation of landscape resources, co-ownership of territorial space, and diverse ethnicities and rural social relationship provide the basis and conditions for the symbiosis development of tourism. In addition, as an open system with comprehensive multidimensional and dynamic evolution, rural heritage sites are formed by the interaction of various elements. Population, land, and industry are the core elements of rural development. Symbiosis theory is an important theory for studying the internal relationships of rural systems, which can be used to analyze the coordinated development paths of human-land-industry subsystems in rural heritage sites. Taking Tingsong cultural community in Yi County, Hebei Province as an example, this study examined the collaborative dynamic evolution process of the three subsystems of population, land, and industry driven by the returning elite from the perspective of symbiosis, and put forward the symbiotic paths of rural development: 1) Building the symbiont of rural community. 2) Promoting the regional circular economic and ecological sphere. 3) Cultivating the horizontal symbiotic chain of industries. The results of this study may provide some reference for the comprehensive revitalization of population, land, and industry in rural heritage sites.

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    Construction and reconstruction of global value chain based on the perspective of urban networks: A case study of Huawei mobile phone suppliers
    WANG Changjian, LU Minyi, CHEN Jing, LUO Hao, WANG Fei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (9): 1606-1621.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.09.005
    Abstract307)   HTML7)    PDF (16365KB)(36)      

    Exploring the construction and reconstruction of the global value chain led by Huawei mobile phones from the perspective of urban networks is of great significance. This study examined the construction and reconstruction of the global value chain dominated by Huawei mobile phones in the process of catching up in technology development. Taking the official effective date of the "Entity List" as the turning point, this study systematically examined the data of Huawei's mobile phone suppliers before and after the "supply disruption". With the application of the headquarters-branches model, social network analysis, and community detection methods, the spatial distribution, network structure, and community structure of research and development (R&D)-oriented, production-oriented, and original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-oriented urban networks are uncovered. The results show that: 1) The production organization mode of Huawei mobile phones has a typical feature of global R&D + domestic production/OEM. After the supply disruption, R&D suppliers withdraw obviously, and the substitution trend of core components was clear. 2) After the supply disruption, the influence and control power of Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Beijing in the urban networks increased significantly, especially in the R&D-oriented urban network. 3) The influence and control power of cities where U.S. high-value suppliers are located have dropped significantly. The influence and control power of cities where high-value suppliers from Japan and South Korea are located, mainly memory chips and camera chips, have increased significantly. 4) After the supply disruption, the network agglomeration effect of high-, medium-, and low-value production links increased to varying degrees, promoting a more regionalized Huawei value chain. 5) After the supply disruption, the biggest changes from before the disruption occurred in the R&D urban communities. The number and scale of production-oriented urban communities were moderate, and there were obvious hierarchical differences among communities. The number of OEM-oriented urban communities was the smallest, and the connections within the community were sparse. The combination strategy of globalized layout and domestic substitution is a feasible path for Huawei to solve the supply problem. It also provides some references for high-tech firms in developing countries to achieve catch-up.

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    Shrinkage effect of urban-rural integration on shrinking cities in the three provinces of Northeast China and mechanism
    SUN Pingjun, ZHANG Keqiu, HE Tian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (7): 1213-1225.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.07.006
    Abstract305)   HTML19)    PDF (3571KB)(112)      

    Urban-rural integration has great significance for the effective implementation of rural revitalization and urban sustainable development in China, but shrinking cities have emerged in the process of rapid urbanization. Characteristics of urban-rural integration development of shrinking cities and the impact of urban shrinkage on urban-rural integration have become one of the core scientific issues to be addressed in the current research on promoting the goal of common prosperity in China. This study constructed an evaluation indicator system based on the definition of urban-rural integration, with the driving force-pathway-goal of "urban development driven-coordination of urban and rural investment-promoting the balance of basic public services and narrowing urban-rural income gaps". It took the three northeastern provinces as examples and conducted an empirical analysis of urban-rural relationship in 2010-2019 from the perspective of shrinking cities and non-shrinking cities, different development stages, and different development types of shrinking cities. The results show that: 1) The overall development of urban-rural integration in the three northeastern provinces showed an upward trend, but the development level is still low and the internal spatial differentiation is obvious. 2) Urban shrinkage has an obvious impact on urban-rural integration, and the overall level of urban-rural integration in shrinking cities is lower than that of non-shrinking cities. Urban and rural dual structure is more obvious in shrinking cities. 3) Urban-rural integration development level shows differences in cities of different shrinkage types and shrinkage development stages. The level of urban-rural integration decreased gradually from pre-shrinkage stage to post-shrinkage stage, and resource-dependent shrinking cities < comprehensive shrinking cities < "siphon" shrinking cities < location-constrained shrinking cities. Therefore, this study concluded that shrinking cities are affected by the "spatial deprivation" of development factors on urban-rural integration development. The emergence of shrinking cities is not conducive to regional coordination and the integration of urban and rural development, and the sustainable development of shrinking cities should be fully considered in the revitalization of Northeast China.

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    Distance decay of nighttime lights from urban centers and its application
    ZHENG Muchen, XU Gang, XIAO Rui, JIAO Limin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (7): 1251-1260.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.07.009
    Abstract304)   HTML10)    PDF (18596KB)(87)      

    Nighttime lights are one of the direct representations of urban social and economic activities, which usually decrease with the distance from urban centers. However, quantifying and modeling the process of distance decay can be challenging, and the potential applications of nighttime light data are not specified. In this study, the annual composites of NPP-VIIRS nighttime lights for 32 major cities in China in 2012 and 2020 were obtained and used to calculate the nighttime light intensity within concentric circle layers by taking the city center as the center of the circle. Inspired by the spatial attenuation function of urban land density, this study used the inversed-S function to fit the distance decay characteristics of urban nighttime light intensity. The results show that the inversed-S function model fits the distance decay characteristics well, and the parameters D and α of the model reflect the process of urban expansion and urban form changes, respectively. From 2012 to 2020, the radius of the cities (parameter D) increased by 1.1-3.6 times. Among the sample cities, smaller cities—Changchun, Yinchuan, and Xining—experienced the greatest expansion of nighttime lights, while eastern coastal cities experienced the least expansion. The change of parameter α indicates that the expansion pattern of nighttime lights in China's major cities tends to be compact. The inversed-S function provides a new tool for describing the spatial pattern of nighttime light intensity and a new indicator for measuring urban expansion and urban form change.

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    Structural resilience change of China’s marine economic network based on the data of sea-related A-share listed companies
    LI Bo, CAO Gai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (6): 945-955.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.06.001
    Abstract299)   HTML4)    PDF (7268KB)(53)      

    With the continuous improvement of the strategic status of China's marine economy, enhancing the resilience of marine economy in China's coastal areas under internal and external disturbances has become an inevitable way and an important guarantee for its development. In this study, we carried out resilience research from the perspective of marine economic network structure. We used the data of sea-related A-share listed companies and their subsidiaries to build a marine economic network, and evaluated the structural resilience of the marine economic network in 2010, 2015 and 2020 from the three dimensions of hierarchy, assortativity, and transmission. The results show that: 1) The hierarchical structure of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas has been enhanced, and regional absolute polarization and relative equilibrium coexist. 2) Assortativity has changed to disassortativity, and the connection between core cities and peripheral cities has been strengthened. 3) Transmission is generally at a low level but has the tendency to improve. 4) The enhancement of hierarchical structure, disassortativity, and transmission has improved the cohesion, innovation, and openness of the marine economic network, which increased the structural resilience of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas. This study aimed to enrich the resilience research in economic geography and provide some basis and reference for the safe development of the marine economy, in order to facilitate the high-quality development of marine economy in China.

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    Multidimensional measurements and analysis of urban economic resilience under the disturbance of economic risks: A case study of the Yangtze River Delta, China
    DU Wenxuan, SHI Yijun, XU Lihua, ZHAI Guofang, CHEN Wei, LU Zhangwei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (6): 956-971.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.06.002
    Abstract296)   HTML12)    PDF (20525KB)(143)      

    With the increasing economic interaction between cities, disturbance of economic risks has a great impact on their economic resilience. Examining urban economic resilience is crucial for the economic development of cities. Using economic risk disturbances of the Asian financial crisis and the global financial crisis as examples, this study measured economic resilience from four dimensions, including relative-diversity index, relative-specialization index, regional economic connection intensity, and regional economic sensitivity, and analyzed the characteristics and change of the spatial and temporal patterns for cities in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration and their causes. The results show that: 1) The relative-diversity index of most cities declined from 1997 to 2016. The relative specialization developed stably, which promoted the regional industrial division and the improvement of economic resilience. Some of the cities in Anhui Province exhibited structural homogeneity in manufacturing industries. 2) The relative-specialization index showed significant regional differences, which was correlated with dominant industrial structure. The relative-specialization index of the eastern cities was medium, while the western cities mainly developed resource-based economy with high specialization. In the face of economic risk disturbances, some cities in the region tended to strengthen the traditional low-efficiency industry model. These cities had low regional coordination ability, which negatively affected economic resilience and high-quality development. 3) The proportion of total connection between a core city and other cities in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration decreased year by year, and the agglomeration ability of core cities is still strong, hindering the systematic development of economic resilience. Shanghai was one of the highest regional economic connection intensity cities with its large economic volume, multiple industrial types, and large population, leading to the increasing regional economic gap in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. Spatially, the regional economic connection intensity between eastern cities was higher than that of western cities. 4) The resistance and recoverability of cities in the urban agglomeration were closely related to their economic development models. Export-oriented cities were the first to be seriously affected by economic risk disturbances and had low resistance in the period of urban economic contraction. However, the cities with high-tech industries and domestic demand industries developed rapidly in the period of urban economic expansion. Economic risk disturbances had regional sequential influence on the economic growth of different cities. This paper is helpful to remedy the deficiency of the existing literature on urban economic resilience from the perspective of urban agglomeration, and provides methodological guidance for the high-quality and sustainable development of urban and regional economies in China.

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    Complexity, relatedness and urban technology evolutionary path: A comparative study of Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen in China
    WANG Junsong, YAN Yan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 554-566.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.002
    Abstract284)   HTML16)    PDF (12821KB)(172)      

    In the development of science and technology innovation centers, upgrading to complex technologies requires full consideration of the local technology capacities. Evolutionary economic geography emphasizes the impact of technology relatedness with the local technology capacities on technology evolution. This study took three international science and technology innovation center cities, Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, as examples, and incorporated complexity and relatedness into the research framework to comparatively analyze the technology relatedness and complexity of the three cities and their impact on technological change. It is found that there are significant differences in technology structure, technology relatedness, complexity, and evolutionary paths among the three cities. Shanghai has higher technology relatedness and lower complexity, Shenzhen has the lowest technology relatedness and highest technology complexity, and Beijing is in between. In terms of evolutionary trends, Beijing has experienced an obvious change to complex technologies; Shenzhen has the largest increase in overall technological complexity, but after 2006 there was a trend toward diversification into low-complexity technologies; and Shanghai has the smallest increase in technological complexity. The econometric analysis shows that technologies with stronger local technology linkages are more likely to become the dominant technologies in the next stage of development in the three cities, but technologies with high complexity are more likely to become the dominant technologies in the next stage of development in Beijing, and have no significant impact on the technology change of Shanghai and Shenzhen. The construction of science and technology innovation centers requires cities to fully consider urban technology base and evolutionary characteristics, and formulate targeted technology development strategies.

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    Mechanism of influence of element flow on urban-rural integrated development in China
    YANG Yiming, WANG Jian, WU Qun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (12): 2191-2202.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.12.001
    Abstract280)   HTML43)    PDF (7691KB)(185)      

    The flow of urban and rural elements runs through the entire process of urban and rural development and is the core of achieving urban and rural integration. Exploring the mechanism of influence of urban-rural element flow on urban-rural integrated development can provide a scientific guidance for breaking the plight of urban-rural integrated development. Based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) model, this study evaluated the development level of urban-rural integration in 292 cities across China, and used the ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to explore the impact mechanism of urban-rural element flow on urban-rural integration. The results show that: 1) There are large spatial differences in the level of urban-rural integrated development at the city level in China. Most of the cities that have reached the level of deep urban-rural integration are economically developed. In general, the eastern region has the most balanced urban-rural integration. 2) Overall, the flow of land elements and population elements has the most significant impact on the urban-rural integrated development, and the driving effects of the two are negative. Locally, the influence of the flow of various urban-rural elements on the urban-rural integrated development has obvious regional differences. 3) The loss of land elements of the countryside causes loss of production elements and development space in these areas, and the lost talents have no effective way to return to the countryside, which limits urban-rural integrated development. Government investment promotes the agglomeration of elements and reduces the cost of element flow, urban and rural industries achieve division of labor and complement each other in functions, and the effective flow of information elements reduces allocation costs and improves allocation efficiency of other elements, which are beneficial to urban-rural integration.

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    The equity of urban park green space accessibility in large Chinese cities: A case study of Wuhan City
    WANG Zilin, LI Zhigang, CHENG Hanbei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 621-635.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.007
    Abstract272)   HTML18)    PDF (15219KB)(215)      

    Urban park green space (UPGS) is an important part of the urban ecosystem. Good accessibility of UPGS can promote urban livability and improve residents' well-being. It is important to evaluate the fairness of UPGS accessibility. Taking the central city of Wuhan as a study case and 2020 as the research time period, this study measured the accessibility from the supply and demand aspects, evaluated the spatial characteristics of the accessibility of UPGS from both the local and global perspectives, and further explored the relationship between accessibility and residents' social and economic conditions, in order to explore its social equity. Our findings include: 1) The spatial distribution of accessibility of regional, city, and comprehensive level UPGS is better than that of community level UPGS. 2) The spatial pattern of the overall accessibility of UPGS in the central city area of Wuhan gradually decreases from the core to the periphery. The communities with more UPGS and higher UPGS density show a higher level of accessibility. 3) There is a positive spatial correlation between UPGS accessibility and residents' socioeconomic conditions. The communities with higher housing prices also have higher UPGS accessibility. Thereby we identified marked social inequality in terms of the UPGS accessibility for Wuhan. It is recommended that in the future we should be further concerned with the optimization and regulation of the layout of UPGS with more nuance. While implementing the universal strategies, we should adopt targeted strategies and implement precise policies for the needs of different regions and different social groups. This study contributes to the literature in several ways. Using multi-source data and new technology to optimize indicators and data sources, the quality of parks was measured from UPGS area, ecosystem service value (ESV), recreation facilities, and safety conditions and various traffic patterns, real-time conditions, and selection preferences of different age groups, and so on were considered. At the same time, this study paid attention to the social inequality of accessibility, which enriches the empirical content and case materials and provides a scientific basis for the layout of urban infrastructure and the practice of environmental justice.

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    A review of elderly migration research and implications
    WAN Siqi, QIN Bo
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (5): 922-934.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.014
    Abstract270)   HTML13)    PDF (1704KB)(103)      

    With the acceleration of population aging in China, the scale of the elderly migration is gradually increasing. Elderly migration might exert a significant impact on personal well-being, regional age structure, and the development of the society and economy. However, academic and policy studies focusing on this phenomenon are few. This article reviewed the relevant literature from three aspects of elderly migration: spatial pattern, the decision-making mechanism, and impact. The study revealed that: 1) In terms of spatial pattern, four main types are identified—long-distance migration to small cities, long-distance migration to big cities, short-distance migration to the suburban areas, and short-distance migration to central urban districts. Different countries show different characteristics. 2) In terms of the decision-making mechanism, elderly migration is driven by the needs of economic support, health care, comfort, and sense of belonging, while personal physiological, economic, and social factors affect the ability to migrate. 3) In terms of impact, elderly migration exerts influence on individual physical and mental health, social integration, regional economic and social development. Future study needs to consolidate abundant research data and methods, construct an effective theoretical framework, thus provide a scientific basis for the implementation of population aging strategy and the construction of an age-friendly city.

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    Joint distribution and risk of the compound disaster caused by rainfall and storm surge across Chinese coastal region
    XU Hanqing, TAN Jinkai, LI Mengya, LIU Qing, WANG Jun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (10): 1859-1867.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.10.007
    Abstract270)   HTML6)    PDF (4778KB)(20)      

    Coastal regions are extremely vulnerable to compound floods caused by extreme rainfall and strong storm surge. To improve the effectiveness of flood control measures in Chinese coastal cities and reduce the losses caused by urban compound flooding, it is important to analyze the joint probability of occurrence of extreme rainfall and strong storm surge and design the joint distribution function of daily storm surge and cumulative rainfall. In this study, we employed the Copula function to fit the joint probability distribution of storm surge and cumulative rainfall from 1979 to 2014. Then we used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) statistical methods to obtain the optimal Copula function between storm surge and cumulative rainfall at each gauge alone the coast of China. Finally, based on the Copula method, we assessed the design value of compound scenarios of storm surge and rainfall in coastal China. The results indicate that the northern and southern parts of Chinese eastern coast have high frequency and the middle part has low frequency of compound disasters of strong storm surge and extreme rainfall. Western Guangdong, northern Fujian, southern Zhejiang, Shandong, and Liaoning provinces have a high frequency of compound disasters. Under the 50-year return period, the Beibu Gulf, northern Hainan Island, the coast of Zhejiang Province, and parts of the Bohai Bay have extreme rainfall and high storm surge. This study shows the temporal and spatial distribution of compound disasters of storm surge and rainfall in coastal China, and provides a framework for compound disaster scenario prediction.

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    Progress of research on the impact of geographical context and spatiotemporal behavior on subjective well-being
    MA Jing, LIU Guanqiu, RAO Jingwen
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 718-730.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.015
    Abstract267)   HTML16)    PDF (2693KB)(93)      

    Subjective well-being is a focus of research worldwide, which is closely related to the improvement of residents' quality of life and the construction of livable cities. Numerous studies on subjective well-being have been conducted, mainly discussing the impact of social and economic attributes, geographical background (including the built environment, social environment, and environmental pollution), and residents' travel and activity characteristics on subjective well-being at the city or regional scale. Some research has also explored the interaction between long-term happiness and short-term happiness based on the perspective of spatiotemporal behavior. This article provides a comprehensive review on geographical context and subjective well-being studies from the time-space perspectives, and presents a diversified research framework to investigate the complexity between micro-environment, spatiotemporal behavior, and subjective well-being. It presents a theoretical framework of multi-scale spatiotemporal analysis of subjective well-being, and summarizes the mechanism of multi-scale and multi-dimensional geographical environment factors on subjective well-being. Moreover, we propose that future research needs to link individual spatiotemporal behavior, environmental pollution, and well-being, and investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of residents' subjective well-being under different social and spatial backgrounds, in order to provide a scientific basis and policy recommendations for improving urban residential environment and optimizing residents' behavioral patterns.

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    Nonlinear characteristics of distance-decay parameter in intercity links: Based on human mobility big data
    CHU Jun, TONG De, GU Hengyu, CAO Zhiqiang, PAN Xiangxiang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.01.001
    Abstract262)   HTML32)    PDF (5324KB)(140)      

    Spatial interaction of human mobility is a heated topic for scholars, but little is known about the nonlinear relationship of the influencing factors in the spatial interaction. Using Tencent migration data in 2018 and employing the gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) model, this study analyzed the nonlinear characteristics of the distance-decay parameter. The results show that: 1) In the annual data benchmark model the distance-decay parameter presents nonlinear characteristics; the partial dependence curve presents two "platform areas" where the distance-decay parameter is close to 0, and two "attenuation areas" where the distance-decay parameter is about 2.8; and the results are still robust using road-based distance or data from other years. 2) There are significant differences between the distance-decay parameters of aviation, railway, and road transportation. The distance-decay pattern during the Spring Festival is basically consistent with the annual benchmark model. We recommend to plan metropolitan areas and urban agglomerations according to the nonlinear characteristics of intercity connection influenced by distances-decay pattern, and optimize the layout of territorial development accordingly.

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    Influence of school districts on housing prices and the effect on socio-spatial restructuring: Taking Wuchang District of Wuhan City as a case
    GAO Zhe, QIU Jiayi, YU Jiayi, ZHU Yuanyuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 609-620.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.006
    Abstract256)   HTML13)    PDF (9139KB)(66)      

    Since the Ministry of Education of China issued a series of documents requiring the implementation of the policy of nearby enrollment without entrance exam in 2014 and 2015, the enrollment qualifications of public primary and secondary schools have been linked to housing property. In this context, it is of significant value to explore how the primary and secondary school education resources affect housing prices and how the resulting urban socio-spatial restructuring takes place. Based on the data from open platforms of Anjuke, Lianjia, and Baidu and survey questionnaire and interview data, this study took Wuchang District of Wuhan City as the case area to explore the real influence of school districts on housing prices through adopting the hedonic price model, geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, and other technical methods. Moreover, starting with the concept of "production of space", this study explored the effect of school districts on urban socio-spatial restructuring. The results show that: 1) The impact of the characteristics of school districts on housing prices has exceeded the traditional housing characteristics, such as location, architecture, and neighborhood. 2) Housing within the high school district provides a convenient path for capital inflow from secondary to tertiary circuits, forming a macro basis for the production of school districts as well as a new stratification of social space. 3) At the micro scale, the competition for high-quality school districts has produced "people of school districts" and "space of school districts", and then enclaves of school districts have emerged, which has an impact on the traditional urban social space. 4) Unlike the "danwei (workplace) people" and "community people", the definition of "people of school districts" does not mainly rely on occupational or income divisions, but is associated with families of similar life cycles.

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    Territory versus sovereignty: A review of the “territorial trap” studies in political geography
    LIU Yungang, LIU Xuanyu, WANG Fenglong, HU Xunxun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (8): 1492-1503.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.08.012
    Abstract249)   HTML4)    PDF (3903KB)(54)      

    Territory is the key concept in political geography, and territorial trap is one of the most classical theories in political geography. This article systematically reviewed the literature on territorial traps, summarized the origin, development, and research progress of the territorial trap theory, and discussed its significance in Chinese political geographical studies. The theory of territorial trap proposed by Agnew is based on three geographical assumptions: the "trinity" of territory-state-sovereignty, the "dichotomy" of domestic-foreign, and the state as a social container. The territorial trap theory refutes the existing state-centric view of territory and emphasizes various effective forms of sovereignty besides the state's territory, such as extraterritorial sovereignty, graduated sovereignty, and social sovereignty. The extensive application of the territorial trap theory reflects its strong explanatory power in global governance, non-traditional security, cross-border migration control, cross-border resource protection, cross-border water politics, and so forth. This article argued that territorial issues should be understood from the complex interaction between territorial control and effective sovereignty and the perspectives from the center and periphery, and be examined by combining rationality and historical emotion. It has important implications for China to effectively resolve territorial issues, promote the realization of the Belt and Road Initiative, and establish the "community with a shared future for mankind".

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