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    The form and evolution of city size distribution and urban growth model in China: An analysis based on Zipf’s Law and Gibrat’s Law
    SUN Bindong, WANG Yanyan, ZHANG Zhiqiang, LI Wan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (3): 361-370.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.03.001
    Abstract566)   HTML19)    PDF (1740KB)(81)      

    Based on the data of permanent residents from six national population census of China over the period 1953-2010, this study conducted an empirical analysis on the size heterogeneity of city size distribution and the relationship between the evolution of city size distribution and city growth model, to which little attention was paid in previous studies. We selected all cities (including prefecture-level cities and county-level cities) and prefecture-level cities (city propers) alone as samples, and empirically analyzed the morphological characteristics and evolution trends of urban rank-size distribution in China and its relationship with Gibrat's Law. The results show that the main body of city size distribution in China conforms to the linear distribution of Zipf's Law. However, the two ends of the city size distribution spectrum, namely small cities and megacities, deviate from the linear distribution due to insufficient sizes. This phenomenon is not unique to China, but supported by evidence from other countries of the world. From the perspective of evolution, the city size distribution in China gradually dispersed and deviated from Zipf's Law in the early stage. However, from 2000, it began to return to the direction in line with Zipf's Law, with big cities taking the lead in 1990, which shows the coupling with the random growth of urban population in this stage and verifies the logical consistency between Zipf's Law and Gibert's Law. The findings of this study have important implications for promoting the high-quality development of city size distribution in China.

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    Spatio-temporal patterns of urban-rural transformation and optimal decision-making in China
    GUO Yuanzhi, WANG Jieyong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1799-1811.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.001
    Abstract557)   HTML24)    PDF (3314KB)(227)      

    Urban-rural transformation (URT) is a comprehensive process with the characteristics of multi-domains and multi-levels. A scientific understanding of the concept and connotation of URT and a systematic discussion of the patterns and mechanism of URT are of great significance to solving the problems of unbalanced urban-rural development and insufficient rural development. Based on the theoretical cognition of URT, this study comprehensively analyzed the urban-rural development level and its spatial-temporal patterns in China, revealed the patterns of URT according to the coupling coordination degree of urban-rural development level, and discussed the key of urban-rural integrated development in different types of URT areas. The results show that URT is the result of the interaction between the change of urban regional system and the change of rural regional system, and its external representation is the coupling coordination state of the two different but closely related processes. From 2000 to 2018, the level of urban and rural development in all provinces of China's mainland has risen rapidly, and the coupling coordination degree of urban and rural development level has changed from being on the verge of imbalance to intermediate coordination. Spatially, the provincial coupling coordination degree of the central and western regions is significantly lower than that of the northeast and eastern regions. Accordingly, URT in China has realized the transformation from low-level urban-rural coordination to medium-level urban-rural integration, showing a spatial characteristic that provincial URT in the central and western regions lags behind the eastern areas, especially Beijing and the provinces in the Yangtze River Delta, where urban-rural development has entered or will soon enter the stage of high-level urban-rural integration. According to the features of URT in each province, URT in China can be divided into four types, that is, high-level urban-rural integrated area, medium-level urban-rural integrated area, low-level urban-rural integrated area Ⅰ, and low-level urban-rural integrated area Ⅱ. To continuously promote the development of new-type urbanization and the implementation of rural revitalization strategy, it is urgent to establish and improve the system and mechanism of urban-rural integrated development through measures such as deepening the reform, innovating the mechanism, and making up for the shortcomings.

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    Disciplinary position and research frontiers of behavioral geography
    TA Na, CHAI Yanwei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.001
    Abstract500)   HTML29)    PDF (1858KB)(95)      

    Beginning from the behavioral revolution, behavioral geography has gradually moved towards a diversified development direction, by continuously expanding its theoretical framework and practical extension, as well as reflecting on its own meaning. It is an important part of human geography. In the 21st century, geographic mobility has increasingly become a core factor in shaping human-environment relationships. Mobility not only constitutes a new mode of operation of the world through flows and networks, but also fundamentally reshapes the relationship between geographic space and social space. As an important part of geographic mobility, space-time behavior demonstrates the diversity and dailyness of mobility, which is key to understanding urban and rural space and social development. This brings new opportunities for the development of behavioral geography, which promotes related research to micro-interpretation, simulation, and evaluation, and puts the actual problems of people and society at the core of the research. To understand the recent development and future direction of behavioral geography, this article examined the disciplinary position of behavioral geography, reviewed the latest research results of behavioral geography in the past 10 years, discussed the challenges faced by the development of behavioral geography, and explored its future development trends. Behavioral Geography is a branch of human geography describing and explaining the interactions between the geographical environment and human behavior. The core is to explore how people's spatial behaviors are generated in the geographical environment and how people's behaviors react to space. Behavioral geography has five characteristics, including microscopic perspective, behavioral process, subjective and objective combination, integration of time and space, and interdisciplinary. The development of behavioral geography has experienced rise, integration, and expansion, and has gradually developed from the initial narrow positivist framework to more diversified directions. In the recent years, behavioral geography has presented three frontier development directions, including understanding dynamic human-environment relationship, individual quality of life, and sustainable social development. First, behavioral geography provides a new perspective to understand the interaction between geographic space and individual behavior from the perspective of micro-processes. It includes three new directions including analyzing dynamic geographic backgrounds, emphasizing the combination of subjective and objective, and deepening the understanding of cognitive space. Second, behavioral geography focuses on the quality of life at the individual level, and understands the quality of life and its changes from the perspective of temporal and spatial behavior. The main topics include lifestyle, social relations, subjective well-being, and physical and mental health. Third, behavioral geography understands urban issues and improves urban governance from the perspective of micro-processes, and bridges the gap between individual research at the micro-scale and urban spatial research at the macro-scale. It brings a behavioral perspective on social equity, smart cities, low-carbon cities, and planning applications. Behavioral geography faces challenges in methodology, research methods, and interdisciplinary aspects. It needs to think about aggregation and scale issues, develop theory- and problem-oriented research, find new interdisciplinary development points, consolidate the core of geography, expand its boundary, and optimize its theoretical system.

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    Spatial expansion mode of manufacturing firms in big cities and its impact on firm efficiency: A case study of Beijing listed firms
    ZHANG Keyun, PEI Xiangye
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (10): 1613-1625.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.001
    Abstract483)   HTML19)    PDF (4699KB)(169)      

    Firms spatial expansion is of great significance to enterprise efficiency and regional coordinated development. Based on the data of listed manufacturing firms in Beijing and their subsidiaries from 2009 to 2018, this study examined the enterprise spatial expansion model through the changes of spatial distribution of subsidiaries, and analyzed the change of the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries brought by expansion. Furthermore, the dynamic panel measurement method was used to empirically test the impact of the change of geographical distance and economic distance between headquarters and subsidiaries on the efficiency of manufacturing enterprises with different expansion modes. The study found that: First, during the study period, the scale of expansion of the sample listed manufacturing firms in Beijing was relatively large, and the spatial expansion mode has changed from hierarchical diffusion to a combination of hierarchical diffusion and contagious diffusion, with contagious diffusion as the dominant mode. The geographical distance between headquarters and subsidiaries showed an upward trend, and the economic distance first decreased and then increased. Among these firms, technology-intensive firms and non-state-owned firms tend to experience hierarchical diffusion, while non-technology-intensive firms and state-owned firms tend to undergo contagious diffusion. Second, for the firms with contagious diffusion as the main expansion mode, geographical distance between headquarters and subsidiaries was negatively correlated with firm efficiency, but the efficiency of firms that did not take contagious diffusion as the main mode of expansion was not affected by geographical distance. Third, regardless of firm expansion mode, economic distance between headquarters and subsidiaries was positively correlated with firm efficiency. Therefore, different types of manufacturing firms should choose different expansion strategies.

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    Characteristics, effects, and influencing factors of the relocation of administrative centers at or above the county level in China
    ZHAO Biao, WANG Kaiyong, ZHAO Yicai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (2): 185-198.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.02.001
    Abstract482)   HTML30)    PDF (7214KB)(285)      

    The scientific and reasonable siting of administrative centers directly affects the efficient allocation of resource elements, equality of basic public services, coordinated and balanced regional development, and modernization of national governance system and governance capacity. This study used spatial analysis and the difference-in-differences (DID) model to analyze the basic characteristics, mechanism, and economic effects of administrative center relocation in China since the reform and opening up in 1978. The results show that in terms of relocation characteristics, the higher the administrative level, the longer the relocation distance is, and the relocation is mainly concentrated after 2000, especially in North China, while the relocation distance in western China is generally much longer than that of other regions. In terms of relocation effects, the growth rates of population, economy, and construction land around the new administrative centers are obviously faster than that of the original administrative centers. On the whole, the relocation of administrative centers plays a certain role in promoting economic development, but there is also a clear spatial heterogeneity. In terms of the factors and mechanism of influence, the process is mainly influenced by the restriction of resources and environmental conditions, the promotion of old city planning and reconstruction, the guidance of the development and construction of new areas, the reform of the administrative system, and urban development strategies. The relocation of administrative centers is usually the result of the joint action of multiple factors.

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    Spatiotemporal change of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China and influencing factors
    LI Fengjiao, LIU Jiaming, JIANG Lili
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 541-553.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.001
    Abstract456)   HTML16)    PDF (6614KB)(67)      

    Strategic emerging industries are important support for national economic development. It is of great significance to explore the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the development level of related industries in Northeast China to promote regional economy and industrial innovation development. Using the Tianyancha software to extract the A-shares and the new over-the-counter market listed company data in 2009, 2014, and 2019 for Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces and applying the methods of Markov chain, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographical detector model, this study explored the spatial and temporal change of strategic emerging industry development level and analyzed its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is constantly improving, and the growth rate is slowing down. All types of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China have achieved leap-forward development, while the industries at a high development level have achieved steady development. 2) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is characterized by a "polar area" in the central part of the region and a "S-shaped polar zone" in the south. Spatial agglomeration is weakened, and the spatial differentiation of the provinces is gradually enhanced. The spatial centers of gravity of development level of various industries have shifted southward, with both diffusion and agglomeration effects. 3) Different factors play different roles, and multiple factors jointly affect the change of the development level and spatial pattern of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China.

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    Spatiotemporal pattern and population exposure risks of air pollution in Chinese urban areas
    XIAO Jiayu, HE Chao, MU Hang, YANG Lu, HUANG Jiayi, XIN Aixuan, TU Peiyue, HONG Song
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (10): 1650-1663.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.004
    Abstract447)   HTML12)    PDF (18885KB)(128)    PDF(mobile) (18885KB)(1)   

    In recent years, the spatiotemporal distribution and its hazards to republic health of air pollution in China have shown new characteristics. Using hourly air quality monitoring data for five years (2015-2019) in 332 Chinese cities, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of air quality and urban population exposure risks by different methods. The results suggest that: 1) Air quality in Chinese urban areas has improved in recent years. Ambient Air Quality Index (AQI) decreased in 303 cities (91.3%). The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO declined while the concentrations of NO2 and O3 increased. 2) The hotspots of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO concentration change rates were distributed in Xinjiang and Yunnan-South China. The hotspots of NO2 concentration change rate were in the Xinjiang area and the Hetao Plain. The hotspots of O3 concentration change rate were from the North China Plain to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The trends of air quality change in the Northwest and South China were relatively slow. 3) Nine cities were exposed to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO pollution, which were located in Shanxi, Hebei, and Shandong provinces; 12 cities had no exposure risks to these six pollutants, which were distributed in Xinjiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Guangdong, Fujian, and Heilongjiang provinces. These conclusions are of important reference value for collaborative treatment of cross-regional air pollution and formulating spatially diffenrentiated population flow management policies in China.

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    High-resolution monitoring of glacier dynamics based on unmanned aerial vehicle survey in the Meili Snow Mountain
    WU Kunpeng, LIU Shiyin, ZHU Yu, XIE Fuming, GAO Yongpeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1581-1589.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.09.012
    Abstract411)   HTML6)    PDF (19124KB)(185)      

    The glaciers of the Meili Snow Mountain are now rapidly retreating and thinning, owing to climate change. The main aim of this study was to monitor the dynamics of the Mingyong Glacier in the Meili Snow Mountain based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) survey and UBase. The result of the digital surface model (DSM) in the Mingyong Glacier terminus shows that the surface morphology has a significant difference between the upper and lower sections. The lower section was covered by a large amount of debris, and a few crevasses developed along the direction of glacier flow. Little debris was found in the upper section, and a lot of transverse crevasses developed there. A mean ice thinning of 1.67 m was observed in the terminus of the Mingyong Glacier from November 2018 to November 2019, and surface lowering was heterogeneous. There were positive and negative alternations in surface lowering in the upper section, surface thinning was observed in the middle section, while a significant thickening was observed in the lower section. Compared with glacier changes in other areas in the High Asia Mountains, the Meili Snow Mountain was the region with the most significant glacier surface elevation change.

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    Initial analysis of low-altitude internet of intelligences (IOI) and the applications of unmanned aerial vehicle industry
    FAN Bangkui, LI Yun, ZHANG Ruiyu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1441-1450.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.09.001
    Abstract405)   HTML17)    PDF (12481KB)(157)      

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is in an important period of rapid technological breakthrough and application growth, which will vigorously promote the low-altitude economy development. The low-altitude Internet of Intelligences (IoI) is the cornerstone of the UAV industry development and an important infrastructure to realize the "human-UVA-physical objects" fusion and AIoT (All in Internet of Thing) in low-altitude airspace. The construction of low-altitude IoI aims to realize the transition from the traditional Internet to the AIoT by the space-air-ground-sea network infrastructure, and to form a physical cyberspace for the digital and intelligent operation of low-altitude services. It can provide a digital, intelligent, and networked environment for the UAV industry, which is of great significance for promoting the development of low-altitude economy.

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    Glacier change and response to climate in the northern slope of the middle Nyainqêntanglha Mountains during 1990-2020
    ZHANG Wei, LI Yapeng, CHAI Le, TANG Qianyu, GE Runze, MA Haonan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2073-2085.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.008
    Abstract389)   HTML15)    PDF (4665KB)(97)      

    Located on the southeast edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Nyainqêntanglha Mountains are an important area of mountain paleoglaciers. Affected by the monsoon, the glacier change characteristics in each region are obviously different. Based on Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI data, ASRTMGDEM and meteorological data, using the method of threshold ratio, visual interpretation, VOLTA model and combined with field investigations, this study analyzed the advance and retreat conditions, area changes, ice reserves changes, and glacier changes deal with climate change of modern glaciers in the middle Nyainqêntanglha Mountains from 1990 to 2020. The results show that: 1) During the period 1990-2020, the elevation of the five studied glaciers (G094383E30581N, G094574E30563, G094637E30633N, G094770E30626N and G094928E30607N) gradually increased. The glacier area and ice reserves decreased by 30.38 km2 and 64 km3 respectively. 2) The ice reserve of each glacier decreased by 0.14-1.92 km3, with an overall change rate of 0.40%·a-1. By 2020, the reserves of the above glaciers will account for 0.70, 0.99, 0.98, 0.91 and 0.82 in 1990 respectively, which shows that the larger the scale of the glacier, the smaller the change is in a short time. 3) Through the analysis of meteorological data, during 1990-2020, the average temperature change rate of the study area was 0.51 ℃, which shows that the overall glacier change was dominated by the temperature rise. It is predicted that the glacier change in the future will be controlled by the temperature and show a trend of accelerated retreat. 4) The regional comparative study showed that the glacier area change in the Nyainqêntanglha Mountains is generally in a state of retreat, but the characteristics of glacier change in different regions are obviously different. The research on glacier ice reserves in the region is relatively weak, and the simulation results of different research methods for the same glacier ice reserves have large errors, with the relative error range of 34.45%-115.49%.

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    Structure, mechanism, and paths of spatial governance in metropolitan fringe with the participation of multi-subjects
    HAN Wei, CAI Jianming, ZHAO Yifu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (10): 1730-1745.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.010
    Abstract327)   HTML3)    PDF (5913KB)(49)      

    With the further development of new urbanization and implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, spatial governance in metropolitan fringe is worthy of attention. As the metropolitan fringe is located at the junction of urban and rural areas, population, society, resources, and other issues in metropolitan fringe reflect the urban-rural conflicts. Therefore, the spatial governance in metropolitan fringe is of great significance for the balanced development of urban and rural areas. As collaborative governance of multi-subjects is a clear requirement for the improvement of national governance system and governance capacity, it is important to examine how to realize the spatial governance of multi-subjects coordination in metropolitan fringe. Based on the perspective of multi-subjects, this study examined the theoretical framework, structure, issues, mechanisms, and paths of spatial governance in metropolitan fringe, and drew the following conclusions. First, through the literature and theoretical analysis of the relationship between the governance subjects and the spatial characteristics of metropolitan fringe, this article summarized the theoretical framework of spatial governance in metropolitan fringe from the perspective of multiple subjects. It showed that with the transformation of governance subject in metropolitan fringe from single subject to multi-subjects coordination, urban and rural spaces gradually develop to a balanced state. Second, by exploring the historical development of metropolitan fringe, this study concluded that the spatial governance structure of metropolitan fringe has gradually transformed from single center structure to multi-centric network structure. Third, in the process of spatial development in metropolitan fringe, the multi-subjects follow the principle of maximizing their own interests to compete for resources. The competition for spatial resources causes three problems of spatial governance, which are the diversification of material space, the differentiation of social space, and the imbalance of spatial power. Fourth, the multiple subjects follow their own spatial governance needs and logic to implement the corresponding governance mechanism for the urban fringe. Finally, based on the cooperation of multi-subjects, the optimized path of spatial governance in metropolitan fringe is concluded. Based on the above conclusions, this article summarized and constructed the progressive research framework of "governance structure-governance issues-governance mechanism-path optimization". At present, the research of spatial governance still needs to be improved. In order to promote the institutional turn of human geography and constantly expand the research field, it is vital to strengthen the research on the spatial relationship, governance mechanism, and path optimization of multi-subjects and metropolitan fringe.

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    Environmental risk assessment of obstacles in low-altitude flight of unmanned aerial vehicle: Taking the Beijing-Tianjin New Town as an example
    HE Hongbo, XU Chenchen, YE Huping
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1503-1515.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.09.006
    Abstract323)   HTML8)    PDF (11463KB)(37)      

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is increasingly widely used, but with the continuous progress of urban development, the safe operation of UAV in cities is increasingly more prominent. Therefore, environmental risk assessment of obstacles has become one of the key issues in the field of low-altitude UAV research. In this study, taking the Beijing-Tianjin New Town as an example, the low-altitude airspace was divided into micro, light, and small UAV flight zones according to the low-altitude UAV types and operating heights. Based on the shape and size of UAVs, their motion constraints, and obstacle constraints, this research proposed an algorithm for approximation point expansion. The algorithm generates an expanded boundary on the basis of the original boundary of the obstacles, and this expanded boundary serves as a transitional zone between high risk and low risk areas in the low-altitude flight environment. Based on the UAV image data of 0.5 m resolution in the Beijing-Tianjin New Town in 2019, this study extracted obstacle elements in different assessment areas, and generated low-altitude flight obstacle environmental risk maps for different UAV types and different heights based on the risk assessment. The study area was divided into high-risk zone, high-risk transitional zone, medium-risk zone, and low-risk zone according to the threat posed to UAVs. The results show that: 1) The risk transitional zone in the micro, light, and small UAV control areas in the study area accounted for 10.9%, 7.3% and 9.0%, respectively, and the sharp-angle convex vertex optimization of the approximate point expansion algorithm can save about 1% of the airspace resources. 2) The proposed method can calculate the potential collision risk area of the UAVs in the flight area based on the mutual influence of the UAVs and the obstacles, and realize the effective assessment of the environmental risk of the low-altitude obstacles and provide a scientific reference for the navigability of the UAVs of different types in the flight area.

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    Rural economic resilience in poor areas and its enlightenment: Case study of Yangyuan County, Hebei Province
    LI Yuheng, HUANG Huiqian, SONG Chuanyao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1839-1846.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.004
    Abstract322)   HTML12)    PDF (1885KB)(81)      

    Resilience is a basic characteristic of the rural system, which plays a crucial role in rural revitalization. By the end of 2020, China had completed the mission of poverty alleviation in the new era. However, rural development in some areas is of low quality and when facing external risks and challenges, these areas have the risk of returning to poverty. Therefore it is urgent to improve rural resilience. This study selected Yangyuan County of Hebei Province in the contiguous poverty-stricken area of Yanshan-Taihang Mountains as the research object. The "Pressure-State-Response" (PSR) model was constructed to comprehensively evaluate the rural economic resilience. The study found that: 1) The average value of rural economic resilience in Yangyuan County is 0.13 (total score is 1), which indicates that the quality of rural economic development is not high. 2) The areas located near the town and township seats and close to the main traffic lines display high economic resilience. In contrast, mountainous areas and areas far from the main traffic lines display low economic resilience. 3) Low per capita income of rural households, low per capita arable land, and insufficient investment in rural fixed assets are the main constraints to economic resilience. The article proposed four aspects to improve rural resilience: establishing multi-level development system of "individual farmers-rural collectives-urban centers", strengthening the development of infrastructure such as rural transportation and communication systems, promoting farmers' skill training, and strengthening the collective economy of the villages. Developing key towns-central villages-new rural communities effectively accelerates the development of ruralization, which drives rural development together with urbanization.

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    Spatial characteristics and influencing factors of carbon emissions in county-level cities of China based on urbanization
    WANG Rui, ZHANG He, QIANG Wenli, LI Fan, PENG Jingyi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 1999-2010.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.002
    Abstract311)   HTML23)    PDF (4894KB)(127)      

    This study selected 1897 county-level cities in China as the research unit to examine the spatial distribution pattern of carbon emissions and the effects of population, economy, and multi-dimensional urbanization levels on carbon emissions. The data sources are CHRED-online carbon emission public database and social and economic statistics of counties and county-level cities. Spatial autocorrelation and geographic detector methods were used in the empirical research. The results show that: 1) County-level cities of China are relatively highly different in carbon emissions, and the number of areas with high carbon emissions is relatively small, but the emission value is relatively large. The carbon emissions per unit of GDP are higher than the national average. 2) The spatial distribution of total carbon emissions mainly presents a pattern of high in the east and low in the west. The high-value areas of total carbon emissions are mainly concentrated in the east, the periphery of large cities in central China, and the central and northern regions of Inner Mongolia, showing a clustered distribution structure. Per capita carbon emissions and carbon intensity show a pattern of high in the north and low in the south, mainly concentrated in the central and northern parts of Inner Mongolia and the border areas of Xinjiang and Qinghai. 3) The spatial heterogeneity of the level of economic and land urbanization has a strong explanatory power for the difference in the total carbon emissions of county-level cities, and the impact of population urbanization on the total carbon emissions is not obvious. The interaction between economic urbanization and land urbanization has the most dramatic impact on carbon emissions, and shows a nonlinear enhancement effect. 4) With regard to regional differences, the level of urbanization has the most dramatic effect on the underdeveloped areas in the west. The eastern, central, and western regions also show different spatial characteristics in terms of the explanatory power of the same indicators and the key influencing factors.

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    Development of unmanned aerial vehicle cloud management system with the application of geographic information technology
    TAN Junming, LIAO Xiaohan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1451-1466.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.09.002
    Abstract310)   HTML6)    PDF (16436KB)(233)      

    The conflict between the thriving drone flight demand and the limited low-altitude airspace has become increasingly apparent. Countries of the world are advancing the research on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) regulation policies and technical methods. Even in the U.S. Class G airspace that has the least restrictions, the authorities are considering implementing strict UAV regulation. The UAV cloud management system is a new type of digital supervision method, and its framework and technical roadmap have received extensive attention and research from Chinese and international researchers and regulatory authorities. As one of the applications of cloud management system, geographic information technology is specifically advantaged in the following aspects: Using the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) to achieve precise spatial positioning of UAVs; Using remote sensing (RS) technology to obtain information on geographic constraints that affect the flight safety of UAVs; Organize low-altitude geospatial data based on geographic information system (GIS) and construct low-altitude virtual geographic environment, and so on. This article combines the research progress of our team on low-altitude applications of UAVs and points out that geographic information technology can provide solutions for UAV operation management.

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    Spatio-temporal variation of actual evapotranspiration in the south and north of the Qinling Mountains during 2000-2019
    LI Shuangshuang, ZHANG Yufeng, ZHANG Liwei, WANG Ting, YAN Junping
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1900-1910.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.009
    Abstract304)   HTML14)    PDF (7608KB)(77)      

    Remote sensing-based analysis on characterizing the spatio-temporal variation of actual evapotranspiration (ET) is essential for sustainable water resource management. The Qinling Mountains are transitional, and different land use patterns provide typical cases for understanding the relationship between ecological restoration and evapotranspiration under the global climate change and human activities. Based on MODIS ET and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of ET in the north and south of the Qinling Mountains from 2000 to 2019, explored the relationship of ET with vegetation restoration in different regions, and analyzed the key ocean-atmosphere indices that influence the tendency and inter-annual change of ET in the study region. The results show that: 1) The contour of 1000 m is the boundary between the northern subtropical zone and the warm temperate zone of the mountains. High altitude mountainous areas (>1000 m) are the areas where the ET decreases significantly (P < 0.01), and low altitude valley areas (< 1000 m) are the areas where the ET increases significantly (P < 0.01). 2) Except for the surrounding areas of cities and towns, the underlying Earth surface of the north and south Qinling Mountains is relatively stable in recent 20 years. The active areas of land use cover change are mainly distributed in the mountainous transition zone of 1000 m, where ET and NDVI changes are significantly correlated, while the correlation between ET and NDVI is relatively low in high altitude areas above 1000 m. 3) ENSO and the atmospheric pressure anomaly in the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can be used as teleconnection factors to explain the trend changes and interannual fluctuations of ET in the Qinling Mountains and the Hanjiang Valley. The correlation between western Pacific subtropical high and annual fluctuation characteristics of ET is weaker than the trend variation of ET in the Qinling Mountains and the Hanjiang Valley. When the central Pacific El Niño events occur, the subtropical high intensity in western Pacific is stronger, and the anomalous anticyclone is formed in the lower layer of the troposphere, which leads to the northward shift of rain belt, less precipitation, higher temperature, and larger evapotranspiration in the Qinling Mountains and the Hanjiang Valley. Our research results imply two useful perspectives for adapting to climate change in north and south of Qinling Mountains. Firstly, we should pay attention to the large-scale circulation anomalies with teleconnection impact associated with the variation of ET in Qinling Mountains and the Hanjiang Valley. Secondly, we need explicitly consider the decreasing of ET in the high altitude of Qinling Mountains influencing on the regional water-cycle components.

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    Total factor productivity of marine economy in China in the era of digital economy
    SUN Caizhi, SONG Xianfang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 1983-1998.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.001
    Abstract303)   HTML10)    PDF (1097KB)(77)      

    Based on the external conditions of technological progress and market demand upgrading in the process of high-quality development and the evolution of production factors, the factors of production in a digital economy are no longer limited to the traditional factors of production of labor, land, and capital. As knowledge and information, data have become the new core factor of production. However, data do not spontaneously generate economic value, and their impact on the economy does not break away from the framework of the traditional endogenous growth theory. They integrate technology flow, material flow, capital flow, and talent flow effectively, which render many factors in the traditional economic growth theory with new meanings. Therefore, it is necessary to appropriately expand the existing theoretical system. Based on the evolution of the endogenous growth model, this study constructed an input-output indicator system including data factor to measure the total factor productivity of marine economy in 11 coastal provinces of Chinese mainland (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and the productivity changes of each factor from 2006 to 2018 using the directional distance function (DDF)-Luenberger index and its decomposition model. The results show that: 1) The performance of data factor in all coastal areas of Chinese mainland increased to different degrees, but the digital divide between these areas during the study period still cannot be ignored. 2) The measurement results of the DDF-Luenberger index show that since 2006, the total factor productivity of marine economy in all coastal areas has increased, and the stage characteristics are obvious. 3) The results of single factor performance measurement show that: with regard to the data factor, having large amounts of data only indicate the potential to transform them into real productivity, and the change of total factor data productivity still depends more on the change of digital technology. With regard to the labor factor, the development of digital economy shows the Matthew effect in the improvement of labor skills. During the study period, the total factor labor productivity in all coastal areas showed an upward trend. With regard to the capital factor, the change of total factor capital productivity shows obvious temporal and spatial differentiation characteristics. With regard to the resource factor, in general, the total factor resource productivity of coastal provinces shows positive changes with obvious stage characteristics.

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    Identification and evolution of peri-urban areas in the context of urban-rural integrated development:A case study of Suzhou City
    LIAO Xia, SHU Tianheng, SHEN Liyin, REN Yitian, YANG Nan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1847-1860.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.005
    Abstract294)   HTML7)    PDF (11851KB)(62)      

    :Peri-urban areas are transitional urban areas with urban-rural mixed landscape and functions, and the positive change of peri-urban areas is essential to achieve the mission of urban-rural integrated development. The accurate identification of the spatial scope of peri-urban areas is a prerequisite for managing such areas, and a scientific understanding of the change of peri-urban areas can provide important references for its future development. However, due to the high complexity, dynamics, and fuzzy boundary of peri-urban areas, there is still little progress in fine-scale and quantitative identification of such areas. Under such backgroud, this study established a methodology for identifying peri-urban areas supported by remote sensing data, comprehensively considering the complexity and multi-dimensional characteristics of peri-urban areas. First, a comprehensive indicator system across socioeconomic and spatial pattern dimensions was established. Second, a measurement for peri-urban index was developed by using spatial gridding and linear weighting methods. Third, combined with the moving t-test and probability density analysis, the threshold for distinguishing peri-urban areas and non-peri-urban areas was determined. Finally, taking Suzhou City as a case, the peri-urban areas of the city in 2010, 2015, and 2018 were identified at the 1 km × 1 km scale. On this basis, the pattern of change of Suzhou's peri-urban areas was further discussed. It is expected that the research results can provide some references for future urbanization process of Suzhou City and other regions. The case results show that the peri-urban areas of Suzhou are spatially discontinuously distributed around the central urban district, and temporally experience a decreasing trend, especially during the period of 2015 to 2018, which indicates that the urbanization process of Suzhou City tends to be under control, and the city's rural industrialization and urban sprawl have slowed down.

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    Impact of high-speed railway on Chinese urban venture capital network: Empirical study based on cross-city venture capital events
    ZHUANG Delin, LIU Yuchen, WANG Shuai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (10): 1626-1638.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.002
    Abstract292)   HTML5)    PDF (1854KB)(104)      

    Based on the 41692 venture capital investment events in China's mainland from 2001 to 2017, the impact of high-speed railway on the agglomeration, radiation, and intermediary powers of Chinese venture capital network was studied by using the social network analysis model, as well as the heterogeneity of the effect of different city types, radiation radius of the central cities, and four investment stages, in order to research the impact of high-speed railway on Chinese urban venture capital network. The analysis of the time-varying Difference-in-Differences (DID) model shows that high-speed railway can improve the accessibility of cities, reduce the transaction cost of venture capital activities, promote the cross-regional flow of innovation resources, and enhance the abundance of urban innovation elements, thus having a positive impact on the venture capital network development. High-speed railways have a significant promoting effect on the city network of venture capital in both non-central cities and central cities, and the positive effect is stronger in central cities. The impact of high-speed railway on venture capital network is different under different distance scales: the influence is significantly weaker in areas within a radius of 100 km and beyond 200 km than that between 100 km and 200 km. The impact of high-speed railway on the agglomeration power, radiation power, and intermediary power of venture capital network in the expansion and maturity stages (with lower risk, stable return, and higher marketization degree) is clearly more significant than in the seed stage and initial stage.

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    An overview of flight demonstration of NASA unmanned aircraft system traffic management system
    WANG Maolin, LV Renli, GUAN Xiangmin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1488-1502.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.09.005
    Abstract289)   HTML6)    PDF (10990KB)(106)      

    With the rapid development of civilian unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in the fields of logistics and distribution, geographic information detection, and emergency rescue, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly developed the Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management System (UTM) and carried out a large number of verification tests. According to the technical level, NASA divides the operation technologies and related flight demonstration tests into four technical level phases, of which the TCL-3 and TCL-4 are the core phases of the UTM test and also the most technically complex phases. This article summarized the third and fourth phases of the flight demonstration tests of the UTM system in the United States. Based on the key technologies, the test contents and operation scenarios, as well as the relevant flight experience were summarized. Finally, some recommendations for UTM system design in China were put forward.

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    A review of research on the characteristics and formation mechanism of urban functions
    ZENG Chunshui, LIN Mingshui, ZHAN Dongsheng, LIN Yuying, WU Shidai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1956-1969.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.013
    Abstract289)   HTML5)    PDF (1718KB)(75)      

    Urban functions are an important basis for city identity and the formulation of development strategies. Urban functions have development stage, hierarchical, and regional characteristics. It is urgent to analyze and summarize the research results of different scholars in order to grasp the pattern of urban functional characteristics and formation mechanisms. The results show that: 1) The functional characteristics of different stages of urban development include political and commercial functions in the agrarian society; and manufacturing, trade, and logistics functions in the industrial society. The post industrialization stage is characterized by the service industry, and productive services are the main functions. 2) With regard to the functional characteristics of different city scales, the higher the city level, the more comprehensive the urban functions and the stronger the service functions. 3) At different spatial scales, cities present different functional characteristics. 4) Traditional factors such as natural conditions, population, transportation, government guidance, and location play a fundamental role in the evolution of urban functions, while new factors such as science and technology, globalization, and informatization play an increasingly important role. The evolution of urban functions is also affected by regional division of labor, industrial upgrading, industrial transfer, convergence development, and other mechanisms. 5) In the future, we should include and improve the long-temporal scale and recent research on urban functions, deepen the research on urban function effect, urban function evolution mechanism, and function optimization, and promote the integration with national strategies. In addition to statistical analysis, the research methods should be supplemented by field survey, questionnaire, interview, and other methods.

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    Spatial pattern and determinants of floating population’s permanent settlement intention between prefecture-level cities in China
    DING Yue, LIN Liyue, ZHU Yu, KE Wenqian, XIAO Baoyu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1888-1899.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.008
    Abstract288)   HTML11)    PDF (1133KB)(58)      

    Along with the development of "people-centered urbanization" and a series of household registration (hukou) reforms, promoting the conversion of floating population into urban residents (shiminhua) has become a priority task of China's urbanization. The permanent settlement intention of floating population is one of the driving forces to promote the urbanization of floating population. Based on the 2017 China Migrants Dynamic Survey conducted by the National Health and Family Planning Commission and China's city statistical yearbook 2017, and using the spatial visualization function of ArcGIS and multiple linear regression model, this study analyzed the spatial pattern and determinants of floating population's permanent settlement intention between prefecture-level cities in China. The results show that the overall level of the floating population's permanent settlement intention is only 27.2%, and there is a significant variation of floating population's permanent settlement intention between prefecture-level cities among cities of different sizes and geographical regions. The flow of permanent settlement intention forms a multipolar pattern with Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Beijing as the main cities, and the core cities of some inland urban agglomerations as supplement. Meanwhile, the floating population prefers the three major coastal urban agglomerations of the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and with the increasing intention of permanent settlement, the choice of cities is increasingly focused on a few big cities. The modeling results reveal that the more stable of employment environment and higher wages of the destination cities than the cities of origin, the stronger intention of floating population to settle permanently. The gap of the wage and unemployment rate between the destination cities and cities of origin significantly affects the floating population's permanent settlement intention. Female, older people, and people with higher levels of educational attainment, short distance of migration, longer duration of residence in the host city, and family migration, have significantly higher permanent settlement intention. Moreover, owning houses in the destination city began to replace the role of employment and became the most important economic status variable in the settlement decision-making process. These results will facilitate relevant policy making to further advance China's urbanization, and contribute to better theoretical understanding of urban and mobility transitions in developing countries.

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    Advances in light weight unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing and major industrial applications
    GUO Qinghua, HU Tianyu, LIU Jin, JIN Shichao, XIAO Qing, YANG Guijun, GAO Xianlian, XU Qiang, XIE Pinhua, PENG Chigang, YAN Li
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1550-1569.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.09.010
    Abstract277)   HTML13)    PDF (26414KB)(282)      

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a flexible and efficient platform to accurately obtain high-resolution and multi-source remote sensing data in low altitude airspace. It can provide important information for industrial applications and management decisions. With the arrival of the big-data era, both the hardware and software for acquiring and processing UAV remote sensing data stepped into a fast lane. The enormous amount of data has brought unprecedented opportunities and challenges for UAV remote sensing and industrial applications. In this article, we introduced the history and advances in UAV remote sensing hardware development. The UAVs mounted with lightweight, high-precision, standardized, and integrated sensors would be the future direction of UAV remote sensing hardware development. Then, we summarized the current status of applications in agriculture, forestry and prataculture, surveying, geological hazard monitoring and disaster management, electricity sector, and atmospheric monitoring using UAV remote sensing. The integrated UAV remote sensing platforms equipped with multi-sensors are one of the keys for such applications. Finally, we discussed the intelligent UAV hardware, network operation potential, massive data processing capability, automatic information extraction technique, and future directions in UAV remote sensing. The popularization and standardization of UAV remote sensing application in various industries will largely improve and accelerate national and regional social and economic development.

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    A review of household energy consumption research from the perspective of spatial scale
    JIANG Lu, HUANG Gengzhi, XIE Huichun, WANG Changjian, GUO Jie, DONG Zhiqiang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (10): 1788-1798.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.014
    Abstract276)   HTML7)    PDF (2287KB)(42)      

    Energy is one of the core topics of geographic research. As a typical activity involving regional human-land relationship, household energy consumption is a major trend in the refined research of energy geography. Based on the spatial scale perspective of geography, we reviewed the origins of energy geography research, the spatial characteristics of household energy consumption, formation mechanism, and data sources. Three main conclusions are drawn: 1) Constructing a panoramic survey framework of household energy data, including the geographical type, energy type, quantity, and use in the scope of the survey. 2) Meso-scale research needs to be strengthened. Coordination through the micro-medium-macro-scale relationship is conducive to understanding and grasping the characteristics and patterns of household energy consumption from a nested structure as a whole. 3) Constructing a comprehensive analysis framework of multi-factors such as household attributes, geographic factors, and lifestyles, and analyzing the dynamic drivers for the formation of spatial characteristics of household energy consumption, to realize the essential understanding of the spatial differentiation process of household energy consumption. This study contributes to the internationalization of energy-related spatial research and practice in the field of geography, and has positive significance for supplementing the theoretical perspective of Chinese household energy consumption research.

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    Spatial evolution of farm towns and its dynamic mechanism from the perspective of institutional change: A case study of Wusan Farm in Hubei Province
    LIU Run, WANG Run, YANG Yongchun, LI Xiaohu, HU Yanxia
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (10): 1678-1690.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.006
    Abstract274)   HTML5)    PDF (4924KB)(44)      

    Institutional change is a major driving force for urban spatial evolution. As a special and important type of town, farm towns are more affected by institutional factors. Given that existing research is less involved in the evolution of farm towns under institutional changes, this study first systematically reviewed the overall situation of the changes in the farm system. Then taking the Wusan Farm, a state-owned farm in Hubei Province, as an example and using a comprehensive research approach including text analysis, non-participatory observation, and in-depth interviews, this study examined the spatial evolution of farm towns and its dynamic mechanism under institutional changes since the founding of the People's Republic of China. The results reveal that: 1) The spatial evolution of farm towns is mainly reflected in three aspects: spatial form, spatial relationship, and spatial function. The spatial form has undergone a process from slow change to drastic change. Spatial relationship has shifted from the production collaboration relationship to the rural-urban relationship. Spatial function changed from public operation to private operation, production-oriented to consumption-oriented, and single function to diversification. 2) Institutional change promotes the spatial evolution of farm towns by changing the role of the farm, interest relationships, and resource allocation. The change of farm identities directly affects the development direction of farm towns. As a result, the farms' corporate identity is becoming more prominent. Changes in the interest relations promote the industrialization and marketization of farm town space. Therefore, industrial parks, commercial streets, and industrial clusters have emerged and developed rapidly. Changes in resource allocation affect the spatial evolution of farm towns by changing the subject, type, scale, and speed of resource allocation. Through this research, we hope to be able to guide the development of farm towns in the new era. For example, we believe that clarifying the relationship between the institutional changes at the national level and the institutional changes at the reclamation administration level can guide the development of farm towns. Likewise, the development of farm towns must pursue quality and efficiency rather than the simple expansion of built-up areas, because farm towns do not have enough land to support extensive development. We also hope that this study can enrich the theoretical research of urban spatial evolution.

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    Research progress on the arrangement of territorial ecological restoration
    WANG Chenxu, LIU Yanxu, YU Chaoyue, LIU Xiaoqian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1925-1941.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.011
    Abstract273)   HTML4)    PDF (3376KB)(76)      

    The implementation of ecological restoration of territorial space is an important way to construct ecological civilization in the new era. The arrangement of ecological protection and restoration is the precondition and basic link for scientifically carrying out ecological restoration, which affects the protection implementation, the effectiveness of engineering restoration, and the allocation of social resources. Based on the analyses of the relationship of the concepts related to ecological restoration, and from the perspectives of region identification and temporal sequence identification, this study used bibliographic analysis to examine the current research status of the ecological restoration arrangement internationally, and reviewed the application of the theoretical paradigm of landscape "pattern-process-service-sustainability" in the study of the arrangement of terrestrial ecological restoration. This article identified six important research trends, including the construction of ecological protection and restoration goals that support sustainable development, the balance of spatial and temporal needs for ecological restoration based on social satisfaction, opportunity cost-oriented ecological restoration cost evaluation, natural solutions based on ecological rigid constraints, decision-making threshold of ecological protection and artificial restoration under the concept of resilience, and location decisions for ecological protection and restoration projects based on spatial and temporal simulation, to construct a terrestrial ecological restoration arrangement research system coupled with social-ecological goals. It may provide a reference for the research and practice of ecological restoration of territorial space.

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    Spatio-temporal change and influencing factors of city size distribution: Global empirical research based on LandScan data
    WANG Yu, SUN Bindong, ZHANG Tinglin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1812-1823.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.002
    Abstract266)   HTML9)    PDF (2349KB)(82)      

    Understanding the patterns of city size distribution around the world is important for the formation of reasonable city size distribution and high-quality national economic development. Based on a panel two-way fixed effects model and multiple databases such as LandScan from 2000 to 2018, this study identified the spatial and temporal change characteristics of city size distribution at the national level and analyzed its influencing factors as well as their heterogeneity based on global cities with a uniform definition. It was found that city size distribution across countries showed a fluctuating equalizing trend. In terms of spatial change, African and South American countries showed gradually equalized city size distribution, while Asian and European countries showed a trend of polarization. In a comparison of the present situation, African countries lead in the polarization of city size distribution, while European countries are the most equalized. Higher river densities, city population densities, and industrialization levels promote a equalized city size distribution, while larger topographic relief and national unrest reinforce their polarization. Compared to other factors, the socioeconomic factors (especially urban population density) have the most significant impact on the heterogeneity of city size distribution across countries with different income levels, industrial structures, and levels of government intervention. Although increased city population density contributes to a more equalized city size distribution overall, it has a significant polarizing effect in service-dominated and weak government intervention countries and a less pronounced effect in high-income countries. The balancing effect of industrial development on city size distribution and the polarizing effect of increased railway density are more significant in low-income countries, manufacturing-dominated countries, and countries with weak government intervention. Increased economic development significantly contributes to the polarization of city size distribution in service-dominated and weak government intervention countries and the expansion of openness contributes to the equalization of city size distribution in high-income countries. The increase in city population and internet penetration contributes to polarization and equalization of the city size distribution in countries with strong government intervention, and the increase in government spending only has a balancing effect on the city size distribution in countries with strong government intervention. This study deepens the knowledge of the patterns of city size distribution and its formation mechanism, and provides strong empirical support for the formation of a reasonable city size distribution. In the future, China should reshape the national economic geography by constructing an appropriately equalized city size distribution, expanding the two-way internal and external openness, and applying new generation information technologies.

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    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1439-1440.  
    Abstract266)   HTML18)    PDF (245KB)(51)      
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    Simulation and analysis of wind speed and direction of unmanned aerial vehicle route in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region based on high resolution model
    ZHONG Ruomei, WEN Xiaohang, XU Chenchen
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (9): 1528-1539.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.09.008
    Abstract265)   HTML6)    PDF (12167KB)(29)      

    With the continuous opening of China's low-altitude airspace, relying on the existing low-altitude flight weather support technology to provide services for low-altitude safe flight is to some extent insufficient, and it is also difficult to forecast wind speed that has the greatest impact on flight. Based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model mesoscale numerical model, this study simulated the wind speed and direction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2015 to 2019, then compared the simulation results with the observation data of the weather stations in order to provide simulation tools for the safety of drones flying on low-altitude routes in the region. The main conclusions are as follows: the WRF model can better simulate the seasonal trend of wind speed, the simulation result in the plain areas is better than in the mountainous areas, and the simulated wind speed in the mountainous areas is higher than the observed data but the error is within an acceptable range (RMSE<1.5 m·s-1). The minimum values of average wind speed and maximum wind speed both appear in the late summer, and the maximum average wind speed appears in spring (4.43 m·s-1 in the mountainous areas, 4.13 m·s-1 in the plain areas). The maximum wind speed fluctuates and increases in winter, spring, and early summer, begins to decrease in mid-summer, and decreases to a minimum in late summer and early autumn. Wind speed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is decreasing from northwest to southeast, the average wind speed at Potou Station (-0.02 m·s-1·(5 a)-1) and Tianjin Station (-0.02 m·s-1·(5 a)-1) showed a downward trend, the wind speed at other stations showed an upward trend, and Tangshan Station has the largest increase rate (0.08 m·s-1·(5 a)-1). With regard to the seasonal spatial distribution of wind speed, the average wind speed is mainly on the rise, and the station proportions are 45.45% in spring, 90.91% in summer, 63.63% in autumn, and 81.81% in winter. The prevailing wind in the plain areas is northeast-southwest; the wind direction of Huailai Station in the mountainous area is mainly in WNW direction (18.70%) and W direction (15.01%), while the wind direction of Yuxian Station is mainly in N (16.79%) and NNW (12.03%). Compared with the plain areas, the number of strong winds with wind speed of 8.0 m·s-1 has increased significantly in the mountainous areas. At a height of 1000 m, the frequency of strong winds in the plain areas increased significantly and the growth rate was higher than in the mountainous areas, which is not conducive to UAV flight, and the probability of occurrence of wind speeds above 17.0 m·s-1 is also significantly higher than in the mountainous areas.

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    Cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China’s automobile production network from the perspective of “global-local”: A case study of FAW-Volkswagen
    ZHAO Ziyu, WANG Shijun, CHEN Xiaofei, HAN Zhonghui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (5): 741-754.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.001
    Abstract264)   HTML4)    PDF (9464KB)(15)      

    Under the background of global production network development, the research on "global-local" cross-regional relatedness of production organizations has important theoretical significance. The cross-regional network characteristics and geospatial representations of China's joint venture automobile production network have been explored in the global-local interactive situation. Based on the perspective of global-local production relatedness and multi-scale integration and using primary supply data of automobile manufacturing, this study analyzed the cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China's joint venture automobile production network represented by FAW-Volkswagen. The results show that: 1) The global-local multi-scale integration provides a good perspective for understanding the industrial transfer footprint of multinational corporations in building global production networks. The German company Volkswagen is embedded into China's automobile manufacturing system by building global production network, and the structure of the production network shows a typical characteristic of global-local relatedness. 2) The spatial distribution of local primary suppliers in the FAW-Volkswagen automobile production network is highly consistent with the "T"-shaped pattern of China's territorial development strategy. Investment type / technology control of automobile suppliers presents a regional organization model of the same type of spatial agglomeration, and the agglomeration degree presents the characteristic of sole proprietorship ≈ joint venture > local investment business. 3) Through the production transfer of automobile assembly plants and the procurement by cross-regional supply chains, the production organization of FAW-Volkswagen has formed a cross-regional cluster network structure with the core of cities where the automobile assembly plants are located and are restricted by geographical boundaries. 4) Spatial and temporal constraints, location advantages and agglomeration effects, technological innovation represented by modular production, venture strategies of multinational groups, and foreign investement club strategies jointly influence the spatial organization structure of the FAW-Volkswagen production network. Through a typical case study, this study provides theoretical and practical bases for understanding the organizational structure of China's key industrial production networks under the global-local multi-scale.

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