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    Change and influencing factors of China’s cross-regional investment network structure
    JIAO Jingjuan, ZHANG Qilin, WU Yuyong, JIANG Runze, WANG Jiao'e
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (8): 1257-1268.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.08.001
    Abstract992)   HTML3)    PDF (3942KB)(222)      

    With the increasing economic interaction between cities, capital flow across regions has gradually become a key factor affecting the regional economic disparities. Cross-regional enterprise investment is regarded as the micro embodiment of capital flows. It is of great significance to explore the characteristics of cross-regional enterprise investment for reducing regional economic disparities. Thus, this study examined the cross-regional investment network using the cross-regional investment data of Chinese listed companies in 1998-2018, and analyzed the characteristics of the spatial evolution of China's cross-regional investment network and its influencing factors at the national and regional levels. The results show that: the spatial agglomeration trend of node centrality in China's cross-regional investment network at the national and regional levels is obvious and the cities with high node centrality are mainly concentrated in the five major urban agglomerations. There are obvious hierarchical structure, spatial heterogeneity, and path dependence of the cross-regional investment network; the net investment inflows and outflows are mainly in the eastern region, and the investment activities tend to develop toward the central and western regions; the influence of city economic development level, industrial structure, and financial environment varies across regions and types of cities with different population scales.

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    Spatial match between residents’ daily life circle and public service facilities using big data analytics: A case of Beijing
    ZHAO Pengjun, LUO Jia, HU Haoyu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (4): 541-553.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.001
    Abstract831)   HTML77)    PDF (20777KB)(356)      

    Residents' daily life circle is one of the key issues in relation to the national spatial planning in the "new era". Supply of public service facilities is the primary condition for plan-making of this type of circle. Spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities reveals the human-environment relationship at the community level. There exist many studies on spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities. However, the existing findings are mainly based on survey data, which have disadvantages such as insufficient samples, small geography coverage, and so on. This study investigated the spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities in large cities by taking Beijing as an example. Using mobile phone data and point-of-interest (POI) data collected in 2018, this study measured the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities, and analyzed the relationship between the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities by the bivariate spatial autocorrelation method. It also analyzed the geographical variations in the relationship. The results of analysis show that residents' daily life circle has a multi-centric structure at the city level. The length of radius of the circle increases from the central areas to the periphery. Accessibility of public service facilities is featured with a zonal structure but its level decreases with the distance away from the centers. The level of accessibility is negatively related with radius of the circle, which means that the higher level of accessibility, the smaller radius of the circle. There are geographical variations in the relationship. The relationship is "high-low" in the city center and new town centers, but dominated by "low-low" and "low-high" pattern in the fringe of the city center and new town centers. There are also variations in the relationship between different types of public service facilities. For the cultural and leisure facilities, the degree of spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities is obvious lower than other facilities. The conclusion of this research provides new evidence for residents' daily life circle study, and has policy implications for residents' daily life circle planning.

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    Spatial distribution of population decline areas in China and underlying causes from a multi-periodical perspective
    LIU Zhen, QI Wei, QI Honggang, LIU Shenghe
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (3): 357-369.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.03.001
    Abstract593)   HTML280)    PDF (7612KB)(163)      

    Regional population decline has gradually become a new phenomenon in recent years, which has attracted extensive attention from scholars and the government. Using the national census data and 1% population sampling survey data, this study identified the population decline areas at the county level from 1990 to 2015 from a multi-periodical perspective. Based on the theoretical analysis of the driving factors of population decline, a cluster analysis has been conducted to reveal the spatial differences of the driving factors of population decline, which resulted in four typical cases of causes. The findings are as follows: First, the population decline areas have very different trajectories: while about 24% of them are characterized by fluctuating but overall decline, about 13% of them have experienced continuous decline, and about 5% of them have only experienced recent decline. Second, the fluctuating but overall decline county units were mainly distributed in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Gansu, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, and Fujian Provinces, and the continuous decline county units were mainly concentrated in Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and the Northeast region, and the recent decline county units were mainly concentrated in the Northeast region, Henan, and Xinjiang. Third, there are obvious regional differences in the driving factors of population decline: the county units driven by lagged economy accounted for the highest percentage, and these units were mainly distributed in the central and western regions; the county units in the Northeast region were mainly driven by the slowed economic development and the low natural growth level; in contrast, the percentage of county units only driven by the low natural growth level is relatively low, and these units were mainly distributed in the eastern region. Based on these findings, we argue that it is necessary to pay more attention to the phenomenon of population decline at the regional scale, and take targeted measures by fully considering the trend of change and driving factors of population decline in different regions.

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    Spatial differentiation and influencing factors of fan economy in China: Taking TikTok livestreaming commerce host as an example
    PENG Jue, HE Jinliao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (7): 1098-1112.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.07.003
    Abstract478)   HTML16)    PDF (6060KB)(122)      

    Fan economy is a rapidly emerging business in the Internet era. However, the existing literature lacks research on fan economy from a geographical perspective. Based on the theory of network space, and taking TikTok livestreaming commerce host as an example, combined with the influencing factors of e-commerce and urban amenity theory, this study constructed an index system of influencing factors affecting the spatial distribution of Chinese livestreaming commerce host. Using location quotient, global Moran's I, and cold-hot spot spatial analysis methods, we analyzed the spatial agglomeration characteristics of Chinese livestreaming commerce host, and the geographic factors that affect livestreaming commerce host distribution through spatial regression. The results indicate that: 1) China's fan economy shows a significant spatial agglomeration, and it is highly concentrated in the eastern coastal areas, with Guangzhou and Hangzhou as the most prominent. 2) The digital economy represented by livestreaming is reshaping China's original city tier systems. Cities with entertainment media, e-commerce, and characteristic tourism (such as Changsha, Jinhua, and Lijiang), are very attractive to livestreaming commerce hosts, even more than some first-tier cities (such as Beijing and Shanghai). 3) Through spatial regression analysis, it is found that the environment for e-commerce startups and cultural tourism have a strong explanatory power for the spatial distribution of livestreaming commerce hosts. The convenience of living and the natural environment also have an important impact, and the impact of human capital is small. At the same time, the number of patents has a significant crowding out effect on livestreaming commerce hosts, and livestreaming commerce has a strong grassroots nature. This research provides detailed empirical cases for in-depth understanding of the spatial process of fan economy and its influence mechanism and provides a reference for local governments to promote the development of digital economy and formulate talent introduction policies.

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    Change of spatial structure of manufacturing industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its driving factors
    JIANG Haibing, LI Yejin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (5): 721-735.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.05.001
    Abstract462)   HTML62)    PDF (15093KB)(314)      

    The development strategy of industrial transfer and upgrading, coordinated development, and in-depth integration of advanced manufacturing in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region put forward higher requirements for the spatial layout of manufacturing industrial clusters. Research on the change of manufacturing industry spatial pattern can provide a reference for the optimization of urban agglomerations' advanced manufacturing industries. Based on the micro-level data of industrial enterprises above designated size in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2000 to 2013, this study used kernal density analysis and panel data regression models to explore the characteristics and driving factors of the change of the manufacturing industry spatial pattern in the region. The results of this empirical research show that: 1) The overall spatial pattern of all manufacturing industries in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is relatively stable, and high-value areas are concentrated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area. The regional linked development of capital-intensive industries is gaining momentum; technology-intensive industries are increasingly concentrated in a few districts and counties, and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with surrounding districts and counties has weakened as a whole; spatial expansion into nearby districts and counties and spatial transfer of labor-intensive industries appeared alternately; and the regional linked development promotes the balanced growth of manufacturing industries in various regions and narrows the development gap. 2) The manufacturing industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shows a clear trend of specialization and regional division of labor, and labor-intensive industries are increasingly spreading to the periphery of the central cities and the counties in the central and southern areas of the region. Capital-intensive industries are concentrated in the industrial belt on the west coast of the Bohai Sea, the industrial output value of the peripheral areas of the region has increased significantly, and technology-intensive industries are gathered in the Beijing-Tianjin high-tech industrial belt. 3) The key driving factors of the three types of manufacturing industries are different. Labor-intensive industries are affected by investment and transportation accessibility. Capital-intensive industries are highly dependent on local market size and investment, and are insensitive to transportation accessibility. Technology-intensive industries are mainly constrained by transportation accessibility and wage levels. The three types of manufacturing industries are obviously affected by local fiscal expenditures.

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    Simulation of city network accessibility and its influence on regional development pattern in China based on integrated land transport system
    CHEN Zhuo, LIANG Yi, JIN Fengjun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 183-193.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.001
    Abstract399)   HTML47)    PDF (13495KB)(452)      

    With the increasing emphasis on coordinated regional development, transport and socioeconomic developments in China have taken a new turn in recent years. Based on the present and future integrated land transport network, the trend of city network accessibility and its impact on the change of regional development patterns in China were analyzed in this study by focusing on the construction of travel circles and regional balance. The results show that the completion of the existing planning can greatly improve the accessibility of China's city network and can largely support the construction of travel circles according to the shortest travel time. By promoting the development of hub-spoke organization mode and spatial cascading order, the existing planning can guide the multi-center and networking development of spatial structure and provide a basis for the coordinated and balanced development between regions. In the future, China's transport development should continue to optimize the supply structure of transportation services and improve the ability of the integrated transport system to serve the needs of people's daily lives and production.

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    Land consolidation and rural vitalization:A perspective of land use multifunctionality
    JIANG Yanfeng, LONG Hualou, TANG Yuting
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (3): 487-497.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.03.012
    Abstract383)   HTML17)    PDF (3626KB)(287)      

    The long-term supply-demand imbalance of rural land use functions (RLUFs) is one of the main reasons for rural issues in China. Based on the multifunctionality theory, this study explained the mutual relationship between rural land consolidation (RLC) and rural vitalization with a focus on supply-demand and element-structure-function relationships, and then discussed how to realize the supply-demand balance of RLUFs through RLC so as to promote sustainable rural development. The results show that: 1) Comprehensive rural land consolidation is a multifunctional land use method and an important means to solve rural issues for promoting rural vitalization. In essence, it is the transition from productivism that focuses on economic benefits to non-productivism that takes social, economic, and environmental benefits as a whole. 2) RLUFs include production, living, ecological, and cultural functions, corresponding to the economic, social, enviromental, and cultural demands of rural vitalization. The production functions are divided into agricultural, commercial, and industrial functions, and living functions include residential, employment, and public service functions. 3) Along the path of integrating land use elements, restructuring land use structures, and optimizing land use functions, RLC promotes the supply-demand balance of RLUFs from the supply side according to local conditions. 4) In future research, the mechanisms and modes of RLC impact on rural vitalization at different spatial scales, as well as quantitative analysis of the functional supply of land use and the functional demand of rural vitalization under the influence of RLC should be given more attention, thus laying a scientific foundation for the formulation and implementation of land use and rural vitalization planning.

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    Spatial patterns and controlling factors of settlement distribution in ethnic minority settlements of southwest China: A case study of Hani terraced fields
    LIU Zhilin, DING Yinping, JIAO Yuanmei, WANG Jinliang, LIU Chengjing, YANG Yuliang, WEI Junfeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 257-271.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.007
    Abstract362)   HTML15)    PDF (15380KB)(339)      

    Settlement pattern, an important part of the human-nature system, is the foundation of rural geography, and it has become a hotspot in geographic research. Scientific analysis and characterization of settlement patterns are significant for promoting the development of urbanization, ethnic unity, and well-off society in rural minority areas. However, there is still a lack of research on the settlement patterns of ethnic minority areas, especially in those multi-ethnic group gathered areas. This study depicted the settlement patterns of seven ethnic minority groups (including Hani, Yi, Zhuang, Han, Miao, Yao, and Dai) in the Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage area, which is a typical multi-ethnic group gathered area in the southwest of China. The results show that: 1) In terms of spatial locations, 68% of the settlements in the Hani terraced fields area are located in the west and central parts of the territory, mainly in the areas of Han, Yi, and Zhuang. 2) The ethnic settlement pattern in the Hani terraced fields is characterized by the mix of Hani-Yi, accompanied by the mix of other ethnic groups. 3) In terms of location and the environment, settlements of the seven ethnic groups have significant differences in locational and environmental characteristics such as altitude, slope, temperature, precipitation, distance to river, settlement scale, cultivated land area, distance to administrative center, and grain yields. 4) The main controlling factors of the distribution of Zhuang, Miao, and Yao settlements are economic and administrative and distance to tourism centers (86.4%, 75.3%, and 92.8%); the main controlling factor of the distribution of Yi settlements are air temperature (52.0%); and the main controlling factors of the distribution of Han, Hani, and Dai settlements are precipitation (98.7%, 52.2%, and 97.0%). 5) On the whole, the settlements of Hani terraced fields formed a three-dimensional pattern of multi-ethnic symbiosis vertically, and a multi-ethnic mosaic pattern horizontally. This research can provide a reference for the construction of new rural areas in minority regions, the optimization of settlement patterns, targeted poverty alleviation, and the construction of a well-off society in an all-round way.

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    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population heat map in leisure areas in Beijing on holidays
    ZHAO Ziyu, ZHAO Shiyao, HAN Zhonghui, XU Yunxiao, JIN Jie, WANG Shijun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (7): 1073-1085.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.07.001
    Abstract345)   HTML21)    PDF (6322KB)(116)      

    The Chinese government has curbed the outbreak of COVID-19 through a population flow control rarely seen in history. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the recreation industry. Using mobile location data, this study quantitatively analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population heat map in the leisure areas within the Third Ring Road of Beijing City on the Qingming Festival and Labor Day. The results showed that: 1) The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted population heat map in leisure areas in Beijing on holidays, and the population heat map values of the three types of leisure areas investigated in this study declined by 54.2% and 53.0% on the Qingming Festival and Labor Day in 2020 as compared to the 2019 values, respectively. To be specific, the population heat map values of famous scenery, shopping services, and hotel accommodation decreased by 53.6%, 57.5%, and 52.9% on the Qingming Festival, and by 48.5%, 52.0%, and 55.6% on Labor Day, respectively. 2) There were differences in the degree of the impact on population heat map in different types of areas in famous scenery. The impact on the three major segments of famous scenery can be ranked in ascending order as follows: temples and churches (41.7%, 50.3%), parks and squares (53.1%, 47.1%), and scenic spots (61.1%, 51.2%). Wilcoxon rank sum test showed that the hourly variation of population heat map in temples and churches was smaller, and the overall demand can be ranked in ascending order as follows: sightseeing, daily leisure, and religious activities. 3) The 2020 population heat map of the leisure areas within the Third Ring Road of Beijing City was significantly negatively and positively correlated with the population heat map before the pandemic and area of these leisure areas, respectively. This can be attributed to the risk perception of the leisure crowds and the spatial and environmental factors of the disease prevention and control measures. This study provides a scientific basis for assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on leisure forms in big cities of China.

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    System dynamics model-based simulation of energy consumption pattern on the two sides of the Huhuanyong Line in China
    ZHAO Sha, HU Zui, ZHENG Wenwu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (8): 1269-1283.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.08.002
    Abstract344)   HTML3)    PDF (8100KB)(57)      

    The Huhuanyong Line is a real portrayal of the spatial pattern of population, economic, and social development in China. It perfectly describes key characteristics of energy production and consumption. Quantitatively simulating the spatial pattern of energy consumption on the two sides of the line can provide a reference to achieve regional coordinated development. This study employed data from the China Energy Statistical Yearbook (2005-2014). We first constructed the System Dynamics Model Based on the Huhuanyong Line Energy Consumption Simulation Model (HLECSM-SD) using the GM ( 1,1 ) model and System Dynamics (SD) model. Then, we simulated the pattern of various energy consumptions on the two sides of the line from 2020 to 2025. Finally, this study analyzed energy consumption of China under three scenarios. The results indicate that: 1) The HLECSM-SD model fits the data well. 2) Energy consumption presents the spatial pattern of more in the east and less in the west in China. 3) The change trend of energy consumption growth rate is consistent across the two regions. The east side has a lower growth rate than the west side. 4) On the east side of the line, coal consumption has the characteristics of more in the north and less in the south. This is consistent with the spatial distribution of China's coal resources. The consumptions of petroleum, natural gas, and electricity all have the characteristics of more in the east and less in the central region. This is determined by many factors, such as resource endowment, economic development, population scale, and industrial structure of each province. 5) The influencing factors have different degrees of impact on energy consumption under different scenarios. Our findings can provide some reference for the macro decision making in the energy field.

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    Geography of sustainability transitions: A sympathetic critique and research agenda
    YU Zhen, GONG Huiwen, HU Xiaohui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (3): 498-510.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.03.013
    Abstract335)   HTML16)    PDF (1297KB)(122)      

    Sustainability transitions focus on the fundamental transformation of the existing socio-technical system towards a more sustainable mode of production and consumption. Emerged in Europe two decades ago, this new research field has already exerted impacts on the green transition policy practices of many countries and regions. In recent years, transition studies have increasingly taken geography into account, resulting in a new paradigm of geography of sustainability transitions. This emerging paradigm focuses on the role of spatial embeddedness and multi-scalar interactions in explaining where transitions take place. This article provides a critical overview of the development in the geography of sustainability transitions research, and suggests five promising avenues for future transition research in the Chinese context: 1) to develop concepts and theorize from the Chinese context; 2) to link sustainability transitions with latecomer regions' industry catch-up; 3) to compare the sustainability transitions in cities with different leading industries; 4) to pay more attention to the role of local agency through the lens of multi-scalar interactions; and 5) to explore the impact of digitalization and artificial intelligence on sustainability transitions.

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    Toward rural-urban co-governance: An interpretation of the change of rural-urban relationship since the reform and opening up
    ZHANG Wenbin, ZHANG Zhibin, DONG Jianhong, ZHANG Huailin, GONG Weimin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (5): 883-869.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.05.014
    Abstract332)   HTML9)    PDF (3427KB)(68)      

    The relationship between urban and rural areas in China has been an important relationship for economic and social development and a major concern of the party and the government. In order to explore the relationship between urban and rural areas and its governance logic, the CiteSpace software was used to analyze the research hotspots of rural-urban relationship since the reform and opening up in the 1970s and to interpret its change based on the historical background, and then reveal the contextual characteristics of rural-urban relationship and the internal logic of governance reform. The research shows that since the reform and opening up, rural-urban relationship has gone through four stages—from an improving urban-rural relationship, to rural-urban re-separation, rural-urban relationship adjustment, and integrated rural-urban development. The process reflects the governance logic of breaking the rural-urban division, favoring the urban field, balancing rural-urban development, and promoting rural-urban integration. Since the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the relationship between urban and rural areas has developed in the direction of rural-urban integration. Rural-urban co-governance is the internal demand and governance trend of integrated rural-urban development in the new era. Finally, the article discussed the prospect of integrated rural-urban development and rural-urban co-governance from the aspects of abolishing the rural-urban dual system and establishing new supporting systems and mechanisms, breaking disciplinary boundaries and integrating interdisciplinary knowledge and cross-application of practice, and organically combining the two strategies of new urbanization and rural revitalization.

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    Patterns and determinants of location choice in residential mobility: A case study of Shanghai
    CUI Can, MU Xueying, CHANG Heying, LI Jiayi, WANG Fenglong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (3): 422-432.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.03.006
    Abstract323)   HTML10)    PDF (4759KB)(134)      

    Since the marketization of China's housing system, urban residents' housing adjustment through making residential moves has become relatively frequent. Residential mobility, as the micro-mechanism of urban space differentiation and restructuring, has been extensively studied in urban geography and housing studies. However, the existing literature mainly focuses on the motivation underlying residential mobility and its impacts on individuals/families and urban space. Comparatively, the location changes before and after residential moves have received scant attention in previous studies. This study adopted the perspective of life course and time geography to depict the residential trajectories of Shanghai residents and explore the influencing factors of location choice in residential mobility. The data used for the empirical analysis were drawn from the 2018 "Shanghai Resident Housing and Living Space Survey", which adopted the stratified and multi-stage probability proportion to size sampling. A retrospective survey was conducted, allowing us to obtain information on the respondents' sociodemographic information and their residential trajectories. The results reveal that the dominant type of location change is outward move across the ring roads. Nevertheless, the variations in location choice between cohorts, local population and migrants, and renters and owners of properties are evident. Compared with the older cohorts, younger cohorts generally make residential moves at earlier ages, and many of them move from the central areas to the suburbs. Different from the local population, migrants' residential mobility is more constrained in terms of the timing of making residential moves and their location choice. Furthermore, this study shows that age, location of workplace, and housing tenure all significantly affect location choice in making residential moves. Specifically, the older cohorts concentrate in the central areas before as well as after a residential move. Commuting distance plays a major role in affecting people's choice of residential location, and owning an automobile has insignificant influence. A transition into homeownership is often associated with a change to an advantageous location.

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    Spatio-temporal patterns of urban-rural transformation and optimal decision-making in China
    GUO Yuanzhi, WANG Jieyong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (11): 1799-1811.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.11.001
    Abstract314)   HTML0)    PDF (3314KB)(0)      

    Urban-rural transformation (URT) is a comprehensive process with the characteristics of multi-domains and multi-levels. A scientific understanding of the concept and connotation of URT and a systematic discussion of the patterns and mechanism of URT are of great significance to solving the problems of unbalanced urban-rural development and insufficient rural development. Based on the theoretical cognition of URT, this study comprehensively analyzed the urban-rural development level and its spatial-temporal patterns in China, revealed the patterns of URT according to the coupling coordination degree of urban-rural development level, and discussed the key of urban-rural integrated development in different types of URT areas. The results show that URT is the result of the interaction between the change of urban regional system and the change of rural regional system, and its external representation is the coupling coordination state of the two different but closely related processes. From 2000 to 2018, the level of urban and rural development in all provinces of China's mainland has risen rapidly, and the coupling coordination degree of urban and rural development level has changed from being on the verge of imbalance to intermediate coordination. Spatially, the provincial coupling coordination degree of the central and western regions is significantly lower than that of the northeast and eastern regions. Accordingly, URT in China has realized the transformation from low-level urban-rural coordination to medium-level urban-rural integration, showing a spatial characteristic that provincial URT in the central and western regions lags behind the eastern areas, especially Beijing and the provinces in the Yangtze River Delta, where urban-rural development has entered or will soon enter the stage of high-level urban-rural integration. According to the features of URT in each province, URT in China can be divided into four types, that is, high-level urban-rural integrated area, medium-level urban-rural integrated area, low-level urban-rural integrated area Ⅰ, and low-level urban-rural integrated area Ⅱ. To continuously promote the development of new-type urbanization and the implementation of rural revitalization strategy, it is urgent to establish and improve the system and mechanism of urban-rural integrated development through measures such as deepening the reform, innovating the mechanism, and making up for the shortcomings.

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    Technology-introduction pattern of cities in China and its mechanism of change based on technology relatedness and complexity
    JIN Zerun, ZHU Shengjun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (6): 897-910.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.06.001
    Abstract310)   HTML35)    PDF (7934KB)(85)      

    "Development driven by innovation" is an important strategy of the Chinese government. This study used data including inter-city patent transfer from China Intellectual Property Office for 2017 and 2018 to explore the technology-introduction pattern of cities in China from the perspective of technology relatedness and complexity, using Gephi, ArcGIS, and Stata. This study hypothesized that: 1) cities tend to introduce technologies highly related to local knowledge structure; 2) the more complex a technology is, the less opportunity that cities will introduce it; and 3) the relatedness of a technology will mitigate the effect of its complexity on technology transfer. Based on the average relatedness and average complexity of technologies introduced in each city, this study identified four technology-introduction patterns, which are "high relatedness and high complexity", "low relatedness and high complexity", "low relatedness and low complexity", and "high relatedness and low complexity". Furthermore, unique mechanisms of change exist for different technology-introduction patterns. This study found that the complexity of introduced technologies increases with the economic development stage of the city, while the relatedness of that displays an inverse U-shaped mode. Hence, we divided technology introduction into three stages according to the level of urban development: 1) the learning stage dominated by low relatedness, 2) the reinforcing stage dominated by the increase in relatedness, and 3) the leaping stage dominated by diversification into unfamiliar technology fields. The empirical results show that in general, the increase in technological relatedness and the decrease in complexity of a technology will promote cities to introduce the technology, and the increase in relatedness will encourage cities to introduce more complex technology in that field. Additionally, the mechanism of change was tested through regression by groups—cities were sorted into four groups by their GDP per capita and population density, then we performed regression on technological relatedness and complexity respectively, which shows that the coefficient of relatedness lost significance in the most developed 25% cities, while it remained robust in the other three groups. The coefficient of complexity similarly lost significance in the most developed 50% cities. These results jointly verify the hypothesis of three technology-introduction stages. This study analyzed the pattern of technology-introduction empirically, stressing on the importance of relatedness and complexity in innovation research, which offers a grounded reference for guiding the innovation development path of cities.

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    Mechanism of interaction between urban land expansion and ecological environment effects in the Yangtze River Delta
    YANG Qingke, DUAN Xuejun, WANG Lei, WANG Yazhu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 220-231.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.004
    Abstract307)   HTML10)    PDF (31825KB)(238)      

    Taking the Yangtze River Delta as the research object, this study established the correlation model and coupling degree model for evaluating the mechanism of interaction between urban land expansion and ecological environment effects by using grey correlation analysis method. It explored the pattern of temporal and spatial variation and coupling degree characteristics of urban land expansion and ecological environment effects and change, and analyzed the interactions between the two systems. The results show that: 1) The index of urban land expansion in the Yangtze River Delta has been increasing, and the socioeconomic development and land use development have played a significant positive role. Socioeconomic development imposes a demand for greater urban production and living space and higher environmental quality. The increase of construction land area, the high-intensity expansion and the decrease of population density are all important reasons for the increase of urban land expansion index. 2) The overall performance of the regional ecological environment quality is stable, and the ecological environment effect is reflected in its spatial differentiation, with obvious characteristics of spatial and temporal change. The ecological environment quality of the cities in Zhejiang Province is significantly higher than that of Shanghai Municipality and Jiangsu Province, which is closely related to the regional environmental carrying capacity, the construction of pollution control facilities, and the propagation of ecological protection concepts. 3) Most cities have low coupling degree between urban land expansion and ecological environment effect, and the relationship between the two systems is in a state of imbalance. In the process of urbanization, land expansion tends to be low-density and decentralized, which strongly threatens the ecological security and environmental quality and lead to the increase of spatial disparity between urban land development and ecological environment protection. 4) There is a strong interaction between the elements of urban land expansion system and ecological environment system in the Yangtze River Delta, and the forces of each element are slightly different. The stressing effect of urban land expansion on ecological environment is gradually increasing, while the restraining effect of ecological environment on urban land expansion is decreasing.

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    Spatial expansion mode of manufacturing firms in big cities and its impact on firm efficiency: A case study of Beijing listed firms
    ZHANG Keyun, PEI Xiangye
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (10): 1613-1625.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.001
    Abstract305)   HTML5)    PDF (4699KB)(33)      

    Firms spatial expansion is of great significance to enterprise efficiency and regional coordinated development. Based on the data of listed manufacturing firms in Beijing and their subsidiaries from 2009 to 2018, this study examined the enterprise spatial expansion model through the changes of spatial distribution of subsidiaries, and analyzed the change of the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries brought by expansion. Furthermore, the dynamic panel measurement method was used to empirically test the impact of the change of geographical distance and economic distance between headquarters and subsidiaries on the efficiency of manufacturing enterprises with different expansion modes. The study found that: First, during the study period, the scale of expansion of the sample listed manufacturing firms in Beijing was relatively large, and the spatial expansion mode has changed from hierarchical diffusion to a combination of hierarchical diffusion and contagious diffusion, with contagious diffusion as the dominant mode. The geographical distance between headquarters and subsidiaries showed an upward trend, and the economic distance first decreased and then increased. Among these firms, technology-intensive firms and non-state-owned firms tend to experience hierarchical diffusion, while non-technology-intensive firms and state-owned firms tend to undergo contagious diffusion. Second, for the firms with contagious diffusion as the main expansion mode, geographical distance between headquarters and subsidiaries was negatively correlated with firm efficiency, but the efficiency of firms that did not take contagious diffusion as the main mode of expansion was not affected by geographical distance. Third, regardless of firm expansion mode, economic distance between headquarters and subsidiaries was positively correlated with firm efficiency. Therefore, different types of manufacturing firms should choose different expansion strategies.

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    Measurement of rural poverty alleviation sustainability and return-to-poverty risk identification in Qinling-Bashan Mountains:A case study of Chengkou County, Chongqing Municipality
    GUO Qian, LIAO Heping, WANG Ziyi, LIU Yuanli, LI Tao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 232-244.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.005
    Abstract269)   HTML4)    PDF (10335KB)(179)      

    Achieving sustainable poverty alleviation and establishing a prevention and control mechanism for return-to-poverty in extreme poverty rural areas is a realistic requirement in the post-2020 era. It is also a key link between precision poverty alleviation and rural revitalization. Taking Chengkou County of Chongqing Municipality—an area of strong ecological fragility and concentrated continuous poverty—as the research area, and based on the poverty alleviation sustainability measurement model, obstacle degree model, and minimum variance model, this study explored the spatial differentiation of multidimensional poverty alleviation sustainability and the return-to-poverty risk models for 60 villages and 1950 farming households in the area. The study found that: 1) The sample villages' poverty alleviation sustainability distribution generally showed a "gourd-like" structure where the front end is narrow and the middle part protrudes. The multidimensional poverty alleviation sustainability in the area is generally low and of different degrees. 2) The return-to-poverty risk in Chengkou County can be divided into four models and 11 types, dominated by diversified integration of various resistance factors. Human capital, development opportunities, and other factors related to sustainable income growth, dynamic anti-risk capability, and endogenous drives of farmers have gradually become the focus of poverty reduction and control of return-to-poverty at this stage. 3) Local governments should give equal priority to alleviating poverty, improving the sustainability of poverty alleviation, and preventing return-to-poverty. At the same time, improve people's ability to resist risks and develop a network for preventing return-to-poverty of vulnerable groups with specific policy in each village.

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    Do urban public service facilities match population demand? Assessment based on community life circle
    CHANG Fei, WANG Lucang, MA Yue, YAN Cuixia, LIU Haiyang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (4): 607-619.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.006
    Abstract259)   HTML16)    PDF (14340KB)(236)      

    Public service facilities (PSF) are the basic guarantee for urban production and living. Whether the distribution of public service facilities is equitable is related to the healthy development of cities and the society. At present, due to the lack of urban micro-scale population distribution data, there are few studies that consider both the supply side (PSF) and the demand side (population). In view of this, using the Internet maps application programming interface (API), this study established the 5-minute, 10-minute, and 15-minute community life circle of Lanzhou City, and then used Worldpop grid data, population census data, and Baidu heat map data to simulate the population distribution at high spatial resolution and with high accuracy. We evaluated the matching relationships between population and public service facilities in Lanzhou City. The study found that: 1) The matching relationships between different types of PSF and population are very different. However, they show a common phenomenon that the matching degree close to district administrative centers is often better than that of urban fringe. 2) In Lanzhou City, the matching relationships between PSFs and population are highly polarized, that is, there are more highly matched and mismatched life circles, and the number of moderately matched and relatively poorly matched life circles is fewer. 3) Based on the coverage of moderately and highly matched life circles, the coverage of all levels of travel, medical (except community health service centers corresponding to 10-minute life circle), dining, and entertainment facilities is the widest. The allocation of elderly care facilities at all levels and grass-roots cultural facilities is seriously inadequate, and other facilities are between the two types. The study concludes that the problems that have been identified need to be addressed. It suggests that urban planning should focus on the allocation of various PSF in the urban fringe, and improve the coverage of all levels of elderly care facilities.

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    Review on the urban network externalities
    CHENG Yuhong, SU Xiaomin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (4): 713-720.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.015
    Abstract255)   HTML6)    PDF (722KB)(73)      

    Urban network research has become the frontier academic field of international urban research and has gradually become a hot spot. At present, the related literature on "urban network" mostly focuses on conceptual discussion, dimension analysis, and network structure analysis. Research on the influence of network on regional economic development is relatively weak. Externality, as an essential attribute of urban network, is of great significance to the evolution of urban network and the development of cities and regions. This article starts from a comparison of agglomeration externalities with urban network externalities, focusing on the review and evaluation of the formation mechanism, utility, and measurement methods of urban network externalities. The synergy effect, integration effect, and borrowing size are considered important reasons for the formation of urban network externalities. The research on the effectiveness of urban network externalities focuses on two aspects. The first is the role of factor flow in promoting knowledge diffusion and innovation, and the second is the impact of urban network on competitiveness and economic growth. Based on the existing literature, the research on the measurement of urban network externalities mainly involves identification and estimation, including three common methods: correlation analysis, regression analysis, and spatial econometric analysis. The existing empirical research on externalities is still mostly based on static analysis and lacks dynamic consideration. To a large extent, the existing research has insufficient theoretical framing and insufficient explanatory power, often resulting in the discovery of conditional associations, but not causal relationships. The Western research on urban network externalities is relatively early and mainly focuses on the global and regional dimensions, while Chinese scholars focus on the national and regional dimensions. In terms of empirical methods and objects, Chinese scholars have also made some innovations based on the study of world city network. The issues that need further attention in the future include theoretical understanding of urban network externalities, externality measurement methods, and empirical research.

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    Progress of research on adaptation of human-environment systems: Concepts, theoretical frameworks, and methods
    YIN Sha, YANG Xinjun, CHEN Jia
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 330-342.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.013
    Abstract254)   HTML7)    PDF (2700KB)(149)      

    The purpose of adaptation research is to reduce the negative effects of external environment and improve adaptation through the adjustment of the subject to the changes of the external environment, which is an important way to realize the sustainable development of human-environment systems. In view of the lack of a unified understanding and systematic review of the adaptation theories, this article summarized the progress of research on adaptation from the concepts, theoretical frameworks, and methods by examining the literature on adaptation of human-environment systems in China and internationally, and put forward a scientific paradigm of adaptation research. The findings are as follows: 1) There is no scientific consensus on the concept of adaptation in academia, which hinders the construction of a general theoretical system of adaptation research. 2) The existing analytical frameworks of adaptation are mostly based on the extension and revision of the theoretical framework in the field of global change. 3) There is no representative method in adaptation research, which mainly uses vulnerability and resilience assessment methods and index systems. Therefore, the construction of a unified concept and theoretical system of adaptation needs to be strengthened. The existing theoretical research in other countries may not be universally applicable, and an analytical framework and method of adaptation research specifically useful in China should be an important research direction in the future. Simultaneously, it is necessary to strengthen the research on integrated adaptation of human-environment systems considering both human society and the natural environment, and pay attention to the dynamic analysis of adaptation with a combination of multiple scales.

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    A review on urban pluvial floods: Characteristics, mechanisms, data, and research methods
    HUANG Huabing, WANG Xianwei, LIU Lin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (6): 1048-1059.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.06.014
    Abstract241)   HTML11)    PDF (3446KB)(236)      

    The spatial heterogeneity of urban built environments is a primary challenge in the research of urban pluvial floods in terms of the model representativeness, computational efficiency, and data requirements. The development of new technologies, including artificial intelligence, big data, and remote sensing, provides opportunities for the research of urban pluvial floods, such as efficient approaches and high-resolution data. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the research progress on urban pluvial floods from four perspectives—flood characteristics, mechanisms, data, and research methods, and finally came to four conclusions: 1) Urban pluvial floods have typical features such as short duration, scattered and evolving spatial distribution, chain effect, and sharp increase of losses at the critical scenario. 2) Micro-topography plays an important role in the spatial distribution of urban pluvial floods, and the topographic control index shows the potential of identifying frequently flooded areas. 3) The highly variable rainfall processes are the bottleneck in the near-real-time flood simulation, and the radar rainfall data provide a solution. Internet-based big data provide a new way to extract flood inundation data with high spatial coverage, but still face the problems of quality control and fusion with multi-sources data. 4) Machine learning could be coupled with hydrodynamic models to improve the efficiency of near-real-time flood simulation.

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    Spatial accessibility of park green space in Huangpu District of Shanghai based on modified two-step floating catchment area method
    REN Jiayi, WANG Yun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (5): 774-783.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.05.005
    Abstract239)   HTML11)    PDF (10352KB)(244)      

    In order to solve the problem of unbalanced supply and demand of park green space in high density cities, this study used a Gaussian based two-step floating catchment area method to analyze the spatial accessibility of existing park green space in Huangpu District of Shanghai, under walking conditions. First, we extracted the point of interest (POI) data of residential areas from the Internet and aggregated them into a 100 m long hexagonal cellular network to calculate the number of people and population density, then through the Application Programming Interface (API) of Baidu Map we extracted the travel time between supply and demand points based on actual road conditions. Second, the paper took the park green space built by the end of 2018 in Huangpu District of Shanghai as an example, and considered the four aspects of residents' demand, accessibility classification, cold and hot spots, and blank areas. The results show that the accessibility level of park green space in Huangpu District is higher in the north and lower in the south, which is negatively correlated with the population density distribution. The dominant blind areas (9.16% of the total area) and the recessive blind areas (16.5% of the total area) should be eliminated. This study made a quantitative analysis on the supply and demand allocation, to provide guidance for the further optimization of green space layout and site selection. Finally, recommendations were made from three aspects of "increasing green space appropriately", "strengthening the quality of existing green space" and "community co-governance", in order to provide theoretical support for the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan of greening Huangpu District.

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    Living space structural pattern of typical residential areas in Shanghai
    FU Yingzi, WANG De
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (4): 565-579.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.003
    Abstract238)   HTML7)    PDF (10563KB)(178)      

    China is in a period of comprehensive transformation of economic and social developments. Urban development has shifted from expansion to focusing on the improvement of quality, and gradually began to focus on the quality of life of residents. Living space has become an important factor reflecting the quality of urban development. With the increasingly clear social class stratification and residential space differentiation in Shanghai, the complex background and multiple attributes of different residential areas shape a variety of living spaces, reflecting different life styles and quality of life. This study selected 253 typical residential areas as the research samples, and used mobile signaling data, supplemented by questionnaire survey data, to explore the structural pattern of living space of typical residential areas in Shanghai. Both the mobile signaling data and the questionnaire survey data were used to calculate the scope and boundary of daily activities, as well as the main nodes and channels of the activity network. It is found that the main center, subcenters, and other urban centers attract residents' daily activities and thus become nodes of the network; while rail transit makes activities extend and spread and become channels of activities by shortening travel time cost. The influence degree of urban centers and rail transit stations on residential areas can basically explain the spatial distribution of daily activities. Under the influence of these factors, 15 typical structural patterns have been formed. Among them, the main center has medium-strong influence, the subcenters have medium influence, and the structural mode of rail transit has the highest influence. Exploring the structure of living space in typical residential areas is of practical significance for the development of planning policies such as life circle construction, urban center system planning, and transportation facility construction.

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    Landscape multifunctionality change in rapidly urbanized areas of the Yangtze River Delta:A case study of Suzhou City
    LIANG Xinyuan, JIN Xiaobin, HAN Bo, SUN Rui, ZHANG Xiaolin, ZHOU Yinkang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 207-219.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.003
    Abstract237)   HTML14)    PDF (15422KB)(292)      

    Assessing the characteristics of landscape multifunctionality change in rapidly urbanized areas is critical for understanding resource allocation and optimization under the background of rural-urban development and transformation and for formulating reasonable regional land management and planning policies. This study took Suzhou City, the most prominent representative city in the urbanization process in the Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone, as the research area. Six landscape multifunctionality indicators are selected, including residential support, food supply, habitat maintenance, water conservation, climate regulation, and soil retention. Based on the 1 km landscape units, change in hotspots of regional landscape multifunctionality and trade-off co-evolution relationships were analyzed through spatial analysis, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) network model, and other methods. The research shows that: 1) Affected by urban expansion, landscape multifunctions in Suzhou during 2000-2015 were dominated by the spread of residential support functions. Other landscape functions represented a differentiated shrinking trend, of which the function of food supply and habitat maintenance was weakened most significantly, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the three regulatory functions were consistent. 2) Landscape multifunctionality in Suzhou has gradually increased over time, and its high-value (>2) areas are concentrated in forest, grassland, and farmland areas. The spatiotemporal change of regional landscape multifunctionality varied from strong to weak and gradually stabilized under the influence of socioeconomic development, the hotspots of change were mainly distributed in rural areas and rural-urban junctions, and the cold spots are mainly based on ecological spatial agglomerations. 3) Trade-off relationships between landscape multifunctions during the study period did not change over time, but there is a volatile change in trade-off degrees. Combining the features of multifunctional trade-offs and the changing pattern of multifunctionality hotspots, Suzhou City can be divided into eight types of dominant landscape functions and four types of rural-urban development zones in landscape units and township administrative units. Overall, the advantages of landscape multifunctionality in rapidly urbanized areas of the Yangtze River Delta present a circular spatial migration process of "city → near suburbs → far suburbs → rural areas". However, land use diversifications mapped out by the multifunctionality will inevitably lead to more land use conflicts. Policymakers should consider the design and implementation of landscape management or land use policies from a multi-scale spatiotemporal coupling perspective.

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    Evaluation of green space accessibility based on improved Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method: A case study of Shenzhen City, China
    TONG De, SUN Yiyu, XIE Miaomiao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (7): 1113-1126.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.07.004
    Abstract232)   HTML9)    PDF (17043KB)(156)      

    Accessibility of park green space is an important indicator of the livability level of a city. In order to solve the problem of scale imbalance between population and park green space distribution data by traditional accessibility analysis, this study used mobile phone signaling data to obtain the spatial distribution of population, and adopted the Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method to calculate the accessibility of park green space at the scale of traffic analysis zone (TAZ) in Shenzhen City. It also conducted a cluster analysis based on the accessibility results, supply and demand, and traffic conditions. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) More refined population information can be obtained through mobile phone signaling data to improve the accuracy of demand assessment. For different types of parks, the Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method represents an improvement in calculating the accessibility of parks in the city. 2) The overall level of comprehensive accessibility of park green space in Shenzhen is relatively high, but there is an obvious decreasing trend from the city center to the periphery. The mismatch between the accessibility of community parks and the supply and demand of park green space is an important reason for the large difference of accessibility among different regions in Shenzhen. 3) According to the results ofK-means clustering analysis, the TAZ units of the city was divided into low supply low demand low accessibility zone, medium supply low demand medium accessibility zone, high supply high demand medium accessibility zone, and high supply low demand high accessibility zone. 4) The accessibility of park green space can be improved by optimizing park layout, road construction, and residential area planning and layout. By improving data source and model of the traditional accessibility calculation, this study enriches the cases of park green space accessibility evaluation, and the proposed accessibility analysis method based on mobile phone signaling can also provide a reference for the accessibility analysis of other geographic phenomenon.

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    Danwei-based life circle practice in the emerging city of Shenzhen: Construction and characteristics
    GONG Yongxi, DUAN Jinghe, WANG Jiaqi, XIAO Zuopeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (4): 554-564.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.002
    Abstract226)   HTML14)    PDF (4460KB)(71)      

    As the basic institutional arrangement for resource allocation and social integration in China during the era of planned economy, the danwei system played an important role in shaping the daily activity space and life circle structure of urban residents. However, currently studies on the relationship between the danwei system and life circle mostly focus on cities with a long history of planned economy and strong state-owned economy. Few studies have attempted to focus on the danwei system in emerging cities, although the danwei system practice existed in these cities. In addition, few studies have explained the formation and development of life circle from the perspective of public service facility supply mechanism. This study first analyzed the evolving role of the danwei system in the process of urban construction and development in Shenzhen City. Seven communities with features of danwei compounds, named as pan-danwei communities, together with one commercial housing community and one urban village community, were selected to depict the life circles of residents in these communities from the dimensions of spatial behavior and social relations. We believe that the path differences of the danwei system on the spatial and social practice that occurred in these communities have resulted in different community life circle structures and patterns. The life circle of these pan-danwei communities has similar features with the traditional danwei communities. These features include work-housing balance, self-contained amenity provision, and strong sense of community. On the other hand, because residents have no personal attachment to the danwei or the neighborhoods, they can make full use of various urban facilities to meet diverse demands. It provides a new model of reconstructing life circle in China, learning from the danwei communities. It is essential to encourage the development of various types of pan-danwei communities. Especially, various enterprise units or community developers should be supported to participate in the public good provision mechanism, and the construction mechanism of community life circles should be improved. Analyzing the localized practice of community life circles of this type of danwei compound can enrich the concept and construction models of community life circle in a market economy environment.

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    Research progress and prospect of the interrelationship between ecosystem services and human well-being in the context of coupled human and natural system
    QIU Jianjian, LIU Yihua, YUAN Li, CHEN Chengjing, HUANG Qingyao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (6): 1060-1072.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.06.015
    Abstract221)   HTML7)    PDF (2374KB)(111)      

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the conflict between the degradation of ecosystem services (ES) and the increase of human needs has become increasingly intensified. How to improve the interrelationship between ecosystem services and human well-being (HWB) towards a coordinated and balanced state naturally becomes a core theme of sustainable development. Based on the reviews of ES-HWB interrelationship through three phrases, the existing research mainly started from the influences of ES on and responses to HWB, and further focused on the practices of their interrelationship through some key fields including supply-demand relationship and spatial flows, trade-offs/synergies, valuation of cultural ecosystem services, payments for ecosystem services, and optimized regulation and sustainable management. However, the interrelationship research is still led by "influence chain" of the ES cascade while distinct deficiencies exist in terms of theoretical framing, technical methods of direct interrelationship measurement, and support applied for sustainable management. Moreover, the ES-HWB interrelationship tends to become more nonlinear, which urges for certain theoretical innovation from synthetic integration paradigm of the coupled human and natural system framework. This article, therefore, proposed a new path for the ES-HWB interrelationship research—from cascade to coupling, with which the interactive coercing effect and its intrinsic dynamic change mechanism are clear to distinguish in a systematic way. On this basis, an exploratory theoretical research framework of ES-HWB coupling was built with a main thread of "interactive coercing effect measurement-coupling relationship deconstruction-coupled pattern and process evolution-coordinated management and application", so were the technical coupling approaches. In such regards, the ES-HWB coupling research is bound to develop as a pivotal issue enriching the coupled human and natural system studies. First, there is a need to untangle ES-HWB interrelationship as a foundation. Then, further in-depth research should be enriched to achieve the orderly and coordinated development oriented by ecological civilization, including the decoupling of coupled interactions, transmission mechanism and dynamic integration, human needs-oriented differentiated evolution, and sustainable optimization based on the ES-HWB coordination.

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    Understanding the climate change and disaster risks in coastal areas of China to develop coping strategies
    WANG Jun, TAN Jinkai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (5): 870-882.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.05.013
    Abstract220)   HTML6)    PDF (4187KB)(139)      

    In the context of global climate change, extreme weather events and the concomitant natural disasters are becoming a primary risk restricting the socioeconomic development in coastal areas that are often highly urbanized. This study sets out to explore the new characteristics of natural hazards and disasters in the coastal areas of China against the backdrop of a changing climate. Major conclusions are as follows. First, the occurrences of extreme weather and climatic events are considerably uncertain. The climate and disasters are different across various temporal and spatial scales, and the components of the disaster risk system become more complicated. Second, in view of the new challenges brought by climate change, we suggest paying close attention to three issues in the future, including the change of temporal and spatial scales that are used to depict the disasters, the synergism of multi-disasters, and the effects of climate change and urbanization. Based on these, a new framework of disaster risk system is established to reflect the qualities of disasters in complex spatiotemporal contexts. Lastly, to develop more effective coping strategies for the climate and natural hazards and disasters in coastal areas, it is necessary to promote diversification of the disaster prevention system and enhance its robustness, and to strengthen the self-recovery capability of the social, economic, and ecological environments. Meanwhile, information sharing in multi-disaster management and risk sharing and transfer policies are also important for accommodating the negative impacts of extreme events and disasters coming with climate change.

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    Advances of study on the relationship between tree-ring density and climate and climate reconstruction
    DENG Guofu, LI Mingqi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 343-356.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.014
    Abstract220)   HTML4)    PDF (3272KB)(96)      

    Tree-ring density is one of the important proxies for climate reconstruction. In the past few decades, international and Chinese scholars have carried out a large number of studies on the relationship between tree-ring density and climate, and many climate series were reconstructed for different regions. In this study, we collected publications about the responses to climate change and climate reconstruction based on tree ring density, and reviewed some progresses in these areas. Although the relationship between tree-ring density and the climate may be affected by tree species, terrain (altitude, slope direction, and so on), and other factors, the maximum latewood density is a well-known proxy of summer or early fall temperature variation in cold and moist areas, while earlywood density can be used to reconstruct precipitation variation in arid areas. Therefore, most of the scholars reconstructed the temperature of the summer or the late fall, and only few precipitation and sea level pressure series were reconstructed based on tree-ring density. In addition, the variance that the reconstruction can explain varies from region to region, and from tree species to species. To date, the reconstruction series spanned 2018 years in Europe, which is the longest in the world, and 449 years in Southwest China, which is the longest series in China. There still exist controversies around the divergence in tree-ring density response to temperature and the cooling effect of volcanic eruptions, because of the unstable relationship between tree-ring density and temperature. Future research should pay more attention to the relationship between tree-ring density and other climate variables such as precipitation and light, and the influence of nonclimatic factors such as altitude, tree species, and experimental methods.

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