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    Change and influencing factors of China’s cross-regional investment network structure
    JIAO Jingjuan, ZHANG Qilin, WU Yuyong, JIANG Runze, WANG Jiao'e
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (8): 1257-1268.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.08.001
    Abstract827)   HTML0)    PDF (3942KB)(0)      

    With the increasing economic interaction between cities, capital flow across regions has gradually become a key factor affecting the regional economic disparities. Cross-regional enterprise investment is regarded as the micro embodiment of capital flows. It is of great significance to explore the characteristics of cross-regional enterprise investment for reducing regional economic disparities. Thus, this study examined the cross-regional investment network using the cross-regional investment data of Chinese listed companies in 1998-2018, and analyzed the characteristics of the spatial evolution of China's cross-regional investment network and its influencing factors at the national and regional levels. The results show that: the spatial agglomeration trend of node centrality in China's cross-regional investment network at the national and regional levels is obvious and the cities with high node centrality are mainly concentrated in the five major urban agglomerations. There are obvious hierarchical structure, spatial heterogeneity, and path dependence of the cross-regional investment network; the net investment inflows and outflows are mainly in the eastern region, and the investment activities tend to develop toward the central and western regions; the influence of city economic development level, industrial structure, and financial environment varies across regions and types of cities with different population scales.

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    Development of trade between China’s provinces and Pakistan and influencing factors under the background of the Belt and Road Initiative
    SONG Zhouying, ZHU Qiaoling
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (11): 1785-1797.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.11.001
    Abstract739)   HTML1401935057)    PDF (6005KB)(204)      

    China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is the flagship project of the Belt and Road Initiative, and "unimpeded trade" is one of the priorities of cooperation in the Belt and Road Initiative proposed by China. It is important to examine the spatio-temporal characteristics of international trade between China and Pakistan for promoting economic prosperity and regional cooperation along CPEC. This study examined the spatio-temporal characteristics of trade cooperation between China and Pakistan, and analyzed its influencing factors using a stochastic frontier gravity model. The findings of this research are as follows: First, the scale of China-Pakistan trade is small but growing fast; China has trade surplus that continues to increase, and Pakistan shows low status in the global trade network of China; in China-Pakistan trade, China mainly exports capital-intensive products such as machinery and electrical equipment, and imports textile raw materials, textile products and other primary products, and labor-intensive products. Second, significant spatial differences exist in the trade scale and commodity structure of provinces in China with Pakistan; notably, eastern coastal provinces in China have significant advantages in terms of trade scale with Pakistan, while western provinces, except Xinjiang, have limited trade with Pakistan. Third, most of China's provinces have undergone significant changes in the structure of trade commodities, among which provinces with diverse commodity structures, such as Xinjiang and Shandong, have relatively little change. Fourth, higher economic development level and larger market size of provinces in China significantly promote China-Pakistan trade; shipping distance shows negative impact on China-Pakistan trade; shared border provides good conditions for cross-border trade; the construction of railway and shipping ports has shown a significant promoting effect on trade. Fifth, great trade potential still exists between provinces in China and Pakistan, especially in Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Guangxi, and Shaanxi provinces and autonomous regions.

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    Spatial match between residents’ daily life circle and public service facilities using big data analytics: A case of Beijing
    ZHAO Pengjun, LUO Jia, HU Haoyu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (4): 541-553.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.001
    Abstract691)   HTML70)    PDF (20777KB)(296)      

    Residents' daily life circle is one of the key issues in relation to the national spatial planning in the "new era". Supply of public service facilities is the primary condition for plan-making of this type of circle. Spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities reveals the human-environment relationship at the community level. There exist many studies on spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities. However, the existing findings are mainly based on survey data, which have disadvantages such as insufficient samples, small geography coverage, and so on. This study investigated the spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities in large cities by taking Beijing as an example. Using mobile phone data and point-of-interest (POI) data collected in 2018, this study measured the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities, and analyzed the relationship between the spatial range of residents' daily life circle and accessibility of public service facilities by the bivariate spatial autocorrelation method. It also analyzed the geographical variations in the relationship. The results of analysis show that residents' daily life circle has a multi-centric structure at the city level. The length of radius of the circle increases from the central areas to the periphery. Accessibility of public service facilities is featured with a zonal structure but its level decreases with the distance away from the centers. The level of accessibility is negatively related with radius of the circle, which means that the higher level of accessibility, the smaller radius of the circle. There are geographical variations in the relationship. The relationship is "high-low" in the city center and new town centers, but dominated by "low-low" and "low-high" pattern in the fringe of the city center and new town centers. There are also variations in the relationship between different types of public service facilities. For the cultural and leisure facilities, the degree of spatial match between residents' daily life circle and public service facilities is obvious lower than other facilities. The conclusion of this research provides new evidence for residents' daily life circle study, and has policy implications for residents' daily life circle planning.

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    Clustering characteristics of COVID-19 cases and influencing factors in Chongqing Municipality
    CHEN Xiao, HUANG Yujin, LI Jiahui, WANG Shiyang, PEI Tao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (11): 1798-1808.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.11.002
    Abstract687)   HTML54)    PDF (5697KB)(186)      

    Clustering characteristics of COVID-19 cases within cities and influencing factors are of significant referential value for epidemic prevention and control. In this study, we conducted spatial clustering analysis, factor analysis, and regression analysis on 458 COVID-19 confirmed cases from 21 January to 24 February 2020, and we used mobile phone signaling data, and environmental data to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of epidemic characteristics in Chongqing Municipality at the residential community scale and the influencing factors. The results show that: 1) Temporally, the number of confirmed cases showed a rapid increasing trend in the beginning, and most of the cases were imported cases. In the late stage, the increase rate lowered, and the main trend turned into local transmission (including inter-community, intra-community, and intra-family transmissions), among which intra-family transmissions made up the largest portion (23%). 2) Spatially, the cases showed significant clustering characteristics, and aggregation level increased with time. The hot spots of all cases were distributed in the west and northeast Chongqing. The hot spots of local cases were mainly concentrated in the northwestern and southwestern regions where population density and economic development level were higher, while the hot spots of imported cases were mainly concentrated in the central and northeastern regions adjacent to Hubei Province. 3) The regression results between the density of all cases, local cases, imported cases and four factors obtained by factor analysis (urban traffic factor, intra-community activity factor, service provision factor, and residents' distribution factor) provide some insights. Transportation facility level was closely related to the density of confirmed cases. Service places such as stores, supermarkets, and restaurants significantly contributed to the spread of the virus. Inter-community transmission was an important factor in local clustering of cases, while imported cases mostly occurred in densely populated areas. Hence, targeted measures should be adopted for future epidemic prevention and control according to various epidemic transmission patterns in different regions, such as paying attention to imported cases in the central and northeastern parts of Chongqing, and focusing on avoidance of local transmission in northwest and southwest. Moreover, measures should be strengthened in the areas with dense urban traffic and resident population to effectively prevent the outbreak from rebounding.

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    Climate change assessments for the main economic zones of China during recent decades
    ZHANG Xuezhen, ZHENG Jingyun, HAO Zhixin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1609-1618.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.001
    Abstract607)   HTML50)    PDF (2313KB)(102)      

    On the basis of the Third National Report on Climate Change of China and using the latest scientific literature on climate change of China since 2012 and China climate bulletins, this study assessed the climate changes of four national-level economic zones of China—the Bohai Economic Rim (BER), the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), the South China Economic Zone (SCEZ), and the Northeast China Economic Zone (NEEZ)—during recent decades. The main conclusions are: 1) Annual temperature increased at a rate of 0.35 ℃/10 a, 0.20 ℃/10 a, 0.20 ℃/10 a, and 0.33 ℃/10 a for the BER, YREB, SCEZ, and NEEZ, respectively, over the period 1961 to 2018. Although there was a climate warming slowdown in these regions during 1998-2014, the annual temperature after 2014 broke the warmest records for the BER, YREB, and SCEZ. 2) Precipitation changes over the period 1961 to 2018 were lower than 1 mm/10 a for each region, but there were significant inter-annual and inter-decadal oscillations. Precipitation during 2012-2018 were mostly more than normal, but with large spatiotemporal variability. The precipitation of NEEZ in 2013 and precipitation of YREB in 2016 respectively reached the highest values since 1961, but precipitation of Liaoning Province in 2014 reached the lowest since 1961. 3) During 2014-2018, there were more frequent extreme heat events in each region, whose maximum temperature broke historical heat extremes or exceeded the extreme high temperature threshold, that is, the 9th decile. Meanwhile, there were increases in the frequency of inter-seasonal droughts and extreme rainstorms in the BER and NEEZ; and there were more rainstorm days in the YREB and more severe impacts of typhoons in the SCEZ. There were also extensive extreme low temperature events in the context of climate warming in the YREB and NEEZ.

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    The role of rural settlements in rural revitalization: Perspective of economic geography
    LI Xiaojian, HU Xueyao, SHI Yanwen, YANG Huimin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (1): 3-14.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.01.001
    Abstract572)   HTML68)    PDF (3034KB)(262)      

    This article started with an analysis of the background of rural decline, and the content and logic of the national strategy of rural revitalization from the perspective of human-land relationship. We proposed that rural recession is the result of the adjustment of human-land relationship lagging behind the process of social and economic development. The ultimate purpose of rural revitalization is to adjust the relationship between human and land to adapt to the change of the value of production factors in the new stage of social and economic development. Then, the review of the literature on rural revitalization found that the existing research has paid more attention to the implementation of its strategic content, but not enough attention to rural settlements that have been the important carrier of rural population. There is a close relationship between rural settlement and rural revitalization. Rural settlements are the focus of human social and economic activities in rural areas, and are the core and starting point of rural human-land relationship adjustment. But in the existing literature on rural settlements, emphasis is placed on development cases and neglecting mechanisms, especially the mechanism of change of rural settlements, which is closely associated with rural revitalization. Therefore, bearing in mind the key role of rural settlements in rural revitalization, this article finally put forward five focus areas of future research: the theory of rural settlement evolution, changing trend of spatial structure in rural settlements, specialization transformation of rural settlements, optimization of rural settlements, and landscape of rural settlements.

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    Spatial distribution of population decline areas in China and underlying causes from a multi-periodical perspective
    LIU Zhen, QI Wei, QI Honggang, LIU Shenghe
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (3): 357-369.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.03.001
    Abstract500)   HTML278)    PDF (7612KB)(121)      

    Regional population decline has gradually become a new phenomenon in recent years, which has attracted extensive attention from scholars and the government. Using the national census data and 1% population sampling survey data, this study identified the population decline areas at the county level from 1990 to 2015 from a multi-periodical perspective. Based on the theoretical analysis of the driving factors of population decline, a cluster analysis has been conducted to reveal the spatial differences of the driving factors of population decline, which resulted in four typical cases of causes. The findings are as follows: First, the population decline areas have very different trajectories: while about 24% of them are characterized by fluctuating but overall decline, about 13% of them have experienced continuous decline, and about 5% of them have only experienced recent decline. Second, the fluctuating but overall decline county units were mainly distributed in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Gansu, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, and Fujian Provinces, and the continuous decline county units were mainly concentrated in Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and the Northeast region, and the recent decline county units were mainly concentrated in the Northeast region, Henan, and Xinjiang. Third, there are obvious regional differences in the driving factors of population decline: the county units driven by lagged economy accounted for the highest percentage, and these units were mainly distributed in the central and western regions; the county units in the Northeast region were mainly driven by the slowed economic development and the low natural growth level; in contrast, the percentage of county units only driven by the low natural growth level is relatively low, and these units were mainly distributed in the eastern region. Based on these findings, we argue that it is necessary to pay more attention to the phenomenon of population decline at the regional scale, and take targeted measures by fully considering the trend of change and driving factors of population decline in different regions.

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    Progress and prospect of urban resilience research
    ZHAO Ruidong, FANG Chuanglin, LIU Haimeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1717-1731.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.011
    Abstract471)   HTML148)    PDF (2419KB)(149)      

    Under the background of global environmental change and urbanization, various risks and uncertainties have posed an important obstacle on urban security and urban sustainable development. As a potential new approach of urban risk management, urban resilience can improve the ability to resist, dissolve, and adapt when facing risks and uncertainties, and expound the adaptive scheme of risks in the process of rapid urbanization. Urban resilience has been a new topic in geography and related disciplines. Based on the origin and concept of urban resilience research, from the perspective of the impact of various factors (human, environmental, disaster) on urban resilience, this study constructed a theoretical framework of urban resilience, including evaluation and scenario simulation, and discussed the status of urban resilience research, pointing out that there are still many weak links in the theoretical framework, mechanism, practical application, and difference analysis of urban resilience research. Finally, the key directions of urban resilience research were also discussed. The theoretical framework should be used as a guide to promote multi-objective, multi-level, and multi-perspective systematic evaluation research. With the analysis of mechanism as support, studies should aim to achieve a new breakthrough in process simulation of urban resilience and decision making and early warning. Oriented by empirical research, studies should continue to strengthen the application model of multidisciplinary integration and exploration of urban resilience. Considering regional differences, further work should try to achieve a change in urban planning from the unified "one policy for multi-city" approach to the flexible "one policy for one city" approach.

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    A new time-geography research framework of community life circle
    CHAI Yanwei, LI Chunjiang, ZHANG Yan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (12): 1961-1971.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.12.001
    Abstract392)   HTML46)    PDF (1874KB)(93)      

    Community life circle examines urban communities from the perspective of residents' daily activities. It is the frontier of urban geography and urban related studies. It is also an important part of the innovation of Chinese territorial and spatial planning system and an important starting point for the sustainable development of China's urban society. With the continuous deepening of mobility and informatization, the agents of community life circles, community activities and residents' spatiotemporal behavior, and the function and meanings of community space are becoming more diversified, which needs innovative research and practical guidance of urban social geography. Time-geography is a comprehensive social-technical-ecological approach to understand the relationship between humans and the environment, which provides an essential basis for early research on community life circles based on activity space. New time-geography attaches great importance to the interactions and spatiotemporal combinations of projects between family and other social organizations. It can provide an important basis for the study of the complex interactions between individual, family, and community and the sociocultural constraints, the complex context analysis, and the simulation of spatiotemporal behavior in community life circles. Based on the new time-geography approach, this study proposed a new time-geography research framework of community life circle from theoretical, methodological, and empirical perspectives, including: 1) constructing the community life circle theory based on spatiotemporal behavior and revealing community life circle spatial and temporal structures; 2) developing methods for collecting and analyzing spatiotemporal behavioral data of community life circle and simulation; 3) innovating Chinese urban planning and management from the aspects of optimizing residents spatiotemporal behaviors within the community life circle, community social interaction life circle, and community safety life circle.

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    Change of spatial structure of manufacturing industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its driving factors
    JIANG Haibing, LI Yejin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (5): 721-735.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.05.001
    Abstract382)   HTML52)    PDF (15093KB)(68)      

    The development strategy of industrial transfer and upgrading, coordinated development, and in-depth integration of advanced manufacturing in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region put forward higher requirements for the spatial layout of manufacturing industrial clusters. Research on the change of manufacturing industry spatial pattern can provide a reference for the optimization of urban agglomerations' advanced manufacturing industries. Based on the micro-level data of industrial enterprises above designated size in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2000 to 2013, this study used kernal density analysis and panel data regression models to explore the characteristics and driving factors of the change of the manufacturing industry spatial pattern in the region. The results of this empirical research show that: 1) The overall spatial pattern of all manufacturing industries in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is relatively stable, and high-value areas are concentrated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area. The regional linked development of capital-intensive industries is gaining momentum; technology-intensive industries are increasingly concentrated in a few districts and counties, and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with surrounding districts and counties has weakened as a whole; spatial expansion into nearby districts and counties and spatial transfer of labor-intensive industries appeared alternately; and the regional linked development promotes the balanced growth of manufacturing industries in various regions and narrows the development gap. 2) The manufacturing industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shows a clear trend of specialization and regional division of labor, and labor-intensive industries are increasingly spreading to the periphery of the central cities and the counties in the central and southern areas of the region. Capital-intensive industries are concentrated in the industrial belt on the west coast of the Bohai Sea, the industrial output value of the peripheral areas of the region has increased significantly, and technology-intensive industries are gathered in the Beijing-Tianjin high-tech industrial belt. 3) The key driving factors of the three types of manufacturing industries are different. Labor-intensive industries are affected by investment and transportation accessibility. Capital-intensive industries are highly dependent on local market size and investment, and are insensitive to transportation accessibility. Technology-intensive industries are mainly constrained by transportation accessibility and wage levels. The three types of manufacturing industries are obviously affected by local fiscal expenditures.

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    Location choice and optimization of development of community-oriented new retail stores: A case study of Freshippo stores in Nanjing City
    JIN Annan, LI Gang, WANG Jianpo, Muhammad Sajid MEHMOOD, YU Yue, LIN Zhe
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (12): 2013-2027.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.12.005
    Abstract360)   HTML42)    PDF (15954KB)(128)      

    Community-oriented new retail is a new business model and important area of interaction between business and community, and worth further examination from the view of urban space. Based on the data of Freshippo stores in Nanjing, related points of interest (POIs) and areas of interest (AOIs), we use statistical analysis, spatial analysis, and field investigation to explore the service types and objects, spatial patterns, and location factors of Freshippo stores, in order to provide some recommendations for the optimization of business development. The results indicate that: 1) The service objects of Freshippo stores in Nanjing are mainly communities, supplemented by hotels and office buildings. The most of customers are young and middle-aged people with certain economic status and consumption ability. 2) There are five Freshippo stores in the urban areas and seven Freshippo stores in the near suburban areas, which form three clusters in the north-south direction. All stores have a point location with irregular service areas, which forms a core-periphery structure. The actual scope of delivery is different from the 3km buffer area. 3) The location choice of Freshippo stores is mainly affected by the density of communities and transportation conditions, and also dependent on land price and business zones, while competitors have a slight impact on the choice of the store locations. The stores are mainly located in medium and high-density areas of communities, marginal areas of business districts, both sides of the main roads, and the medium land value areas. Online delivery service is used to expand the scope of services to acquire more potential target customers. Finally, we explore the influencing mechanism of location choice from three aspects of consumer groups, operating costs and brand competition, and put forward some recommendations for the optimization of development in the future.

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    Formation age of the modern Huaihe River
    LI Zongmeng, GAO Hongshan, LIU Fenliang, WANG Shuai, WU Ruli, ZHANG Chenguang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1708-1716.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.010
    Abstract315)   HTML26)    PDF (8083KB)(61)      

    Development and evolution of large rivers is a classic subject of geomorphology. As one of the seven large rivers in China, the Huaihe River locates in China's north-south transitional zone. However, there is much controversy about its formation and development. In this study, we explored and discussed the formation of different sections of the Huaihe River based on the analysis of topography and sedimentary stratigraphy. The results show that there were two major adjustments of the river system in the Huaihe River Basin during the Cenozoic period, which occurred at the end of the Paleogene and the end of the Pliocene, respectively. During the Paleogene and Neogene periods, lacustrine sediments were extensively developed in the Huaihe River Basin, with the sedimentary environment dominated by rivers and lakes. However, during the Quaternary period, the sedimentary environment in the basin gradually changed to a river-dominated system. The formation of the modern river-lake system in the Huaihe River Basin occurred in the early- to mid-Pleistocene. Tectonic activities and climate change were the main drivers of the evolution of the Huaihe River system. The Qingzang Movement from the late Pliocene to the early Pleistocene led to the disintegration of the Neogene hydrological system in the Huaihe River Basin. In addition, the cooling climate in the Late Cenozoic may be the cause of decreasing lake developments and increasing river activites.

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    Quantitative attribution of national key town layout based on geodetector and the geographically weighted regression model
    HAN Jing, RUI Yang, YANG Kun, LIU Wei, MA Teng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1687-1697.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.008
    Abstract309)   HTML33)    PDF (10615KB)(82)      

    National key towns are the leader in the development of small towns. The formation of scientific and reasonable national key town layouts is of great significance for optimizing China's urbanization strategy. Taking the 1887 and 3675 national key towns published in 2004 and 2014 respectively as samples, this study used geodector and the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to explore the changing characteristics of their distribution and analyze the influencing factors of national key town layouts and effects at the prefecture level. The results show that: 1) After the adjustment by the government, the balance of the layout and construction effect of national key towns is enhanced. The main gathering areas moved westward and northward, the distribution of cold spots and hotspots break through the "Hu Huanyong Line", and the degree of differentiation of economic radiation effect is weakened, reflecting the powerful influence of policy factors. In addition to the inter-county balance and regional preferential policies, the distribution of national key towns is also significantly affected by factors such as altitude, road network density, and resident population urbanization rate. 2) The combination of the factor detector, the GWR model, and the interaction detector can more accurately characterize the mode of action, direction, path, and intensity of the influencing factors. The layout of national key towns is not the result of the uniform, independent, and direct effect of the five significant factors, but the product of the synergistic effect of the interaction of the factors with spatial heterogeneity. 3) The synergy between the inter-county balance policy and other factors is the dominant force in the formation of the existing layout of the key towns; the effect of the regional preferential policy is overall positive, but the target areas need to be more accurately identified.

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    Simulation of city network accessibility and its influence on regional development pattern in China based on integrated land transport system
    CHEN Zhuo, LIANG Yi, JIN Fengjun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (2): 183-193.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.001
    Abstract309)   HTML45)    PDF (13495KB)(372)      

    With the increasing emphasis on coordinated regional development, transport and socioeconomic developments in China have taken a new turn in recent years. Based on the present and future integrated land transport network, the trend of city network accessibility and its impact on the change of regional development patterns in China were analyzed in this study by focusing on the construction of travel circles and regional balance. The results show that the completion of the existing planning can greatly improve the accessibility of China's city network and can largely support the construction of travel circles according to the shortest travel time. By promoting the development of hub-spoke organization mode and spatial cascading order, the existing planning can guide the multi-center and networking development of spatial structure and provide a basis for the coordinated and balanced development between regions. In the future, China's transport development should continue to optimize the supply structure of transportation services and improve the ability of the integrated transport system to serve the needs of people's daily lives and production.

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    Change in distribution and growth shifts of population in the Yangtze River Delta and influencing factors
    YAN Dongsheng, SUN Wei, WANG Yue, XU Shiyao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (12): 2068-2082.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.12.009
    Abstract303)   HTML14)    PDF (11962KB)(59)      

    Population distribution is an important indicator of regional development patterns. Also, regional coordinated development is closely related to the balanced distribution of the population. In the context of the regional integration of the Yangtze River Delta as a national strategy, the population distribution across the Yangtze River Delta has undergone significant changes. Using Kernal density analysis, gravity center analysis, concentration index, and shift-share analysis methods, this study examined the spatio-temporal change characteristics of the population in the Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2018, and explored the influencing factors as well as internal mechanisms of population growth shifts by utilizing quantitative methods. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The shift in the population distribution trend led by some cities did not significantly change the imbalanced pattern of regional population distribution, and the increase in the concentration index indicates that the regional population concentration showed a steady growth trend. 2) The research based on shift-share analysis found that the shift in population growth pattern was mainly manifested in the acceleration of population growth in some underdeveloped areas. For example, Anhui Province was transformed into positive growth shift at the provincial scale. On the city scale, the positive growth shift dominated by core developed cities has changed to the positive growth shift dominated by some less developed cities. The spatial distribution of positive growth shift of municipal districts changed from the core areas to the peripheral areas. However, the population was still attracted to a few large cities and municipal districts. The diversified population growth shift trend characterizes the differentiated demands for future development strategies. 3) Economic factors, social development, and financial resources were important driving forces of population growth shift in the Yangtze River Delta. However, the temporal and spatial change of influencing factors shows that the formulation of future population balancing policies not only needs to be adapted to local conditions, but also should evolve through time. This research not only provides a reference for the formulation of relevant population policies, but also enriches the empirical findings on the spatial and temporal change of population.

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    Advances in agricultural drought monitoring based on soil moisture
    WU Zemian, QIU Jianxiu, LIU Suxia, MO Xingguo
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1758-1769.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.014
    Abstract288)   HTML9)    PDF (2670KB)(72)      

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable for assessing agricultural drought. For a long time, due to the lack of large-scale, high-precision, continuous SM measurements, SM-based agricultural drought monitoring has been limited in application. With the recent development of remote sensing technologies, the spatial-temporal coverage and accuracy of SM data have been improved significantly. Agricultural drought monitoring indicators using SM have received increasing attention. This study systematically summarized the main characteristics of the SM data sets from multiple sources including in-situ measurements and microwave remote sensing, and further reviewed the three categories of agricultural drought indicators based on SM: 1) drought indicators based on long-term SM; 2) drought indicators based on both SM and soil hydraulic parameters; and 3) integrated drought indicators based on multiple variables including SM. Finally, with the aim of providing some reference for future research, we envisioned the challenges and opportunities for agricultural drought monitoring from the perspectives of 1) the development of SM data; 2) the strengthening of agricultural drought mechanism research; and 3) the improvement of agricultural drought monitoring systems.

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    Rural elite and rural development
    LI Yurui, CHANG Guijiang, CAO Lizhe, LONG Hualou
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1632-1642.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.003
    Abstract283)   HTML8)    PDF (2269KB)(55)      

    In recent years, rural geographers have made in-depth research on the utilization of resources, environmental change, economic development, spatial system, and regional pattern of rural areas. However, the research on the subjects/actors of rural development is relatively weak. Most of these studies focus on the temporal and spatial changes of population and interregional migration. In contrast, insufficient attention is paid to the subgroups of rural development subjects/actors. Rural elite is one of the main subjects of rural governance in China and an important force to promote the modernization of rural governance. Rural elite can often stimulate endogenous motivations, integrate external resources, and organize people to carry out a series of actions based on policy guidance and village resources to promote rural transformation and development. In-depth research on the roles, activities, and problems of rural elite in rural governance has important practical significance. This article analyzed the related concepts of rural elite and explored the active role of rural elite in maintaining the stability of rural society, promoting the economic development of villages, driving entrepreneurship, and fulfilling social responsibilities. We also analyzed the negative effects of autocracy and "distributed order" caused by the concentration of power, and discussed the obstacles and deficiencies of rural governance by rural elite. Rural elite refers to the individuals who are recognized by most villagers in a specific rural area, have strong motivation of development, personal ability, and social network, and are willing to lead or have driven rural development through own expertise. Generally, rural elite is the "engine" for promoting progress, the "locomotive" for collective action, the pioneer for village development, the "bridge builder" for external contact, and the leader of rural vitalization. However, if the supervision mechanism is absent, rural elite may also bring negative effects on the democracy, economic development, and law and order of local areas. In order to better realize the modernization of the rural governance system and governance capacity in China, it is recommended to further strengthen case studies of rural elite governance, deepen the theoretical research of rural elite governance, and explore innovative models for training rural elites. Specifically, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the emerging mechanism and cultivation model of rural elites, deepen the research on the mechanism, mode, and effect of governance by rural elites, pay attention to the new situation and problems of governance by rural elites, and explore the data and methods for the research on rural elites. Strengthening the research of rural elite is helpful for enriching the content and theory of rural geography.

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    Land consolidation and rural vitalization:A perspective of land use multifunctionality
    JIANG Yanfeng, LONG Hualou, TANG Yuting
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (3): 487-497.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.03.012
    Abstract271)   HTML16)    PDF (3626KB)(88)      

    The long-term supply-demand imbalance of rural land use functions (RLUFs) is one of the main reasons for rural issues in China. Based on the multifunctionality theory, this study explained the mutual relationship between rural land consolidation (RLC) and rural vitalization with a focus on supply-demand and element-structure-function relationships, and then discussed how to realize the supply-demand balance of RLUFs through RLC so as to promote sustainable rural development. The results show that: 1) Comprehensive rural land consolidation is a multifunctional land use method and an important means to solve rural issues for promoting rural vitalization. In essence, it is the transition from productivism that focuses on economic benefits to non-productivism that takes social, economic, and environmental benefits as a whole. 2) RLUFs include production, living, ecological, and cultural functions, corresponding to the economic, social, enviromental, and cultural demands of rural vitalization. The production functions are divided into agricultural, commercial, and industrial functions, and living functions include residential, employment, and public service functions. 3) Along the path of integrating land use elements, restructuring land use structures, and optimizing land use functions, RLC promotes the supply-demand balance of RLUFs from the supply side according to local conditions. 4) In future research, the mechanisms and modes of RLC impact on rural vitalization at different spatial scales, as well as quantitative analysis of the functional supply of land use and the functional demand of rural vitalization under the influence of RLC should be given more attention, thus laying a scientific foundation for the formulation and implementation of land use and rural vitalization planning.

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    Spatial agglomeration pattern of homestay inn and influencing factorsbased on the comparison of Hangzhou, Huzhou, and Enshi cities
    HU Xiaofang, LI Xiaoya, WANG Tianyu, ZHAO Hongmin, YANG Shuo, DENG Lei, LI Jingwang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1698-1707.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.009
    Abstract249)   HTML9)    PDF (9519KB)(70)      

    In recent years, homestay inn has developed and matured based on its personalized services and cozy accommodation experience. Its spatial agglomeration also promotes the homestay inn industry to grow in clusters and become specialized. This study chose Hangzhou City in Zhejiang Province, Huzhou City in Zhejiang Province, and Enshi City in Hubei Province, which are the typical areas of the homestay inn industry, as cases. Based on the homestay inn data of Tujia.com, this study used global spatial association indicators and Getis-Ord Gi * index to explore the agglomeration pattern and influencing factors of the three areas. The spatial distributions of homestay inn in Hangzhou, Huzhou, and Enshi Cities all show an agglomeration pattern, and the largest hot spot region of Hangzhou spreads around the city center. The spatial agglomeration pattern of homestay inn of Hangzhou is based on locations within the city. The hot spot region of homestay inn in Huzhou is far away from the city center and spreads around the Mogan Mountains. The spatial agglomeration pattern of homestay inn of Huzhou is based on the regional brand. The hot spot region of Enshi homestay inn consists of three small hot spots, which are all connected to the scenic spots. The spatial agglomeration pattern of homestay inn of Enshi is based on the scenic spots. Through the analysis of location, transportation, tourism resources, and regional brands of the three areas, the study showed that location is the basis of the agglomeration of homestay inn in cities. Regional brand is a booster to promote the agglomeration of homestay inn. Tourism resources are the early motivation of clustering for homestay inn. Road transportation is a guarantee for the clustering and expansion of the homestay inn. The conclusions provide a useful reference for choosing reasonable locations for homestay inn and allocating resources rationally.

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    Transformation efficiency of resource-based cities in the Yellow River Basin and its influencing factors
    WANG Xiaonan, SUN Wei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1643-1655.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.004
    Abstract245)   HTML12)    PDF (10082KB)(54)      

    Resource-based cities are widely distributed in the Yellow River Basin and face prominent problems. Improving urban efficiency and promoting the transformation of resource-based cities are an important way to achieve ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. This study used the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to evaluate the transformation efficiency of 41 resource-based cities in the Yellow River Basin from 2007 to 2017. It further carried out a panel regression analysis on the factors that influence the transformation efficiency of resource-based cities through the fixed effect model. The results show that: 1) Transformation efficiency of resource-based cities in the Yellow River Basin is not ideal. The number of cities with the best comprehensive efficiency reached 39.02% of all cities in 2017, but the gap in transformation efficiency has widened since 2015. 2) Scale efficiency is the main determining factor of comprehensive efficiency. The number of cities with the best scale efficiency increased first and then decreased, and the feature of decreasing returns to scale became increasingly more obvious, which indicates that there was a input redundancy in the transformation efficiency of some cities. 3) On the whole, per capita GDP, the proportion of government financial revenue in GDP, and the number of students in ordinary higher education institutions have a significant positive effect on the transformation efficiency of resource-based cities, while the proportion of the tertiary industry has a significant negative effect. With regard to different types of resource-based cities, the proportion of foreign-invested industrial enterprises has a significant positive effect on the transformation efficiency of coal-based cities, and the proportion of mining employees has a significant positive effect on the transformation efficiency of mature resource-based cities. The factors influencing the transformation efficiency of different cities are different.

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    Spatial pattern and structure of networked logistics connection of cities in China based on express logistics branch data
    TANG Chenghui, MA Xueguang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (11): 1809-1821.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.11.003
    Abstract245)   HTML25)    PDF (15358KB)(163)      

    As an important form of city relations, express logistics directly involves interurban material flows. Based on the data of multiple express logistics branches in 2019, this study analyzed the spatial pattern, characteristics, and structure of urban networks covering 336 urban administrative regions in China. The data were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis, social network analysis, Zipf law, and so on to reveal the features of China's urban system and regional development under globalization. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The spatial pattern of interurban logistics connection is hierarchical and imbalanced, and it shows the characteristics of westward decline due to the location conditions. 2) With regard to the overall connection, the density of the express logistics network is low and has a core-periphery structure, and the core area presents a small world characteristic with good accessibility and reciprocity. In addition, the intensity of agglomeration indicates the development trend of different urban agglomerations and reflects the radiation effect of core cities. 3) With regard to the local connection, provinces such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu have formed high-level network connection and clusters, and promoted cross-regional flow of resources. 4) With regard to the individual networks, the degree of urban connectivity conforms to the Zipf law with a double fractal. In addition, economic and population scales have a strong correlation with urban connectivity, and city administrative level also plays an important role. However, express logistics companies still need to strengthen their service capabilities to reduce the risk of under capacity during the peak period.

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    Progress and prospect of the spatiotemporal change and ecosystem services evaluation of urban green space pattern
    CHENG Chaonan, HU Yang, ZHAO Ming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1770-1782.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.015
    Abstract239)   HTML8)    PDF (1858KB)(91)      

    Scientific and reasonable urban green space layout is an important guarantee of urban sustainable development. The research on the spatiotemporal change of urban green space pattern and its influencing factors could reveal its complex relationship with various factors and processes of urbanization to facilitate improvement of the function of ecosystem services of urban systems. In the context of ecological civilization construction, urban green space will play an important role in multi-scale territorial spatial planning, but how to combine them remains a challenge. Therefore, based on a review of the definition and development of urban green space patterns, we discussed the research progress of the spatiotemporal change, driving factors, scenario simulation, and optimization strategies of urban green space patterns. We also summarized the application of ecosystem services in urban green space evaluation. Finally, we explored the evaluation and optimization framework of urban green space patterns in the territorial spatial planning system, with a view of providing a reference for urban green space planning in the new era.

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    System dynamics model-based simulation of energy consumption pattern on the two sides of the Huhuanyong Line in China
    ZHAO Sha, HU Zui, ZHENG Wenwu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (8): 1269-1283.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.08.002
    Abstract235)   HTML0)    PDF (8100KB)(0)      

    The Huhuanyong Line is a real portrayal of the spatial pattern of population, economic, and social development in China. It perfectly describes key characteristics of energy production and consumption. Quantitatively simulating the spatial pattern of energy consumption on the two sides of the line can provide a reference to achieve regional coordinated development. This study employed data from the China Energy Statistical Yearbook (2005-2014). We first constructed the System Dynamics Model Based on the Huhuanyong Line Energy Consumption Simulation Model (HLECSM-SD) using the GM ( 1,1 ) model and System Dynamics (SD) model. Then, we simulated the pattern of various energy consumptions on the two sides of the line from 2020 to 2025. Finally, this study analyzed energy consumption of China under three scenarios. The results indicate that: 1) The HLECSM-SD model fits the data well. 2) Energy consumption presents the spatial pattern of more in the east and less in the west in China. 3) The change trend of energy consumption growth rate is consistent across the two regions. The east side has a lower growth rate than the west side. 4) On the east side of the line, coal consumption has the characteristics of more in the north and less in the south. This is consistent with the spatial distribution of China's coal resources. The consumptions of petroleum, natural gas, and electricity all have the characteristics of more in the east and less in the central region. This is determined by many factors, such as resource endowment, economic development, population scale, and industrial structure of each province. 5) The influencing factors have different degrees of impact on energy consumption under different scenarios. Our findings can provide some reference for the macro decision making in the energy field.

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    Structural resilience evolution of multiple urban networks in the Harbin-Dalian urban belt
    XIE Yongshun, WANG Chengjin, HAN Zenglin, LIU Shuzhou
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1619-1631.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.002
    Abstract232)   HTML10)    PDF (11523KB)(72)      

    Network structural resilience is an important direction for the future development of urban spatial organization, which is of great significance for the high-quality coordinated development of urban agglomerations. On the basis of systematic review and summary of existing theoretical and empirical research on complex networks, we built a model to evaluate the evolution characteristics of urban network structural resilience. Taking the Harbin-Dalian urban belt as the research object, we explored the evolution direction and quality of multiple urban network structural resilience. The results show that: 1) There are differences in the hierarchy and matching of multiple urban networks. In terms of hierarchy, transportation and financial networks tend to be flat, while information and innovation networks tend to be three dimensional; In terms of matching, transportation network and innovation network are characterized by homogeneity and heterogeneity respectively, and their characteristics are strengthened, while financial network and information network are characterized by heterogeneity but their characteristics are weakened. 2) Network structural resilience type remains stable. Transportation network can be characterized as core-periphery network of homogeneity, while finance, information, and innovation networks can be categorized as resilient network. The structural resilience of transportation and financial networks has declined, while that of information and innovation networks has increased. The comprehensive level of resilience evolution is as follows: innovation cooperation network > information association network > 0 > financial connection network > transportation network. 3) The restrictive factors of the resilience evolution of urban network structure in the Harbin-Dalian urban belt can be traced back to three aspects: core cities, peripheral cities, and factor flow. In view of these, we put forward the optimization path of the resilience evolution of urban network structure in the Harbin-Dalian urban belt from three aspects: overall structure, regional difference, and factor flow.

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    From localization to de-localization and re-localization: Transformation of the human-land relationship in China’s urbanization process
    ZENG Guojun, XU Yuchen, WANG Longjie, ZHONG Shuru
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (1): 28-39.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.01.003
    Abstract232)   HTML21)    PDF (3736KB)(96)      

    The relationship between people and land provides an important perspective on urbanization paths. This study analyzed the development context and basic logic of the transformation of human-land relationship in China, and argued that the relationship between people and land has gone through three stages: localization, de-localization, and re-localization. In the stage of localization, the economic form of the country based on agriculture determined people's economic dependence and emotional attachment to the countryside, and the logic of localization is hard to shake. In the de-localization stage, the transformation of industrialization and urbanization in China pushed farmers to leave the agricultural fields and leave the countryside, and structural changes occurred to the value constraint that people cannot be separated from their lands. Under the influence of land use institutions and the household registration system, the passive landless farmers and those leaving the land behind at their own will jointly led the de-localization process of human-land relationship. In the stage of re-localization, the institutional reform led the farmers to become the main agent of urbanization. Nostalgia promotes the coexistence of urban and rural civilizations, which helps reshape the relationship between people and land. Finally, this article maintained that examining the historical context and basic logic of the transformation of human-land relationship can provide a theoretical reference for the institutional adjustment of human-land relationship in the new era and the smooth implementation of new urbanization.

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    Spatial differences and influencing factors of inter-provincial migrant workers’ backflow intention in China
    ZHANG Hua, LIU Zheda, YIN Xiaobing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (1): 73-84.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.01.007
    Abstract219)   HTML18)    PDF (2925KB)(113)      

    Along with the urban industrial structure adjustment and the development of the rural economy, a large-scale backflow of inter-provincial migrant workers gradually emerged, which had a tremendous impact on China's economic and social development. The spatial differences and influencing factors of inter-provincial migrant workers' backflow intention are vital issues, particularly in predicting the changing demographic trends and understanding the migrant population's needs and demands. Drawing on data from the 2016 China Migrant Population Dynamic Survey, this study discussed the spatial distribution and influencing factors of 82846 inter-provincial migrant workers from 31 provinces of China's mainland using a binary Logistic regression model. The results are as follows: 1) Older migrant workers with lower education level or without stable marital status seem to have stronger backflow intention. 2) The distribution of backflow intention presents a remarkable spatial differentiation. Among the three main geographical regions, the backflow intention of migrant workers currently in the eastern and western regions of China is stronger while the migrant workers who came from the central region express their clear willingness to return. 3) Backflow intention is influenced by personal factors of migrant population, their migration characteristics, family factors, and institutional factors. For all the factors, age, marital status, education, years of working after migration, migrating with family or not, family income, housing condition, and social security system are significant forces that shape the spatial pattern of inter-provincial migrant workers' backflow intention in China.

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    Spatial structure of urban innovation network based on the Chinese unicorn company network
    ZHOU Xiaoyan, HOU Meiling, LI Xiaowen
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (10): 1667-1676.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.10.006
    Abstract218)   HTML7)    PDF (4538KB)(47)      

    Unicorn company, a new term in today's business climate, is the integration of different types of innovations in the new era, and its internal relations and spatial organization reflect the pattern and characteristics of regional innovation networks. Consistent with the emerging entrepreneurship and the rapid development of the Internet, increasingly more unicorn companies appear in China, which provides an opportunity for us to catch a glimpse of China's innovation development through a new perspective. In this study, we used the ownership linkage model to map China's urban innovation network based on 164 Chinese unicorn companies' internal relations, and analyzed the spatial structure through the following social network analysis perspectives: urban hierarchy, association pattern, and city nodes. The "unicorn index" was developed as an indicator to evaluate the development and magnitude of a city's unicorn companies as well as its innovation environment and position in the network. Cities of high unicorn index values rank high in the urban innovation network hierarchy, which constitutes four tiers in a pyramid-shaped structure with 253 cities, only nine of which are in the top three tiers. Among them, Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Shenzhen show their innovative activity and advanced development in the unicorn entrepreneurship. To analyze the association pattern, we calculated the network density, assortativity coefficient, and the degree correlation for the network. The results show that most cities are not closely linked with each other in this generally loose-association urban innovation network, while intensive connections only happen between the cities with high unicorn index, highlighting an intensive-connection diamond-shaped structure. To further examine each city node, we regard outdegree as its innovative influence and "power", indegree as its innovative attraction and "prestige", and eigenvector centrality as its connectivity. We found that Beijing and Shanghai still play leading roles in the innovation network, but Nanjing and Wuhan start to exhibit innovative attraction and potential. In conclusion, the development of urban innovation network is driven by four leading cities—Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Shenzhen, showing a spatial polarization character. The network pattern highlights a diamond structure whose activity weakens from the east to the west. Cities having high unicorn index are strongly linked to each other and playing important roles while other cities enter the network by establishing links to those cities, shaping the core-periphery network structure. Moreover, those important cities enjoy power and prestige and have various influences in the innovation network. This study provides a new look into China's urban innovation network and some insights for policymakers to promote urban innovation. Also, the unicorn index can be considered in city innovation evaluation.

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    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population heat map in leisure areas in Beijing on holidays
    ZHAO Ziyu, ZHAO Shiyao, HAN Zhonghui, XU Yunxiao, JIN Jie, WANG Shijun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (7): 1073-1085.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.07.001
    Abstract218)   HTML0)    PDF (6322KB)(0)      

    The Chinese government has curbed the outbreak of COVID-19 through a population flow control rarely seen in history. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the recreation industry. Using mobile location data, this study quantitatively analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population heat map in the leisure areas within the Third Ring Road of Beijing City on the Qingming Festival and Labor Day. The results showed that: 1) The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted population heat map in leisure areas in Beijing on holidays, and the population heat map values of the three types of leisure areas investigated in this study declined by 54.2% and 53.0% on the Qingming Festival and Labor Day in 2020 as compared to the 2019 values, respectively. To be specific, the population heat map values of famous scenery, shopping services, and hotel accommodation decreased by 53.6%, 57.5%, and 52.9% on the Qingming Festival, and by 48.5%, 52.0%, and 55.6% on Labor Day, respectively. 2) There were differences in the degree of the impact on population heat map in different types of areas in famous scenery. The impact on the three major segments of famous scenery can be ranked in ascending order as follows: temples and churches (41.7%, 50.3%), parks and squares (53.1%, 47.1%), and scenic spots (61.1%, 51.2%). Wilcoxon rank sum test showed that the hourly variation of population heat map in temples and churches was smaller, and the overall demand can be ranked in ascending order as follows: sightseeing, daily leisure, and religious activities. 3) The 2020 population heat map of the leisure areas within the Third Ring Road of Beijing City was significantly negatively and positively correlated with the population heat map before the pandemic and area of these leisure areas, respectively. This can be attributed to the risk perception of the leisure crowds and the spatial and environmental factors of the disease prevention and control measures. This study provides a scientific basis for assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on leisure forms in big cities of China.

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    Soil freezing-thawing processes on the Tibetan Plateau: A review based on hydrothermal dynamics
    CHEN Rui, YANG Meixue, WAN Guoning, WANG Xuejia
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (11): 1944-1958.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.11.014
    Abstract217)   HTML11)    PDF (3607KB)(72)      

    The freezing and thawing processes of near-surface soil are one of the most significant physical characteristics of the land surface on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), as well as an essential index for estimating the existence and development of the permafrost and reflecting the climate change. The seasonal and diurnal freezing-thawing processes of the near-surface soil cause the changes and even anomalies of water and energy balance between the land and the atmosphere on the TP, and thus significantly affect surface hydrological processes, ecological environment, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and the weather and climate system on the plateau and of the surrounding areas. This article discusses the observational and simulated changes and the impact on the climate by reviewing latest research progress in soil freezing-thawing processes (SFTPs) over the past 20 years. Our review shows that: 1) During a complete annual freezing-thawing cycle, each layer of soil generally experiences four stages: summer thawing period, autumn thawing-freezing period, winter freezing period, and spring thawing-freezing period. Due to the influence of local factors, the SFTPs show differences in the start and end dates, rate, and type of change. 2) Diurnal freezing-thawing cycles show large differences between the permafrost regions and the seasonally frozen regions, which are mainly reflected in the duration of diurnal freezing-thawing cycles. 3) Although different land surface models (LSMs) can well capture the spatiotemporal variations of physical quantity of SFTPs, all of them need to be revised according to the characteristic of LSMs of the TP. 4) Unreasonable freezing-thawing model parameterization schemes can be improved through avoiding the unstable iterative computation and determining the critical freezing-thawing temperature according to the thermodynamic equilibrium equation. According to the review of existing research, adding high-quality observation stations, using satellite remote sensing data to retrieve SFTPs and deepen the coupling of LSMs with regional climate models and global climate models, developing parameterization schemes that are suitable for SFTPs of the TP, and adjusting the model structures can be helpful for the simulation of SFTPs on the TP.

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    Geography of sustainability transitions: A sympathetic critique and research agenda
    YU Zhen, GONG Huiwen, HU Xiaohui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (3): 498-510.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.03.013
    Abstract213)   HTML14)    PDF (1297KB)(61)      

    Sustainability transitions focus on the fundamental transformation of the existing socio-technical system towards a more sustainable mode of production and consumption. Emerged in Europe two decades ago, this new research field has already exerted impacts on the green transition policy practices of many countries and regions. In recent years, transition studies have increasingly taken geography into account, resulting in a new paradigm of geography of sustainability transitions. This emerging paradigm focuses on the role of spatial embeddedness and multi-scalar interactions in explaining where transitions take place. This article provides a critical overview of the development in the geography of sustainability transitions research, and suggests five promising avenues for future transition research in the Chinese context: 1) to develop concepts and theorize from the Chinese context; 2) to link sustainability transitions with latecomer regions' industry catch-up; 3) to compare the sustainability transitions in cities with different leading industries; 4) to pay more attention to the role of local agency through the lens of multi-scalar interactions; and 5) to explore the impact of digitalization and artificial intelligence on sustainability transitions.

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