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    Big data analysis of social development situation in regions along the Belt and Road
    Mingqing MA, Wu YUAN, Quansheng GE, Wen YUAN, Linsheng YANG, Hanqing LI, Meng LI
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 1009-1020.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.006
    Abstract741)   HTML30)    PDF (7942KB)(151)      

    The Belt and Road initiative has become China's basic international policy. Keeping abreast of the social development trend of countries along the Belt and Road is crucial to ensuring the steady progress and successful implementation of the initiative. To this end, this study used the Global Data on Events, Location and Tone (GDELT) as a data source to obtain the full-text English news data in 25 countries along the Belt and Road in the past five years, and analyzed the social development trends of various countries by introducing topic models and combining an unsupervised method—the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and a supervised method—labeled latent Dirichlet allocation (Labeled LDA) to mine the topics contained in the news data, and construct a social stability model. The study found that: 1) The social development trend of the countries along the Belt and Road is uneven, and the countries can be divided into four categories: Stable, such as Oman, Vietnam; Relatively stable, such as Uzbekistan, Iran; Moderate risk, such as Kuwait, Jordan, Pakistan, Myanmar; High risk, such as Syria, Afghanistan. 2) Through the spatiotemporal mining of news topics, hot spots can be effectively identified. For example, this study found that Andijon has an important influence on the social development and stability of Central Asia. 3) The supervised topic model could reveal Uzbekistan's economic and industrial structure, identify major social events, and discover its social security risks and trend. This method can effectively explore the spatiotemporal changes of news events, discover potential risks of countries, support real-time dynamic monitoring of the social development trends of countries along the Belt and Road, and provide auxiliary decision support for the implementation of the Belt and Road initiative, and thus has important application value.

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    Research progress and prospect of Beautiful China
    Qing GAO, Huasong LUO, Zhenbo WANG, Jinping SONG
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 1021-1033.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.007
    Abstract679)   HTML40)    PDF (762KB)(216)      

    Building Beautiful China is an important starting point for accelerating the reform of the ecological civilization system and realizing the sustainable development of the Chinese nation. At present, the country has set the timetable and roadmap of the construction of Beautiful China. It is of great significance to fully understand the current progress of Beautiful China research to guide future study. The current research on Beautiful China is at an exploratory stage, mainly focusing on the background and connotation of Beautiful China, the discussion of the index system, and the construction path. Among them, the connotation and theoretical basis of Beautiful China is the main body and focus of the present research, but a mature system is yet to be developed. The research of evaluation index system is in the exploration stage, and a unified understanding and standards have not been formed. The research content of the construction path is rather vague, and operability is limited. Future research needs to prioritize the following aspects. The first is to clarify the definition and connotation of Beautiful China, to build a theoretical system, and to answer the question of "what is". The second is to build a differential, development-oriented indicator system that is accessible, can be assessed, and can be implemented, to answer the question of "what to build". The third is to sum up local experiences, build a Beautiful China construction path system, and answer the question of "how to build".

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    A review of global-local interactions for regional development
    MAO Xiyan, HE Canfei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1449-1461.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.001
    Abstract563)   HTML36)    PDF (1500KB)(416)      

    Extra-regional linkages can benefit regional development by introducing supplement resources and technologies. They also enrich the local knowledge base, keeping regions away from depression due to lock-in effects. Global-local interaction (GLI) research represents the academic effort to theorize this process by examining the interplay between a wide array of actors at multi-scales within particular territorial confines. It raises four critical questions regarding the conditions, regional differences, channels, and actors for interaction. The literature has documented that the relatedness between local and nonlocal inputs determines the probability of GLI. Local capabilities determine the extent of GLI. The literature also reveals that the leading and most lagging behind regions tend to benefit from GLI. Knowledge diffusion, foreign investment, and international trade are primary elements that support GLI. As one region continues to develop, the immigrants and nonlocal institutions may enrich the GLI. Conventionally, the literature on GLI is firm-centric. Recent advances highlight the role of individuals, such as entrepreneurs and employees. There is also increasing awareness of the non-economic agency, especially the institutional agency. Overall, an in-depth examination is still required for understanding the scales, dynamics, and agencies of GLI for regional development. Grounded in the context of China's regional restructuring and opening-up, this study proposes a framework to model GLI in China and discusses its potential for future studies.

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    Themes evolution of rural revitalization and its research prospect in China from 1949 to 2019
    WEN Qi, ZHENG Dianyuan, SHI Linna
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (9): 1272-1281.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.09.001
    Abstract529)   HTML70)    PDF (1107KB)(576)      

    In this article, we reviewed the process of rural development from 1949 to 2019. Implementing the rural revitalization strategy is essential for the declared prioritization of agricultural and rural development, achieving the overarching goal of agricultural and rural modernization, and establishing and improving the mechanism and policy framework of integrated urban and rural development. Rural development in China can be divided into five stages. The first stage involved urban-rural dual structure development with people's cooperatives as the primary agents. The second comprised a household contract responsibility system, and is characterized by a small-scale peasant economy. The third involved coordinating urban and rural development with a "city re-feeding rural areas" policy. The fourth was urban-rural integrated development oriented by rural reconstruction. Finally, the fifth stage is rural revitalization guided by balanced urban and rural development. This study also described and analyzed the evolution process of six revitalization themes since 1949, as well as tracing the journey of the deepening research into the themes. The six themes are: differentiation of the agents, industrial evolution, environmental improvement, cultural reconstruction, rural governance, and rural planning. Finally, this study focused on the recent rural revitalization to address strategic needs and five upcoming areas of research. These research areas include interdisciplinary integrated research of theory and practice, urban-rural integration, integrated development of rural industry and improvement of quality and efficiency, integrated development of rural production, living, and ecological space, and cross-regional rural cooperation and linkage. Future research trends were also discussed.

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    Measuring polycentric urban structure using Easygo big data: A case study of Chongqing metropolitan area
    DUAN Yaming, LIU Yong, LIU Xiuhua, HE Dong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1957-1967.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.011
    Abstract526)   HTML30)    PDF (9096KB)(159)      

    Polycentricity has become the spatial development strategy in many Chinese cities. Effective identification of polycentric urban form is of great significance for assessing planning performance and formulating better planning strategy. Compared with Baidu Heat Map and cell phone call data, Tencent Easygo data have the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution and low acquisition cost, which can be used to compare the population agglomeration capabilities of different urban centers, and dynamically identify and monitor polycentric urban form. Taking Chongqing metropolitan area as an example, this study applied the method of Kernel density analysis to identify its polycentric urban form and the size and rank of the urban centers based on Tencent Easygo data of one week. The results show that Chongqing as a mountainous city has developed a polycentric urban structure with multiple subcenters and urban clusters due to the constraint of natural environment, the drive of economic forces, and the guidance of urban planning. The main center and several subcenters inside the inner ring road have comparable degrees of population aggregation, land use scales, and urban development levels. These subcenters are also stronger than the other subcenters outside the inner ring road. The study pointed out that the urban development degree and population aggregation capacity of Xiyong, Chayuan, and peripheral urban clusters need to be improved.

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    The Belt and Road production networks and China’s participation
    Zhi ZHENG, Weidong LIU, Zhouying SONG, WUZHATI Yeerken, Yi LIANG
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 951-962.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.001
    Abstract520)   HTML74)    PDF (12826KB)(231)      

    With the deepening of globalization, the global production networks have become the most important organizational platform for coordinating and organizing global production activities. The Belt and Road initiative marks the beginning of the era of inclusive globalization, and China will be more quickly and deeply integrated into the global production networks. In this context, whether there is a stable production network connection within the Belt and Road region and how deeply China participates in such network are very meaningful research topics. Based on the perspective of global production networks, this study conducted quantitative research with methods such as input-output analysis, value-added decomposition, and network analysis. The results show that: 1) During 1995-2015, the connection of the internal production networks of the Belt and Road region intensified continuously. 2) China is at the core and the first position in the value flow of the Belt and Road production networks, and this advantage was constantly strengthened. 3) The spatial distribution of China's added value sources have the characteristics of decreasing from east to west and high concentration in southeast, and Southeast Asia is the most important source of China's value added. 4) China's acquisition of value added from finished products along the Belt and Road is inefficient. Confronting the dilemma of "low-level lock-in", China needs to upgrade its value capture capability. According to the above results, China should increase spatial integration and maximize production cooperation with the Belt and Road region, at the same time, carry out industrial upgrading, improve the efficiency of value-added acquisition, and find new growth points for China's economic development.

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    Impacts of street and public transport network centralities on housing rent:A case study of Beijing
    DU Chao, WANG Jiaoe, LIU Binquan, HUANG Dingxi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1831-1842.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.001
    Abstract492)   HTML74)    PDF (12584KB)(471)      

    Higher housing demand leads to housing price increasing rapidly, with lower housing affordability. Under these circumstances, renting a place has progressively become an alternative way for residents of cities. Urban transportation is one of the most significant influencing factors for housing rent, which needs to be examined at greater depth. This study used complex network analysis to explore how transportation centrality impacts housing rent. The conclusions are: transportation network shows significant impacts on housing rent, with higher impacts of public transport network than street network. Closeness in public transport has the highest impact on housing rent. Each centrality aspect influences housing rent differently, and relative accessibility in public transport network and transfer capacity in street network have the greatest impacts on housing rent. This article discussed two modes of urban transportation and their spatial characteristics. By refining the impacts of different transportation modes by network analysis, it provides a new perspective of urban transportation research and its spatial effects.

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    Spatial reconstruction and optimization of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration
    LUO Kui, LI Guangdong, LAO Xin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 179-194.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.001
    Abstract446)   HTML6)    PDF (29622KB)(49)      

    Scientific analysis of the spatial reconstruction of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration not only can contribute to expanding the scope and depth of research on industrial spatial change, but also can serve the national strategy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development. From the perspective of global value chain (GVC), this study employed the method of measuring the industrial proportion change after calibration based on the statistical data from 2000 to 2014 and the national industrial enterprise database for 2001, 2006, and 2013 to investigate the spatial pattern of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, and proposed the optimization strategies accordingly. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The industrial spatial reconstruction is an important driving force for promoting the development and maturation of an urban agglomeration. Following the trend of globalization and embedding in global value chains are of great significance to advancing the upgrading of urban agglomerations, and domestic industrial spatial reconstruction is an important approach for improving the industrial cooperation network and accelerating the integration of urban agglomerations. In addition, the interaction of GVC restructuring, industrial suburbanization, and resource and environmental carrying capacity is the foudation of the double C-shaped spatial pattern. 2) With regard to the international industrial spatial reconstruction, Tianjin has become the core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration to undertake international industrial transfer, followed by Beijing, while the development of other cities is relatively lagging behind. On the whole, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is still in a lower position in the GVC, which is not conducive to the promotion of regional competitiveness. 3) In repect to the industrial spatial change within the urban agglomeration, industrial reconstruction is mailny concentrated in the inner C-shape region consisting of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, and Cangzhou cities, while the intensity of spatial reconstruction in other regions is relatively weak. Different industries present diverse features of reconstruction: texile and garment industry is market-dominated within the GVC; chemical industry is influenced by both environmental regulations and dependence on water resources; steel industry is government-dominated; and pharmaceutical industry is regulated by the government under the influences of the GVC. 4) Based on the development of industrial spatial reconstruction, resource and environmental carrying capacity, and the double C-shaped spatial pattern, this article puts forward some suggestions on optimizing the industrial spatial patterns of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. As the economic core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, the inner C-shaped region is recommended to accelerate industrial upgrading to become a world-class industrial highland. The northern part of the outer C-shaped area is proposed to strengthen ecological environment protection for the sustainable development of the urban agglomeration, while the southern part of the outer C-shaped area should promote industrial transformation to become a solid support for industrial upgrading in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. The two C-shaped regions should be interconnected to ensure the implementation of the coordinated development strategy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.

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    Concept and research framework of greening global value chain
    SHEN Jing,CAO Yuanyuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1462-1472.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.002
    Abstract436)   HTML5)    PDF (3242KB)(137)      

    With the deepening of the global division of labor and widespread attention to environmental issues, the research framework of global value chain has become an important tool for Western academia to study cross-regional, global-local linkages and environmental power game in environmental issues. Through a review of the existing literature, this article introduces the greening of industries into the analytical framework of global value chain. The concept of greening global value chain is summarized as follows: the green processing on multinational production networks including raw material purchasing, production, sale, transportation, and recycling with a focus on the redistribution of environmental value. Then the research framework of greening global value chain was preliminarily constructed, including the driving mechanism of greening global value chain, the greening of management in different governance modes of global value chain, and the greening industrial upgrading of local economic entities. The following research areas are proposed: the mechanism of interactions among actors who drive the greening global value chain, regulation of governance network on greening global value chain, the environmental impact assessment of greening industrial upgrading and greening global value chain, among others. Different themes and characteristics of researches on greening global value chain are also identifies for the regional, national, and global scales. Finally, topics of future research on greening global value chain are suggested: the definition of the power relationship among actors, the model of greening governance, and the greening production network at the global scale. The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of environmental problems in the global value chain.

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    Spatial change of China’s investment pattern for overseas ports and its mechanism
    Peiran CHEN, Chengjin WANG, Weidong LIU
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 973-987.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.003
    Abstract424)   HTML29)    PDF (9506KB)(138)      

    Along with the global strategy written into national strategy in 2000 and the Belt and Road Initiative proposed in 2013, China is accelerating the pace of investment for overseas ports. This study constructed a data base of examples of overseas ports investment by Chinese enterprises from 1978 to date, analyzed the spatial change of investment pattern on a global level, and clarified the features and pathway for Chinese enterprises entering overseas ports from the aspects of regional structure, participants, ownership change, and so on. It also examined the main entry patterns of overseas ports, internal relationship between different entry patterns, and correlation and shift between different patterns. Finally this article discussed the development mechanism of China's overseas port investment based on, in progression, why Chinese enterprises went global, why these enterprises invested where they did, and why these enterprises chose certain pattern. The results show that: The process of Chinese investment for overseas pworts can be divided into five development stages—before 2000, these overseas ports scarcely distributed in North Africa; from 2000 to 2008 China's investment for overseas ports tended to distribute in its surrounding areas; from 2009 to 2012 ports distribution turned to a global spread; from 2013 to 2016 overseas ports tended to concentrate as guided by the opening strategy; since 2007 ports distribution has remained overall stable. The changing process of distribution reflects three features: 1) Country distribution is dispersed, while these ports assemble significantly in Northwest European and Mediterranean at the navigation area scale. 2) The investors include large shipping enterprises, wharf operators, and infrastructure enterprises, among which the core enterprises for overseas ports' stock acquisition include China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company and China Merchants Steamship Company, and the core enterprise for overseas ports' infrastructure construction is China Harbour Engineering. 3) The number of overseas ports invested through stock acquisition began to increase rapidly since 2013 and as the investment process constantly deepening, overseas ports investment changed from equity participation to holding. Overseas ports entry patterns include infrastructure project construction, transfer of port managerial authority, acquisition of port's stock, and port management export. The influencing factors for overseas ports investment can be summarized as national economic development context, key opening-up strategy, global shipping pattern, spatial substitution, and enterprise self-development demand. Leading factors and their functions changed at different spatial scales and stages of development.

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    Spatial differentiation of public service facilities’ configuration in community life circle: A case study of Shahekou District in Dalian City
    HAN Zenglin, LI Yuan, LIU Tianbao, DONG Mengru
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1701-1711.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.006
    Abstract423)   HTML18)    PDF (14127KB)(143)      

    The level of urban public service provision directly affects the life quality of residents, and location and allocation of urban public service facilities are an important task of urban planning and development. In recent years, the concept of urban life circle has been paid increasing attention to in China, and various localities have aimed to create a perfect "community life circle" as a key task of urban governance. Using the open source map data and the urban network analysis (UNA) toolbox, this study analyzed the spatial difference of public service facilities in Shahekou District of Dalian City, and measured the number and type of reachable facilities to residents of 90 communities in the district. Then, an overall evaluation of each community was conducted. Finally, the optimal allocation of public service facilities was proposed. The results show that: 1) Public service facilities are unevenly distributed in Shahekou District of Dalian City. There are more facilities on the north side and fewer on the south side, showing a structure of one primary center and six secondary centers. The primary center is around the commercial area of Xi'an Road and the secondary centers are distributed in each subdistrict. 2) There is a large difference in the number of reachable facilities to residents—facilities on the north side of the Malan River are more than that of the south side, and there are more facilities in one or two areas in each subdistrict. 3) There are some differences in types of reachable facilities to residents, and more than 70% of the residents can reach all six types of public service facilities. The number of facility types reachable to residents on the west side of Xibei Road-Xinan Road-Wuyi Road is less than that of the east side. 4) Generally, in various communities reachable facilities are balanced and have small differences. However, there are still some communities that show large internal differences. According to the analysis, whether residents can access the various public service facilities is greatly affected by the distribution of facilities, the barriers of ground objects, and the closed degree of community. At the end of this article, we propose to build 15-minute community life circles with all needed facilities and easy to reach.

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    An empirical analysis of factors leading to typical urban problems in China
    SHEN Jie, ZHANG Keyun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 1-12.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.001
    Abstract416)   HTML9)    PDF (2591KB)(73)      

    Based on the results of existing research, typical urban problems can be divided into three categories—traffic congestion, resources shortage, and environmental pollution. This study used cross-section data of 204 Chinese prefecture-level cities in 2013 to build a population spatial distribution index on the basis of nighttime light data for an empirical study. First, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was applied to examine the impacts of city size, spatial imbalance, lagged infrastructure construction, industrial transformation, and institutional obstacles on urban problems. Second, a threshold effect model was constructed to further investigate possible nonlinear relationships between the influencing factors and urban problems. The empirical results prove that the various aspects of urban problems should be attributed to different influencing factors since these problems are complex. The main reasons leading to traffic congestion are big city size and centralized distribution of urban population, as well as the lack of transportation infrastructure. While resources shortage is not a universal problem in most big cities, in contrast, the improvement of industrial structure, increasing supply of public services, and concentration of administrative power are helpful for big cities to attract and bring in resources. The expansion of urban population and the agglomerated structure of population distribution both hinder environmental pollution control. Besides, the growth in the proportion of non-agricultural industries and expansion of urban road area both can damage urban ecosystems.

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    Progress and implications of international rural space research
    WANG Dan, LIU Zuyun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1991-2002.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.014
    Abstract402)   HTML16)    PDF (755KB)(236)      

    Space is a product of society. Driven by industrialization, urbanization, informationization, and government policies, China's rural space is going through drastic reconstructions. As one of the core contents of international rural geography research, rural space studies are multi-disciplinary, multi-perspective, multi-dimensional, and multi-methods, forming a rich research field. In order to grasp the progress of rural space research more comprehensively, this study reviewed international rural space research literature in recent 40 years. The study found that international researchers described the connotation of rural space from the perspectives of material, imagination, and practice. The three-fold architecture was established to emphasize the practice of everyday life. It introduced living space to build the systematic research framework of rural space. With regard to the theoretical perspective, international research of rural space has gone through functionalism, political economy, and social constructivism; it transformed from productivism to post productivism; the research included settlement space, economic space, social space, and cultural space. As a whole, international research of rural space realized the change from material level to social representation, from object space to subject space, and from static one-dimensional space to dynamic multi-dimensional space, which revealed the importance of interdisciplinary and sociocultural approaches in rural space studies. The construction of rural space in China needs to pay attention to the subject status of farmers and multifunction of rural space, respect the role of locality and difference of various places, and recover the function of production of meaning of rural space.

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    Influence of neighborhood environment and noise pollution on residents’ mental health in Beijing
    Chunjiang LI, Jing MA, Yanwei CHAI, Mei-Po KWAN
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 1103-1110.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.014
    Abstract402)   HTML30)    PDF (2465KB)(190)      

    Mental health has become one of the main health challenges that urban residents are facing in today's society. Previous research has proven that neighborhood built and social environments can influence mental health. However, related research was mainly focused on Western developed countries. Furthermore, previous research paid little attention to noise pollution and failed to consider the influences of neighborhood environment and noise pollution together. This may be one of the reasons that the results of previous research are inconsistent. Based on the health survey data of urban residents conducted in 2017 in 26 communities in Beijing, this study used a multilevel Logistic model to investigate the relationships between neighborhood environment (including built environment and social environment) and perceived noise pollution from various sources (including road traffic noise, railway and subway noise, store and restaurant noise, and housing renovation noise) and residents' mental health. The results show that residents' mental health is significantly affected by both the neighborhood environment and noise pollution level. As for neighborhood built environment, distance to main roads, which indicates traffic volume, as well as accessibility to health services and sports and recreational facilities, are significantly correlated with mental health. However, distance to public parks shows no significant relationship with residents' mental health. According to previous research, accessibility to parks is not equal to the actual use of them, and the latter relates to mental health more directly. In terms of neighborhood social environment, consistent with previous research, the number of greeting neighbors is positively correlated with mental health. Besides, neighborhood satisfaction also shows positive and significant association with mental health. The result suggests that it is necessary to promote community belongingness, neighborhood satisfaction, and social networks of residents through a variety of community activities and campaigns, in order to maintain mental health. Perception of trust and safety of neighborhoods show no significant association with mental health. Finally, housing renovation noise shows significant relationship with mental health, while other noise sources like road traffic, railways and subways, and stores and restaurants show no significant association with mental health. This result indicates that housing renovation noise has become the main source of noise affecting the mental health of Beijing residents, and it also reflects the rapid urban transition and large-scale mobility that happened in Beijing. Compared with previous research, this study combined neighborhood built and social environments as well as different sources of noise pollution to give a more comprehensive understanding on their influences on residents' mental health. This article also tried to explain the results in the context of rapid urban transition in China and to enrich the research findings for developing countries. However, there are still many areas in which more research is needed.

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    Integrated watershed modeling and scenario analysis: A new paradigm for integrated study of physical geography?
    ZHU A-Xing, ZHU Liangjun, SHI Yaxing, QIN Chengzhi, LIU Junzhi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (8): 1111-1122.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.08.001
    Abstract397)   HTML49)    PDF (5096KB)(344)      

    In the context of the changing global environment and rapidly developing economies, the conflict between economic development and resource/environmental conservation is becoming severe. To resolve or relieve the conflict, decision makers need a new knowledge system and scientific decision-making tools. The integrated study of physical geography, which takes the spatial variation and interaction processes of natural geographic elements as main research contents, has the responsibility of providing the new knowledge system and scientific decision-making tools for decision makers. As a relatively closed and independent spatial unit, the watershed provides a natural spatial unit for decision making. The spatial distribution of geographic elements and the mechanism of their interaction processes inside a watershed become the new knowledge system to resolve or relieve this increasingly intensified conflict. Integrated watershed modeling has become an effective way to build this new knowledge system. The effectiveness of different decisions considering the economic and environmental benefits should be evaluated for decision makers before a final decision, which can be provided by a scenario analysis based on integrated watershed modeling. Therefore, from the perspective of resolving or relieving the conflict between economic development and resource/environmental conservation, integrated watershed modeling and scenario analysis is developing into a new paradigm for the integrated study of physical geography in the new era. In this article, the scientific challenges of the integrated study of physical geography based on integrated watershed modeling and scenario analysis were discussed through two case studies of scenario analysis for watershed management, which basically represent two types of questions that decision makers are concerned with. The first type of questions is which kinds of best management practices (BMPs) should be selected, where these BMPs should be allocated, and what economic and environmental benefits are after the implementation of these BMPs. The second type of questions is that under the given objectives of economic and environmental benefits, where the selected BMPs should be allocated and how large spatial extents they should occupy. In conclusion, the integrated study of physical geography based on integrated watershed modeling and scenario analysis should have the characteristics of systematization, spatialization, quantification, ease of use, and decision-making friendly.

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    Urban spatial linkages and the hub-spoke network structure in the Wuhan metropolitan area
    Ye TIAN, Jing LUO, Jianwei SUN, Ying DONG, Guolei CHEN
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 1093-1102.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.013
    Abstract390)   HTML22)    PDF (8878KB)(128)      

    Hub-spoke network is an efficient network structure, which is helpful for reducing the cost of factor flow, improving efficiency, and increasing scale effect. Hub-spoke network consists of some hubs and spoke, where the hubs play the key role of circulating factors like people, capital, information, and so on, and the spoke receive the factors and transfer them in a specific way so that efficiency would be improved significantly. In this study, we took 37 counties and districts in the Wuhan metropolitan area as the research area and used the modified gravity model to calculate the spatial linkage strength in 1995, 2005, and 2015 between the 37 units. Then we mapped the hub-spoke network with networkx, an open source package of python and analyzed the changes. The results show that: 1) The strength of the linkages between towns and cities have gradually increased, and the pattern evolved from unipolar radiation to network integration. Meanwhile, the overall linkages present a core-periphery pattern centered on the main urban area of Wuhan City. The spatial linkage network developed synchronously with linkage strength, and network structure has become increasingly more compact. At the same time, the pivotal position of key nodes is becoming more prominent. 2) Key hub towns and linkage channels gradually developed around the main urban area of Wuhan City, forming some connecting rings covering the northeast and south of the main urban area of Wuhan City as the key connecting channels between key hub towns and spoke towns. 3) The structure of the overall linkage network consists of a high level hub, which is the main urban area of Wuhan City, some middle level hubs, which are the main urban areas of some prefecture-level cities, and the spoke towns in the Wuhan metropolitan area. The hub and spoke network structure has evolved from point-to-point to primary hub and spoke network and leveled hub and spoke network, but this structure is not perfect at present and is still in development.

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    Elements and operation mechanisms of rural production spatial system
    ZHOU Mingming, WANG Cheng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1655-1664.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.001
    Abstract381)   HTML48)    PDF (3195KB)(322)      

    Rural production spatial system is a typical human-earth system, which has the characteristics of dissipative structure. Guided by the system theory and following the basic methods of system science, this study theoretically analyzed the connotation and elements of rural production spatial system, and divided the evolution process of rural production spatial system around the transformation of rural production relations. On this basis, it clarified the operation mechanisms of rural production spatial system. The study found that rural production spatial system is mainly composed of four sets of elements: basic elements (resources, environment, and infrastructure), core elements (multiple stakeholders and rural culture), driving elements (capital, technology, information, and market) and management elements (institutions and policies). According to the patterns of rural production relation change, economic system change, and urban-rural relationship change, the evolution process of rural production spatial system after the founding of the People's Republic of China was divided into four periods: land reform movement, agricultural mutual assistance and cooperation movement, people's commune movement, and household responsibility system. In different periods, the elements of rural production spatial system and their interrelated ways varied, and the characteristics of rural production spatial system are different. Rural production spatial system promotes its operation and development through supporting and restraining mechanisms, competition and cooperation mechanisms, and regulatory and feedback mechanisms. Future research will focus on examining the operation status of rural production spatial system, and diagnosing the dynamic mechanisms or obstacles of the system operation from the perspective of factor function, structural relationship, and coordination.

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    Economic globalization, global financial crisis and China: A financial geography perspective
    WANG Xiaoyang,MENG Ke
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1482-1489.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.004
    Abstract376)   HTML26)    PDF (990KB)(238)      

    The impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis on Western developed countries, especially the Anglo-American economies, is far-reaching and is reflected on economic, political, and social dimensions. A large body of scholars from various disciplines has attempted to explain the outbreak of the financial crisis. This study analyzed the relationship between economic globalization and the global financial crisis, and explored the impact of the crisis on China from a financial geography perspective. First, this study examined the formation of a new international labor division in the context of economic globalization, identified the transmission dynamics of the financial crisis, and mapped the changing geographies of world economies shaped by the financial crisis. With regard to China, the global financial crisis was external. The economic recession and consumption contraction of Western developed countries have directly affected China's exports, but the financial crisis has not fundamentally affected China's financial system. Second, the article explains why the global financial crisis did not impact China's financial system. The spatial heterogeneity of institutions, the varieties of market economic systems, the government's positive role and control, and China's banking-dominant financial system were all important contributors. Third, the interests of Chinese and international financial geographers on China have gradually increased in the last decade and this article summarizes the latest research progress and identifies the shortcomings of the existing research. Finally, based on the research progress of Western financial geography, this article puts forward some suggestions for the construction of China's financial geography in the future.

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    Spatial pattern and evolution of cereal trade networks among the Belt and Road countries
    CHEN Yiwen,LI Erling
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1643-1654.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.018
    Abstract359)   HTML26)    PDF (7793KB)(174)      

    Trade of agricultural commodities is an important part of the economic and trade cooperation between the Belt and Road countries, but the existing trade theories cannot fully explain the pattern and change of the cereal trade network between these countries. This study set up a four-dimensional analytical framework, combined social network analysis with spatial econometric analysis, and analyzed the spatial structure characteristics and mechanism of change of cereal trade network between the Belt and Road countries based on the United Nations Comtrade data from 1993 to 2016. The results show that: 1) The cereal trade network density of the Belt and Road countries is constantly increasing while the trade relations and trade intensity between these countries are constantly deepening. The position of the Belt and Road countries in the global grain trade network is on the rise and there is a clear phenomenon of trade club. 2) The network of trade relations has evolved from non-nuclear to multi-nuclear, and then to reshaping. 3) China's cereal trade with other Belt and Road countries has undergone an evolution from export-oriented to import-oriented. The Belt and Road initiative has enhanced China's position in the global grain trade network. 4) The evolution of the national cereal trade network of the Belt and Road countries is the product of resource endowment, economic environment, cultural identity, and political games. Compared with other trade networks, grain trade network has distinct characteristics and stronger stability. This study may provide some guidance for promoting cereal trade cooperation among the Belt and Road countries, optimizing trade structure, and ensuring food security.

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    Spatial pattern and change of China’s international air transport network since the Belt and Road Initiative
    Fangye DU, Jiaoe WANG, Jiahao XIE, Delin DU
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 963-972.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.002
    Abstract348)   HTML44)    PDF (2877KB)(149)      

    With the advancement of economic globalization and regional integration, the demands of communica-tion and cooperation among regions increase rapidly. Relying on the unique advantages of speed, accessibility, and convenience, air transportation plays a significant role in the exchange of passenger and cargo among countries. The Belt and Road Initiative was proposed in 2013, which has attracted the attention of the world. Since then, the background of China's development has changed sharply, which brings new development opportunities for the expansion of the country's air transport network and can be shown in the following ways: 1) International tourism as a way of having vacation becomes more popular among people in China, largely due to the rapid increase of income. According to the statistics from China Tourism Administration, the number of outbound tourists increased from 98.2 million in 2013 to 130.51 million in 2017, contributing more passengers for international air transportation. 2) International trade also contributes more to China's prosperous international air transportation. 3) In the Belt and Road Initiative, facility connectivity was proposed as one of the most importance area of cooperation with countries of the region, and air transport network plays an important role in the realization of facility connectivity between countries. However, research on the change of China's international air transport since the proposition of the Belt and Road Initiative is still lacking. To fill this gap, this study analyzed the spatial distribution and change of international air transport network of China in terms of air routes, flights, and navigable cities based on the data of China's international air routes and flights in 2013 and 2018. The results show that: 1) On a whole, in the past five years, the Belt and Road Initiative has not altered the original pattern of China's air transport network, in which navigable cities formed the catchment centered on east and southeast Asia. 2) With regard to countries along the Belt and Road, their importance in China's air transport network is increasing and the numbers of routes and flights are increasing distinctively. 3) The main hub cities in China were Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou in both 2013 and 2018, and more cities became secondary hub cities for different regions. New air transport routes and flights are operated in the existing navigable cities, showing that the direction of China's international air transport development is to deepen the connection with existing navigable countries and cities.

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    Characteristics and influencing factors of surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City
    HE Ping, CUI Meiyan, LI Jinxiao, LIU Shuhua
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1793-1801.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.014
    Abstract348)   HTML9)    PDF (4653KB)(105)      

    Based on the 24 years (1993-2016) meteorological data including solar radiation and other related variables, this study analyzed the characteristics of surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City, and examined its influencing factors by using the methods of regression analysis, Mann-Kendall (M-K) abrupt test, wavelet analysis, and grey correlation degree analysis. The results show that surface solar radiation varied between 4620.21 MJ/m 2 and 6221.65 MJ/m 2, the maximum occurred in 2016 and the minimum occurred in 2008, and the annual mean was 5598.06 MJ/m 2. Annual mean solar radiation showed a fluctuating rising trend. The dry and wet seasons are distinct in Kunming City, and the maximum surface solar radiation appeared in dry season (November to April of the following year at 2825.22 MJ/m 2), but the minimum appeared in rainy season (May to October, at 2774.41 MJ/m 2). Maximum monthly variation of surface solar radiation in Kunming City appeared in April (604.75 MJ/m 2), and the minimum appeared in December (361.01 MJ/m 2). The difference of surface solar radiation between April and December was 243.74 MJ/m 2. According to the M-K abrupt test, the point of abrupt change appeared in 2014, but it is statistically insignificant. On the one hand, annual wavelet analysis detected a 15-year primary period of surface solar radiation. On the other hand, using seasonal wavelet analysis of surface solar radiation, the amplitude of surface solar radiation in dry season was stronger than in rainy season, but the primary periods are both 19 days. Finally, through grey relational analysis, the 24-year surface solar radiation was influenced by both human and natural factors. Precipitation is an important natural factor, but gross industrial output value is an important human factor influencing the surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City. Compared to the human factor, natural factor is the main contributor of the surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City.

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    Characteristics of change and vitalization pathways of poor villages based on multifunctional rural development theory: A case study of Zahan Village in Hainan Province
    MA Li,LONG Hualou,TU Shuangshuang,ZHANG Yingnan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (9): 1435-1446.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.09.016
    Abstract347)   HTML17)    PDF (6448KB)(193)      

    For most regions in rural China, poverty is an important factor restricting rural development. In order to reduce excessive dependence on agriculture and single production function, rural multifunctionality is receiving increasing more attention. Multifunctional rural development is to a great extent conducive to reducing the incidence of poverty and improving the ability of rural communities and families to face the pressure of survival. Under the background of rural revitalization in China, this study used field investigation and semistructured interview results to analyze the characteristics of change and driving factors of rural development in poor villages from the perspective of multifunctionality. Based on the development model of Zahan Village, we further explored alternative pathways for vitalizing poor rural villages. The results show that: 1) Under the influence of "policy opportunity geography", Zahan Village has experienced a transition from a vulnerable poor rural village to a village with diversified functions. 2) The coordinated development of agricultural production, social security, ecological conservation, and cultural heritage protection in rural areas has positive implications for improving the level of rural socioeconomic development and enhancing rural resilience. 3) Factors driving rural multifunctional transition include policy support, market demand, natural environment, capital and technology, stakeholders, and cultural traits. 4) In view of the constraints of rural development in poor villages, it is proposed to provide external support for rural vitalization from the macro level, promote synergistic interaction from the meso level, stimulate endogenous forces from the micro level, and achieve rural vitalization through overall planning and various breakthroughs. Finally, based on the multifunctional rural development theory, the dilemmas and prospect of rural vitalization and development were discussed.

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    Spatial distribution and influencing factors of innovation platforms in urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin
    TANG Chengli, GUO Xiashuang, ZHOU Guohua, WU Jiamin, CHEN Weiyang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 531-541.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.001
    Abstract343)   HTML5)    PDF (9618KB)(26)      

    Innovation is the primary driving force behind development. As an important part of the regional innovation system and the core supporting carrier for the accumulation of innovative resources, innovation platforms are the main way to promote innovation-driven development. This study took the urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin as the research area and used the nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation, Ripley's K function, and geo-detector to explore the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of the innovation platforms above provincial level in the urban agglomerations in 2017. The results show that: 1) The overall spatial distribution of the innovation platforms in the urban agglomerations is clustered, showing a triangular distribution pattern with Wuhan, Changsha, and Nanchang as the cores. 2) Innovation platforms of various scales and functional types exhibit significant agglomeration characteristics, but there exist certain differences in agglomeration intensity and state among them. 3) The overall innovation platforms and various types of innovation platforms show scale effect, which first strengthens and then weakens with the change of geographical distance. 4) The spatial differentiation of the innovation platforms is the result of multiple factors. Strength of financial resources, degree of informationalization, level of foreign investment, and conditions of human capital are most significant, followed by traffic accessibility, urbanization level, economic base, and innovation atmosphere.

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    Poverty pattern and influencing factors in typical deep poverty-stricken counties:A case study of Hailun City in Heilongjiang Province
    DU Guoming, FENG Yue, YU Jiaxing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 69-77.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.007
    Abstract341)   HTML3)    PDF (3123KB)(21)      

    Deep poverty-stricken counties are the key areas for targeted poverty alleviation, and objective analysis of the poverty pattern and influencing factors in these areas can provide a scientific basis for developing the tactics of poverty relief. This study applied spatial analysis and mathematical statistics methods to explore the poverty pattern and influencing factors of Hailun City, Heilongjiang Province, by taking poverty villages and poverty population as the focus. The results show that: 1) As a deep poverty-stricken county, Hailun's poverty villages and poverty population are unbalanced, and their spatial patterns are related and different. 2) The poverty villages of Hailun City centralize in the terrain transition zone of 150-250 m, presenting a multi-core zonal distribution pattern. 3) The distribution pattern of poverty population in Hailun results from the joint effects of natural and human factors. Physical geographic conditions, agricultural production, rural infrastructure, and social welfare are key factors. In order to strengthen targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, it is important to strengthen agricultural infrastructure and improve the ability of resisting natural hazards and disasters; accelerate planting structure adjustment and layout optimization and improve rural industrial development level; improve social insurance level and reduce the risks of causing and returning to poverty; optimize settlement system and promote space reorganization, restructuring, and functional readjustment of various key rural factors.

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    China’s rural land reform and rural vitalization
    CHEN Kunqiu,LONG Hualou,MA Li,ZHANG Yingnan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (9): 1424-1434.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.09.015
    Abstract323)   HTML16)    PDF (4522KB)(198)      

    There is a huge gulf between the dilemmas of rural development and the strategic goals of rural vitalization in China. This study examined the trend and characteristics of land reform and rural development in China since 1949, and then explored the interactive mechanisms based on the functional system of rural land reform. Alternative pathways and typical models of rural vitalization promoted by rural land reform were also discussed. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Rural land reform is the breakthrough point to address the current dilemmas of rural development and promote rural vitalization. In essence, it is the readjustment of production relations in the new era to adapt to the development of urban-rural productive forces, both of which are urgent, integrative, and challenging. Since 1949, changes in rural land institution and rural development have been generally coupled and linked. 2) In the new era, rural land reform has multifunctional values. It promotes rural reconstruction and rural multifunctional development by reinforcing weak links and gives play to the multiplier effect of institutional linkages, urban-rural integration, and economy transformation, to promote rural vitalization and drive the optimization of urban-rural territorial system functions. 3) Along the path of integrating elements, restructuring structures, and optimizing functions, rural land reform promotes the change of regional functions and rural vitalization according to local conditions. 4) In the future, it is necessary to give full play to the stimulating effect of rural land reform, pay attention to potential policy frictions, deepen the positive feedback of rural vitalization on rural land reform, and carefully consider the coordination of rural land reform measures and rural development.

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    Market structure and competition of the three major airlines in China
    DU Delin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Yi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 367-376.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.002
    Abstract321)   HTML8)    PDF (11750KB)(158)      

    Air China, China Eastern Airlines, and China Southern Airlines are the three major state-owned airlines in China, and they have significant influences in the air transportation market. Market competition of the three airlines has always been an important research topic in economics, management, and geography. Based on the flight schedule data, this study constructed a market share index and a market overlap index and used them to examine the structure and competition of the three major airlines on the Chinese and international markets in 2005 and 2015. The results are as follow: 1) The markets of the three major airlines have expanded rapidly over the decade of 2005-2015. In China, the three airlines have added navigation airports mainly in the central and western regions, especially in Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and Guizhou Province. These provinces are the new major market competition places. Among the three major airlines, China Southern Airlines has the largest number of absolutely dominant airports and flight routes, China Eastern Airlines has the largest increase, and Air China has a relatively small market. 2) Spatially, the three major airlines show significant regional differences in the domestic key markets, and each has a great advantage in its respective hub airports. The dominant routes of the three major airlines mainly form radial networks around their hub airports. Routes concentrated in domestic air transportation are mainly represented by competition among two of the three major airlines. With increasing market competition, the market shares of the three airlines in most of the major domestic airports and routes decreased. 3) In the international market, East Asia and Southeast Asia are areas where the three major airlines have focused. Their navigation airports, flights, and competing airports are mostly located here. In particular, Japan and South Korea are the countries of most severe competition of the three major airlines. However, the competition of the three major airlines in the international flight routes is not obvious—this is because they mainly set up routes between their hub airports and international airports, and their operating bases are very different.

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    Excavation and geographic location of the Tanpeng canal
    HE Fanneng, YANAG Chao, ZHAO Liang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1684-1691.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.004
    Abstract320)   HTML16)    PDF (5916KB)(113)      

    The "Tanpeng canal", also known as "Tianwei path" or "Xianrenlong", was canalized and dredged by Pian Gao during the Xiantong period of the late Tang Dynasty. It was located in the sea area near the Jiangshan Peninsula south of Fangchenggang City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and is an important part of China's Maritime Silk Road. However, its geographic location is still a fair subject of speculation. Based on historical records and other materials, the authors explored the historical background, development process, and geographic location of the canal, which is of great significance for clarifying the historical and cultural value of Tianwei path and its important role in the maritime silk road. On the basis of historical literature review and investigation of the geographic background, we demonstrated the historical background of the canal's excavation, development process, and geographic location. Our research shows that: 1) The location of the Tanpeng canal should be in the sea area outside the White Dragon Tail at the southern end of the Jiangshan Peninsula. The excavation process of Tanpeng canal was the clearing of rocks in the sea area south of the White Dragon Tail. 2) The purpose of the development of the canal was to provide the Tang army in Annan with continuous and stable logistic supplies. The excavation of the canal took place between the eighth and ninth years of the Xiantong period of the Emperor Yi Zong. 3) Based on this history, the reef on which Pian Gao' canal passed through should be named Tianwei path, and the Tanpeng ancient canal on the peninsula should be renamed Tianwei path stone relics.

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    Progress of responses of first flowering date to climate change and the correlations of plant hormone regulation
    Shixi ZHANG, Junhu DAI, Quansheng GE
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (7): 1045-1055.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.07.009
    Abstract315)   HTML16)    PDF (4410KB)(86)      

    Plant phenology is an important indicator of the impact of global change on biological systems because it is very sensitive to climate change. Flowering phenology is of great importance since it represents the major developmental transition of plants from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Many existing studies have identified the advancement in first flowering date in response to global warming. However, the mechanism of first flowering date dependency on climate change remains obscure. Plant hormones play pivotal roles in almost every aspect in plant life including flowering. To understand the regulation of plant flowering phenology in response to climate change by plant hormones, accurate and efficient measurements of plant hormones are required. In this review, the functions and possible links between plant hormones and the change in first flowering date were discussed. Also, recently developed methods for plant hormone detection were briefly summarized, providing scientific techniques for understanding the underlying mechanisms of plant phenology in response to environmental stimuli.

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    Evolution of Sino-US product trade patterns and network characteristics
    ZHOU Zhengke,LIANG Yutian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1633-1642.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.017
    Abstract296)   HTML14)    PDF (10093KB)(106)      

    As the two largest economies in the world, Sino-US trade pattern and its evolution have a profound impact on the development of global economy. However, the Sino-US trade pattern, evolution, and status of the trade product network have not been fully revealed. Therefore, based on the United Nations Comtrade data, this study used descriptive statistical analysis and social network analysis methods to analyze the trade development process, product structure, and product trade network between China and the United States from 2001 to 2017. The study found that: 1) In terms of trade links, the bilateral import and export trade volume between China and the United States had been rising from 2001 to 2017, and the trade links had been growing steadily. 2) In terms of export product structures, China's export products to the United States mainly consist of mechanical equipment, textile, and clothing products. The product structure has not been changed significantly; and American export products to China mainly contain mechanical equipment, instruments, transport equipment, plant products, and chemical products. In recent years, the proportion of mechanical and electrical products has declined, and the proportion of transport equipment products has increased. 3) In terms of trade networks of major products, taking electronic products as an example, on the one hand, the change of degree centrality index reflects the rapid increase of China's influence in the network. China is the core member of the global trade network in electronic information industry. On the other hand, there is still a gap between China and the United States in terms of betweenness centrality and closeness centrality. The core competitiveness of the Chinese electronic information industry needs to be strengthened. More resources should be devoted to research and development of high technology in the new round of industrial transformation.

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    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1447-1448.  
    Abstract294)   HTML37)    PDF (255KB)(180)      
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