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    Measuring polycentric urban structure using Easygo big data: A case study of Chongqing metropolitan area
    DUAN Yaming, LIU Yong, LIU Xiuhua, HE Dong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1957-1967.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.011
    Abstract636)   HTML32)    PDF (9096KB)(216)      

    Polycentricity has become the spatial development strategy in many Chinese cities. Effective identification of polycentric urban form is of great significance for assessing planning performance and formulating better planning strategy. Compared with Baidu Heat Map and cell phone call data, Tencent Easygo data have the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution and low acquisition cost, which can be used to compare the population agglomeration capabilities of different urban centers, and dynamically identify and monitor polycentric urban form. Taking Chongqing metropolitan area as an example, this study applied the method of Kernel density analysis to identify its polycentric urban form and the size and rank of the urban centers based on Tencent Easygo data of one week. The results show that Chongqing as a mountainous city has developed a polycentric urban structure with multiple subcenters and urban clusters due to the constraint of natural environment, the drive of economic forces, and the guidance of urban planning. The main center and several subcenters inside the inner ring road have comparable degrees of population aggregation, land use scales, and urban development levels. These subcenters are also stronger than the other subcenters outside the inner ring road. The study pointed out that the urban development degree and population aggregation capacity of Xiyong, Chayuan, and peripheral urban clusters need to be improved.

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    A review of global-local interactions for regional development
    MAO Xiyan, HE Canfei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1449-1461.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.001
    Abstract634)   HTML37)    PDF (1500KB)(452)      

    Extra-regional linkages can benefit regional development by introducing supplement resources and technologies. They also enrich the local knowledge base, keeping regions away from depression due to lock-in effects. Global-local interaction (GLI) research represents the academic effort to theorize this process by examining the interplay between a wide array of actors at multi-scales within particular territorial confines. It raises four critical questions regarding the conditions, regional differences, channels, and actors for interaction. The literature has documented that the relatedness between local and nonlocal inputs determines the probability of GLI. Local capabilities determine the extent of GLI. The literature also reveals that the leading and most lagging behind regions tend to benefit from GLI. Knowledge diffusion, foreign investment, and international trade are primary elements that support GLI. As one region continues to develop, the immigrants and nonlocal institutions may enrich the GLI. Conventionally, the literature on GLI is firm-centric. Recent advances highlight the role of individuals, such as entrepreneurs and employees. There is also increasing awareness of the non-economic agency, especially the institutional agency. Overall, an in-depth examination is still required for understanding the scales, dynamics, and agencies of GLI for regional development. Grounded in the context of China's regional restructuring and opening-up, this study proposes a framework to model GLI in China and discusses its potential for future studies.

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    Impacts of street and public transport network centralities on housing rent:A case study of Beijing
    DU Chao, WANG Jiaoe, LIU Binquan, HUANG Dingxi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1831-1842.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.001
    Abstract523)   HTML75)    PDF (12584KB)(517)      

    Higher housing demand leads to housing price increasing rapidly, with lower housing affordability. Under these circumstances, renting a place has progressively become an alternative way for residents of cities. Urban transportation is one of the most significant influencing factors for housing rent, which needs to be examined at greater depth. This study used complex network analysis to explore how transportation centrality impacts housing rent. The conclusions are: transportation network shows significant impacts on housing rent, with higher impacts of public transport network than street network. Closeness in public transport has the highest impact on housing rent. Each centrality aspect influences housing rent differently, and relative accessibility in public transport network and transfer capacity in street network have the greatest impacts on housing rent. This article discussed two modes of urban transportation and their spatial characteristics. By refining the impacts of different transportation modes by network analysis, it provides a new perspective of urban transportation research and its spatial effects.

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    Spatial reconstruction and optimization of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration
    LUO Kui, LI Guangdong, LAO Xin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 179-194.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.001
    Abstract503)   HTML7)    PDF (29622KB)(80)      

    Scientific analysis of the spatial reconstruction of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration not only can contribute to expanding the scope and depth of research on industrial spatial change, but also can serve the national strategy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development. From the perspective of global value chain (GVC), this study employed the method of measuring the industrial proportion change after calibration based on the statistical data from 2000 to 2014 and the national industrial enterprise database for 2001, 2006, and 2013 to investigate the spatial pattern of industrial development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, and proposed the optimization strategies accordingly. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The industrial spatial reconstruction is an important driving force for promoting the development and maturation of an urban agglomeration. Following the trend of globalization and embedding in global value chains are of great significance to advancing the upgrading of urban agglomerations, and domestic industrial spatial reconstruction is an important approach for improving the industrial cooperation network and accelerating the integration of urban agglomerations. In addition, the interaction of GVC restructuring, industrial suburbanization, and resource and environmental carrying capacity is the foudation of the double C-shaped spatial pattern. 2) With regard to the international industrial spatial reconstruction, Tianjin has become the core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration to undertake international industrial transfer, followed by Beijing, while the development of other cities is relatively lagging behind. On the whole, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is still in a lower position in the GVC, which is not conducive to the promotion of regional competitiveness. 3) In repect to the industrial spatial change within the urban agglomeration, industrial reconstruction is mailny concentrated in the inner C-shape region consisting of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, and Cangzhou cities, while the intensity of spatial reconstruction in other regions is relatively weak. Different industries present diverse features of reconstruction: texile and garment industry is market-dominated within the GVC; chemical industry is influenced by both environmental regulations and dependence on water resources; steel industry is government-dominated; and pharmaceutical industry is regulated by the government under the influences of the GVC. 4) Based on the development of industrial spatial reconstruction, resource and environmental carrying capacity, and the double C-shaped spatial pattern, this article puts forward some suggestions on optimizing the industrial spatial patterns of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. As the economic core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, the inner C-shaped region is recommended to accelerate industrial upgrading to become a world-class industrial highland. The northern part of the outer C-shaped area is proposed to strengthen ecological environment protection for the sustainable development of the urban agglomeration, while the southern part of the outer C-shaped area should promote industrial transformation to become a solid support for industrial upgrading in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. The two C-shaped regions should be interconnected to ensure the implementation of the coordinated development strategy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.

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    Spatial differentiation of public service facilities’ configuration in community life circle: A case study of Shahekou District in Dalian City
    HAN Zenglin, LI Yuan, LIU Tianbao, DONG Mengru
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1701-1711.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.006
    Abstract491)   HTML18)    PDF (14127KB)(199)      

    The level of urban public service provision directly affects the life quality of residents, and location and allocation of urban public service facilities are an important task of urban planning and development. In recent years, the concept of urban life circle has been paid increasing attention to in China, and various localities have aimed to create a perfect "community life circle" as a key task of urban governance. Using the open source map data and the urban network analysis (UNA) toolbox, this study analyzed the spatial difference of public service facilities in Shahekou District of Dalian City, and measured the number and type of reachable facilities to residents of 90 communities in the district. Then, an overall evaluation of each community was conducted. Finally, the optimal allocation of public service facilities was proposed. The results show that: 1) Public service facilities are unevenly distributed in Shahekou District of Dalian City. There are more facilities on the north side and fewer on the south side, showing a structure of one primary center and six secondary centers. The primary center is around the commercial area of Xi'an Road and the secondary centers are distributed in each subdistrict. 2) There is a large difference in the number of reachable facilities to residents—facilities on the north side of the Malan River are more than that of the south side, and there are more facilities in one or two areas in each subdistrict. 3) There are some differences in types of reachable facilities to residents, and more than 70% of the residents can reach all six types of public service facilities. The number of facility types reachable to residents on the west side of Xibei Road-Xinan Road-Wuyi Road is less than that of the east side. 4) Generally, in various communities reachable facilities are balanced and have small differences. However, there are still some communities that show large internal differences. According to the analysis, whether residents can access the various public service facilities is greatly affected by the distribution of facilities, the barriers of ground objects, and the closed degree of community. At the end of this article, we propose to build 15-minute community life circles with all needed facilities and easy to reach.

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    An empirical analysis of factors leading to typical urban problems in China
    SHEN Jie, ZHANG Keyun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 1-12.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.001
    Abstract468)   HTML10)    PDF (2591KB)(94)      

    Based on the results of existing research, typical urban problems can be divided into three categories—traffic congestion, resources shortage, and environmental pollution. This study used cross-section data of 204 Chinese prefecture-level cities in 2013 to build a population spatial distribution index on the basis of nighttime light data for an empirical study. First, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was applied to examine the impacts of city size, spatial imbalance, lagged infrastructure construction, industrial transformation, and institutional obstacles on urban problems. Second, a threshold effect model was constructed to further investigate possible nonlinear relationships between the influencing factors and urban problems. The empirical results prove that the various aspects of urban problems should be attributed to different influencing factors since these problems are complex. The main reasons leading to traffic congestion are big city size and centralized distribution of urban population, as well as the lack of transportation infrastructure. While resources shortage is not a universal problem in most big cities, in contrast, the improvement of industrial structure, increasing supply of public services, and concentration of administrative power are helpful for big cities to attract and bring in resources. The expansion of urban population and the agglomerated structure of population distribution both hinder environmental pollution control. Besides, the growth in the proportion of non-agricultural industries and expansion of urban road area both can damage urban ecosystems.

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    Concept and research framework of greening global value chain
    SHEN Jing,CAO Yuanyuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1462-1472.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.002
    Abstract466)   HTML5)    PDF (3242KB)(189)      

    With the deepening of the global division of labor and widespread attention to environmental issues, the research framework of global value chain has become an important tool for Western academia to study cross-regional, global-local linkages and environmental power game in environmental issues. Through a review of the existing literature, this article introduces the greening of industries into the analytical framework of global value chain. The concept of greening global value chain is summarized as follows: the green processing on multinational production networks including raw material purchasing, production, sale, transportation, and recycling with a focus on the redistribution of environmental value. Then the research framework of greening global value chain was preliminarily constructed, including the driving mechanism of greening global value chain, the greening of management in different governance modes of global value chain, and the greening industrial upgrading of local economic entities. The following research areas are proposed: the mechanism of interactions among actors who drive the greening global value chain, regulation of governance network on greening global value chain, the environmental impact assessment of greening industrial upgrading and greening global value chain, among others. Different themes and characteristics of researches on greening global value chain are also identifies for the regional, national, and global scales. Finally, topics of future research on greening global value chain are suggested: the definition of the power relationship among actors, the model of greening governance, and the greening production network at the global scale. The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of environmental problems in the global value chain.

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    Progress and implications of international rural space research
    WANG Dan, LIU Zuyun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1991-2002.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.014
    Abstract461)   HTML16)    PDF (755KB)(285)      

    Space is a product of society. Driven by industrialization, urbanization, informationization, and government policies, China's rural space is going through drastic reconstructions. As one of the core contents of international rural geography research, rural space studies are multi-disciplinary, multi-perspective, multi-dimensional, and multi-methods, forming a rich research field. In order to grasp the progress of rural space research more comprehensively, this study reviewed international rural space research literature in recent 40 years. The study found that international researchers described the connotation of rural space from the perspectives of material, imagination, and practice. The three-fold architecture was established to emphasize the practice of everyday life. It introduced living space to build the systematic research framework of rural space. With regard to the theoretical perspective, international research of rural space has gone through functionalism, political economy, and social constructivism; it transformed from productivism to post productivism; the research included settlement space, economic space, social space, and cultural space. As a whole, international research of rural space realized the change from material level to social representation, from object space to subject space, and from static one-dimensional space to dynamic multi-dimensional space, which revealed the importance of interdisciplinary and sociocultural approaches in rural space studies. The construction of rural space in China needs to pay attention to the subject status of farmers and multifunction of rural space, respect the role of locality and difference of various places, and recover the function of production of meaning of rural space.

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    Market structure and competition of the three major airlines in China
    DU Delin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Yi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 367-376.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.002
    Abstract450)   HTML11)    PDF (11750KB)(178)      

    Air China, China Eastern Airlines, and China Southern Airlines are the three major state-owned airlines in China, and they have significant influences in the air transportation market. Market competition of the three airlines has always been an important research topic in economics, management, and geography. Based on the flight schedule data, this study constructed a market share index and a market overlap index and used them to examine the structure and competition of the three major airlines on the Chinese and international markets in 2005 and 2015. The results are as follow: 1) The markets of the three major airlines have expanded rapidly over the decade of 2005-2015. In China, the three airlines have added navigation airports mainly in the central and western regions, especially in Heilongjiang Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and Guizhou Province. These provinces are the new major market competition places. Among the three major airlines, China Southern Airlines has the largest number of absolutely dominant airports and flight routes, China Eastern Airlines has the largest increase, and Air China has a relatively small market. 2) Spatially, the three major airlines show significant regional differences in the domestic key markets, and each has a great advantage in its respective hub airports. The dominant routes of the three major airlines mainly form radial networks around their hub airports. Routes concentrated in domestic air transportation are mainly represented by competition among two of the three major airlines. With increasing market competition, the market shares of the three airlines in most of the major domestic airports and routes decreased. 3) In the international market, East Asia and Southeast Asia are areas where the three major airlines have focused. Their navigation airports, flights, and competing airports are mostly located here. In particular, Japan and South Korea are the countries of most severe competition of the three major airlines. However, the competition of the three major airlines in the international flight routes is not obvious—this is because they mainly set up routes between their hub airports and international airports, and their operating bases are very different.

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    Economic globalization, global financial crisis and China: A financial geography perspective
    WANG Xiaoyang,MENG Ke
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1482-1489.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.004
    Abstract435)   HTML26)    PDF (990KB)(300)      

    The impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis on Western developed countries, especially the Anglo-American economies, is far-reaching and is reflected on economic, political, and social dimensions. A large body of scholars from various disciplines has attempted to explain the outbreak of the financial crisis. This study analyzed the relationship between economic globalization and the global financial crisis, and explored the impact of the crisis on China from a financial geography perspective. First, this study examined the formation of a new international labor division in the context of economic globalization, identified the transmission dynamics of the financial crisis, and mapped the changing geographies of world economies shaped by the financial crisis. With regard to China, the global financial crisis was external. The economic recession and consumption contraction of Western developed countries have directly affected China's exports, but the financial crisis has not fundamentally affected China's financial system. Second, the article explains why the global financial crisis did not impact China's financial system. The spatial heterogeneity of institutions, the varieties of market economic systems, the government's positive role and control, and China's banking-dominant financial system were all important contributors. Third, the interests of Chinese and international financial geographers on China have gradually increased in the last decade and this article summarizes the latest research progress and identifies the shortcomings of the existing research. Finally, based on the research progress of Western financial geography, this article puts forward some suggestions for the construction of China's financial geography in the future.

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    Spatial pattern and evolution of cereal trade networks among the Belt and Road countries
    CHEN Yiwen,LI Erling
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1643-1654.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.018
    Abstract427)   HTML29)    PDF (7793KB)(219)      

    Trade of agricultural commodities is an important part of the economic and trade cooperation between the Belt and Road countries, but the existing trade theories cannot fully explain the pattern and change of the cereal trade network between these countries. This study set up a four-dimensional analytical framework, combined social network analysis with spatial econometric analysis, and analyzed the spatial structure characteristics and mechanism of change of cereal trade network between the Belt and Road countries based on the United Nations Comtrade data from 1993 to 2016. The results show that: 1) The cereal trade network density of the Belt and Road countries is constantly increasing while the trade relations and trade intensity between these countries are constantly deepening. The position of the Belt and Road countries in the global grain trade network is on the rise and there is a clear phenomenon of trade club. 2) The network of trade relations has evolved from non-nuclear to multi-nuclear, and then to reshaping. 3) China's cereal trade with other Belt and Road countries has undergone an evolution from export-oriented to import-oriented. The Belt and Road initiative has enhanced China's position in the global grain trade network. 4) The evolution of the national cereal trade network of the Belt and Road countries is the product of resource endowment, economic environment, cultural identity, and political games. Compared with other trade networks, grain trade network has distinct characteristics and stronger stability. This study may provide some guidance for promoting cereal trade cooperation among the Belt and Road countries, optimizing trade structure, and ensuring food security.

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    Spatial distribution and influencing factors of innovation platforms in urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin
    TANG Chengli, GUO Xiashuang, ZHOU Guohua, WU Jiamin, CHEN Weiyang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (4): 531-541.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.04.001
    Abstract424)   HTML14)    PDF (9618KB)(67)      

    Innovation is the primary driving force behind development. As an important part of the regional innovation system and the core supporting carrier for the accumulation of innovative resources, innovation platforms are the main way to promote innovation-driven development. This study took the urban agglomerations of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin as the research area and used the nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation, Ripley's K function, and geo-detector to explore the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of the innovation platforms above provincial level in the urban agglomerations in 2017. The results show that: 1) The overall spatial distribution of the innovation platforms in the urban agglomerations is clustered, showing a triangular distribution pattern with Wuhan, Changsha, and Nanchang as the cores. 2) Innovation platforms of various scales and functional types exhibit significant agglomeration characteristics, but there exist certain differences in agglomeration intensity and state among them. 3) The overall innovation platforms and various types of innovation platforms show scale effect, which first strengthens and then weakens with the change of geographical distance. 4) The spatial differentiation of the innovation platforms is the result of multiple factors. Strength of financial resources, degree of informationalization, level of foreign investment, and conditions of human capital are most significant, followed by traffic accessibility, urbanization level, economic base, and innovation atmosphere.

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    Elements and operation mechanisms of rural production spatial system
    ZHOU Mingming, WANG Cheng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1655-1664.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.001
    Abstract421)   HTML51)    PDF (3195KB)(378)      

    Rural production spatial system is a typical human-earth system, which has the characteristics of dissipative structure. Guided by the system theory and following the basic methods of system science, this study theoretically analyzed the connotation and elements of rural production spatial system, and divided the evolution process of rural production spatial system around the transformation of rural production relations. On this basis, it clarified the operation mechanisms of rural production spatial system. The study found that rural production spatial system is mainly composed of four sets of elements: basic elements (resources, environment, and infrastructure), core elements (multiple stakeholders and rural culture), driving elements (capital, technology, information, and market) and management elements (institutions and policies). According to the patterns of rural production relation change, economic system change, and urban-rural relationship change, the evolution process of rural production spatial system after the founding of the People's Republic of China was divided into four periods: land reform movement, agricultural mutual assistance and cooperation movement, people's commune movement, and household responsibility system. In different periods, the elements of rural production spatial system and their interrelated ways varied, and the characteristics of rural production spatial system are different. Rural production spatial system promotes its operation and development through supporting and restraining mechanisms, competition and cooperation mechanisms, and regulatory and feedback mechanisms. Future research will focus on examining the operation status of rural production spatial system, and diagnosing the dynamic mechanisms or obstacles of the system operation from the perspective of factor function, structural relationship, and coordination.

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    Poverty pattern and influencing factors in typical deep poverty-stricken counties:A case study of Hailun City in Heilongjiang Province
    DU Guoming, FENG Yue, YU Jiaxing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 69-77.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.007
    Abstract408)   HTML7)    PDF (3123KB)(39)      

    Deep poverty-stricken counties are the key areas for targeted poverty alleviation, and objective analysis of the poverty pattern and influencing factors in these areas can provide a scientific basis for developing the tactics of poverty relief. This study applied spatial analysis and mathematical statistics methods to explore the poverty pattern and influencing factors of Hailun City, Heilongjiang Province, by taking poverty villages and poverty population as the focus. The results show that: 1) As a deep poverty-stricken county, Hailun's poverty villages and poverty population are unbalanced, and their spatial patterns are related and different. 2) The poverty villages of Hailun City centralize in the terrain transition zone of 150-250 m, presenting a multi-core zonal distribution pattern. 3) The distribution pattern of poverty population in Hailun results from the joint effects of natural and human factors. Physical geographic conditions, agricultural production, rural infrastructure, and social welfare are key factors. In order to strengthen targeted poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, it is important to strengthen agricultural infrastructure and improve the ability of resisting natural hazards and disasters; accelerate planting structure adjustment and layout optimization and improve rural industrial development level; improve social insurance level and reduce the risks of causing and returning to poverty; optimize settlement system and promote space reorganization, restructuring, and functional readjustment of various key rural factors.

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    Characteristics and influencing factors of surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City
    HE Ping, CUI Meiyan, LI Jinxiao, LIU Shuhua
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1793-1801.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.014
    Abstract395)   HTML9)    PDF (4653KB)(112)      

    Based on the 24 years (1993-2016) meteorological data including solar radiation and other related variables, this study analyzed the characteristics of surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City, and examined its influencing factors by using the methods of regression analysis, Mann-Kendall (M-K) abrupt test, wavelet analysis, and grey correlation degree analysis. The results show that surface solar radiation varied between 4620.21 MJ/m 2 and 6221.65 MJ/m 2, the maximum occurred in 2016 and the minimum occurred in 2008, and the annual mean was 5598.06 MJ/m 2. Annual mean solar radiation showed a fluctuating rising trend. The dry and wet seasons are distinct in Kunming City, and the maximum surface solar radiation appeared in dry season (November to April of the following year at 2825.22 MJ/m 2), but the minimum appeared in rainy season (May to October, at 2774.41 MJ/m 2). Maximum monthly variation of surface solar radiation in Kunming City appeared in April (604.75 MJ/m 2), and the minimum appeared in December (361.01 MJ/m 2). The difference of surface solar radiation between April and December was 243.74 MJ/m 2. According to the M-K abrupt test, the point of abrupt change appeared in 2014, but it is statistically insignificant. On the one hand, annual wavelet analysis detected a 15-year primary period of surface solar radiation. On the other hand, using seasonal wavelet analysis of surface solar radiation, the amplitude of surface solar radiation in dry season was stronger than in rainy season, but the primary periods are both 19 days. Finally, through grey relational analysis, the 24-year surface solar radiation was influenced by both human and natural factors. Precipitation is an important natural factor, but gross industrial output value is an important human factor influencing the surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City. Compared to the human factor, natural factor is the main contributor of the surface solar radiation variation in Kunming City.

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    Advance of geographic sciences and new technology applications
    LIAO Xiaohan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (5): 709-715.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.05.001
    Abstract374)   HTML6)    PDF (1841KB)(32)      

    Modern technologies develop rapidly in the areas of computers, Internet, aerospace and aeronautics, automation and sensor network, environmental remediation and ecological restoration, and so on, which overlap with a large number of basic and applied basic research disciplines. With the application of new technologies, the geography, which characterizes of integrity, interdisciplinary and regionality, has been strongly promoted. The highlights include: 1) The spatial and temporal coverage of research can expand to the entire globe at near real-time, and the accessibility of data on remote and extreme geographical environments has greatly improved. 2) Multi-methods and multi-channels of data acquisition promote the explosive growth of data. The analysis of rules and patterns has been developed from relying on limited spatiotemporal information to relying on new technologies to acquire high spatiotemporal dynamic data for big data mining. 3) The research scopes expand from static knowledge acquisition and mechanism analysis to dynamic works including ecological restoration and environmental management. 4) The disciplines developed at broadened scopes, and embedded with cross-cutting new technologies that in return brought about new vitality to geography. With the help of new technologies and the injection of big data "fuel", the development of geographic sciences in the new era will play an important role by providing "complex" solutions in the process of global and regional social and economic development.

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    Development pattern of trade facilitation of the countries along the Belt and Road
    SONG Zhouying, YU Yang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 355-366.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.001
    Abstract362)   HTML10)    PDF (8399KB)(144)      

    Trade facilitation plays an important role in the economic cooperation of the countries along the Belt and Road. Increasing the level of trade facilitation is conducive to promote the orderly and freely flow of economic factors in the region. Based on the perspective of trade facilitation and existing literature review, this study constructed an evaluation system of trade facilitation with 29 indicators, analyzed the development trend, spatial pattern, and development mode of trade facilitation in the countries along the Belt and Road from 2013 to 2017, and put forward some policy recommendations. The results show that: 1) Since 2013, the level of trade facilitation in the countries along the Belt and Road has been slowly rising, and the six subregions ranked from high to low according to the increase in trade facilitation levels are Mongolia and Russia, Central Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, West Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. 2) Trade facilitation level of the countries along the Belt and Road showed a spatial pattern of high in the east and west and low in the center, and high in the south and low in the north. And the spatial differences gradually narrowed. 3) The change of the second-level indicators was relatively consistent with the overall trade facilitation. China ranks high among the Belt and Road countries on the second-level indicators except business environment. 4) Trade facilitation can be divided into eight modes through k-means cluster analysis. "High level comprehensive development" and "Low level comprehensive development" were the main development modes of the countries along the Belt and Road. "Lagging behind in customs clearance costs and international cooperation", "Leading in domestic trading environment" and "Leading in infrastructure construction" have become important development modes for some countries in Southeast Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia.

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    Excavation and geographic location of the Tanpeng canal
    HE Fanneng, YANAG Chao, ZHAO Liang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1684-1691.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.004
    Abstract357)   HTML16)    PDF (5916KB)(164)      

    The "Tanpeng canal", also known as "Tianwei path" or "Xianrenlong", was canalized and dredged by Pian Gao during the Xiantong period of the late Tang Dynasty. It was located in the sea area near the Jiangshan Peninsula south of Fangchenggang City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and is an important part of China's Maritime Silk Road. However, its geographic location is still a fair subject of speculation. Based on historical records and other materials, the authors explored the historical background, development process, and geographic location of the canal, which is of great significance for clarifying the historical and cultural value of Tianwei path and its important role in the maritime silk road. On the basis of historical literature review and investigation of the geographic background, we demonstrated the historical background of the canal's excavation, development process, and geographic location. Our research shows that: 1) The location of the Tanpeng canal should be in the sea area outside the White Dragon Tail at the southern end of the Jiangshan Peninsula. The excavation process of Tanpeng canal was the clearing of rocks in the sea area south of the White Dragon Tail. 2) The purpose of the development of the canal was to provide the Tang army in Annan with continuous and stable logistic supplies. The excavation of the canal took place between the eighth and ninth years of the Xiantong period of the Emperor Yi Zong. 3) Based on this history, the reef on which Pian Gao' canal passed through should be named Tianwei path, and the Tanpeng ancient canal on the peninsula should be renamed Tianwei path stone relics.

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    Regional differences and types of rural functions in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    WANG Guangyao, ZHAO Zhongqiu, ZHU Peitian, LI Yufeng, SU Zhijie, LIU Jian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1854-1864.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.003
    Abstract354)   HTML21)    PDF (7537KB)(177)      

    Making use of the advantages of different rural functions is an important way to realize rural revitalization. By constructing an index system of rural function evaluation and using GIS and the Theil index, the characteristics of production-living-ecological functions and source of regional differences in rural areas in the Yangtze River Economic Belt in 2016 were revealed. The results show that: 1) The spatial differentiation of production-living-ecological functions in rural areas of the Yangtze River Economic Belt was obvious. Midstream and downstream plain areas have a strong agricultural production function, downstream provincial capital cities and core development cities have powerful living function, and upstream and midstream mountainous and hilly areas have a strong ecological conservation function. 2) The overall regional differences in rural functions are derived from intraregional differences. The agricultural production function is significantly different within the upstream region, and the life and ecological conservation function is significantly different within the downstream region. The overall differences in rural functions in the midstream area are not significant. 3) Based on the evaluation results, the study area is divided into eight types of functional areas, namely, agricultural production area, living area, ecological conservation area, living-agricultural production area, living-ecological conservation area, agricultural production-ecological conservation area, agricultural production-living-ecological conservation development area, agricultural production-living-ecological conservation coordination area, thus providing a scientific basis for improving the spatial layout of rural functions in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

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    Spatio-temporal change of population distribution and its influencing factors in a poor mountainous county: A case study of Song County, Henan Province
    LUO Qing, WANG Bingbing, FAN Xinsheng, LI Xiaojiian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (7): 1073-1084.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.07.001
    Abstract349)   HTML3)    PDF (18618KB)(0)      

    The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and change of mountain populations are of great significance for coordinating human-land relationship and implementing the rural revitalization strategy in the process of urbanization. Based on the data of three agricultural censuses in Luoyang City, this study selected 318 administrative villages in Song County as the research objects, and used a GIS spatial analysis tool and geographically weighted regression to analyze the spatial pattern of population distribution and its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The population of Song County is extremely uneven in spatial distribution. The high density areas are clustered near the main traffic lines and in areas with relatively flat terrain, and over time, they changed from point to spread and strip distribution. 2) On the whole, the population growth is bounded by the high-speed Luoluan Highway, and shows a pattern of rapid growth to the northwest and slow growth to the southeast. The high-speed growth areas are mainly concentrated in the county seat and a few townships around the northwestern part of the Luoluan Highway. 3) The population growth centers are also located in the towns around the county seat and the Luhun Reservoir, and the towns in the southern mountainous areas are expected to form new population agglomeration areas. 4) The population distribution pattern of the county is the result of the interaction of natural conditions, geographical location, and public services. Among them, the accessibility time of county seat has the greatest impact on population distribution, followed by topography. The impact of arable land area and accessibility time of middle school are relatively small, but the impact of different factors has spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The above conclusions imply that mountainous counties can take into account the differences in natural conditions and resource endowments, and make use of urbanization layout, infrastructure construction, and public services adjustments to promote the optimization of population distribution.

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    Research progress and prospect of land-use conflicts in China
    ZOU Lilin, LIU Yansui, WANG Yongsheng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 298-309.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.011
    Abstract345)   HTML4)    PDF (1185KB)(91)      

    China is in a critical period of economic transformation and social development, which brings great pressure and challenges to land use. Therefore, imbalanced land-use structure and conflicting land utilization become more common, which result in more attention to land-use conflicts and thus increasingly more related studies has appeared, but there is a lack of systematic review and compilation of existing research. This study examined the research related to land-use conflicts in China through literature analysis and comparative analysis, and identified the research trends. First, this article points out that land-use conflict refers to the phenomenon of spatial competition and conflicting interests between people and land caused by the way and structure of land use by stakeholders in the process of land use, which was defined by the comparison and identification among relevant concepts related to land-use conflicts in the existing literature. Second, the Chinese land-use conflict research results were summarized and elaborated from six aspects, including the theoretical basis of land-use conflicts, the stakeholders in land-use conflicts, the identification and intensity diagnosis of land-use conflicts, the forms and classification of land-use conflicts, the evolution of land-use conflicts and its driving mechanisms, and the reconciliation program of land-use conflicts. Finally, through reviewing and comparing Chinese and international research results, this article puts forward the future direction of China's land-use conflict research: 1) Complement and improvement of land-use conflicts theoretical system under the background of economic and social transformation. 2) Content expansion and paradigm innovation of land-use conflict research considering the global scale. 3) Spatial justice and efficiency of land-use conflict resolution in the context of rural revitalization strategy. 4) Quantitative and precision management of land-use conflicts with the support of participatory GIS. 5) Coordination and trade-off of land-use conflict resolution under the integration of national spatial planning systems. 6) Comprehensive analysis and results application of land-use conflicts from the perspective of multidisciplinary integration.

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    Evolution of Sino-US product trade patterns and network characteristics
    ZHOU Zhengke,LIANG Yutian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1633-1642.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.017
    Abstract342)   HTML14)    PDF (10093KB)(153)      

    As the two largest economies in the world, Sino-US trade pattern and its evolution have a profound impact on the development of global economy. However, the Sino-US trade pattern, evolution, and status of the trade product network have not been fully revealed. Therefore, based on the United Nations Comtrade data, this study used descriptive statistical analysis and social network analysis methods to analyze the trade development process, product structure, and product trade network between China and the United States from 2001 to 2017. The study found that: 1) In terms of trade links, the bilateral import and export trade volume between China and the United States had been rising from 2001 to 2017, and the trade links had been growing steadily. 2) In terms of export product structures, China's export products to the United States mainly consist of mechanical equipment, textile, and clothing products. The product structure has not been changed significantly; and American export products to China mainly contain mechanical equipment, instruments, transport equipment, plant products, and chemical products. In recent years, the proportion of mechanical and electrical products has declined, and the proportion of transport equipment products has increased. 3) In terms of trade networks of major products, taking electronic products as an example, on the one hand, the change of degree centrality index reflects the rapid increase of China's influence in the network. China is the core member of the global trade network in electronic information industry. On the other hand, there is still a gap between China and the United States in terms of betweenness centrality and closeness centrality. The core competitiveness of the Chinese electronic information industry needs to be strengthened. More resources should be devoted to research and development of high technology in the new round of industrial transformation.

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    Change of ice phenology in the Hulun Lake from 1986 to 2017
    WU Qihui, LI Changyou, SUN Biao, SHI Xiaohong, ZHAO Shengnan, HAN Zhiming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (12): 1933-1943.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.12.009
    Abstract334)   HTML26)    PDF (15492KB)(171)      

    Lake ice phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change. This study examined lake ice phenology of the Hulun Lake in Inner Mongolia, China based on multi-source remote sensing imageries including MODIS, Landsat, GF-1, and HJ-1 and meteorological data. We used GIS technology to comprehensively analyze the phenological characteristics of ice in the Hulun Lake and its response to regional climate from 1986 to 2017. The results show that: 1) The average freezing time of the Hulun Lake began in late October to early November, and the average time from freezing to complete freezing was 6.4 days. The melting start was usually in early April of the following year, and the ablation period averaged about 32 days. At the beginning of early May, the lake ice completely melted. 2) From 1986 to 2017, the complete freezing period of the Hulun Lake showed a significant shortening trend, with an average shortening of 18.5 days. The complete freezing time showed some delay, with an average delay of 8.4 days. The complete ice melting time advanced, with an average advancement of 11.2 days. 3) The spatial characteristics of freezing and melting of lake ice are different. Freezing starts from the complex shoreline areas of the lake, then rapidly propagate from the east coast to the west coast, but melting starts from the northwest coast of the lake and gradually spread toward the east shore. 4) The characteristics of ice conditions in the Hulun Lake are mainly affected by regional air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, among other factors.

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    Research progress of the identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces
    HUANG An, XU Yueqing, LU Longhui, LIU Chao, ZHANG Yibin, HAO Jinmin, WANG hui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 503-518.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.014
    Abstract334)   HTML5)    PDF (3005KB)(66)      

    The study on identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces is to optimize the layout of future space based on identifying the structure, pattern, and problems of current spaces, which is a more comprehensive land spatial zoning approach and an urgent practical problem in national spatial planning, as well as a frontier of academic research. In this study, literature review methods, comparative analysis, and induction were performed to systematically summarize the current research situation of the concept and connotation, identification, and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces. At present, the research on the identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces has made a major breakthrough. However, the internal mechanism and concept of the formation of production-living-ecological spaces were insufficiently examined. The quantitative identification method and technical system of production-living-ecological spaces need to be improved. The dynamic change and driving mechanism, spatial conflict diagnosis, and problem analysis of production-living-ecological spaces were weakly researched. Optimization theory and technology system of production-living-ecological spaces were still in the initial stage. We propose the following future directions: Forming the concept of quality and quantity in future research; Attaching importance to lessons-learned from the existing research results of international spatial planning; With formation mechanism and concept definition, quantitative identification, mechanism of change examination, conflict diagnosis, and problem analysis and optimization control and simulation of production-living-ecological spaces as the main research lines, constructing the theory and technical system of identification and optimization of production-living-ecological spaces. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to mountainous areas with horizontal and vertical features.

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    Spatiotemporal relationships between urban system and water system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    ZHANG Feng, CHEN Yanguang, LIU Peng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (3): 377-388.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.03.003
    Abstract331)   HTML9)    PDF (8788KB)(61)      

    With the rapid development of cities in China, urban environmental problems become increasingly more severe. Clarifying the relationships between urban development and the environment can help solve urban environmental problems. In this study, we took the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as the research area and used fractal method to describe urban system and water system in the region, then to explore the interactions between urban and water systems. The main results and conclusions are: 1) From 1990 to 2010, the fractal dimension of construction land in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased, while the fractal dimension of the water system decreased; the bi-fractal characteristic of construction land in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region decreased, while the bi-fractal characteristic of the water system increased; the spatial structure of construction land changed from concentration to dispersion from 1990 to 2015 and the water system became more concentrated. These phenomena illustrate that the spatiotemporal change of construction land and water system had opposite trends in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. 2) The fractal structure of urban centers is more complete than suburbs. 3) In the second decade of the 21st century, the human-water relationship became tenser. The South-to-North Water Transfer Project eased the severe stress of water in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which mainly improved the structure of water system at the large scale. 4) The degradation of water system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1990 to 2010 was caused by both natural and human factors. In the 21st century, the influence of human factors is more significant. According to the results and conclusions, some policy recommendations are proposed: On the one hand, more consideration should be given to the role of water in the process of urban planning, especially the protection of small-scale water sources and saving water by improving the mechanism of water resources management. On the other hand, more attention should be paid to the improvement of suburban spatial structure by avoiding unlimited urban expansion.

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    Using the theory of planned behavior to understand the effects of urban residential differentiation on residents’ physical activities
    LI Zhixuan, HU Hong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (11): 1712-1725.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.007
    Abstract331)   HTML17)    PDF (3207KB)(174)      

    Residential differentiation refers to the spatial agglomeration of different social classes due to various socioeconomic backgrounds, housing preferences, and so on. Although rich literature has explored the relationship between residential differentiation and public health, few have combined urban geography with social psychology to analyze such relationship from the perspective of rational action. This study constructed a theoretical framework based on the theory of planned behavior. It took Nanjing City as the case study area and employed a structural equation model to analyze the complex influencing paths between residents' attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, physical activity intention, and actual physical activities by taking into account the unique residential differentiation context in China. This study collected 747 valid survey questionnaires from 31 neighborhoods in March-June 2018. The results show that there are significant differences in the socioeconomic characteristics and physical activity hours per week, perceived neighborhood environment, physical activity intention of respondents of traditional neighborhoods, working unit housing areas, affordable housing neighborhoods, urban villages, and commercial housing neighborhoods. Although urban villages and affordable housing neighborhoods have relatively less health resources and more lower income families than commercial housing neighborhoods, residents living in these neighborhoods perceive stronger health behavior control and show more positive health behavior intention and longer physical activity hours. Residents' physical activities are influenced by their perceived neighborhood environment and health behavior intention. Residents with more positive subjective norms are more satisfied with their residential environment, tend to positively evaluate benefits of physical activities, and consequently feel less barriers of doing physical activities. This can be explained by that the norms of residents' social environment affect residents' recognition effects of physical activities. When more people around are engaged in physical exercises, the surveyed residents think that physical activities are more important. The most significant factor affecting residents' intentions of physical activities and actual physical activities is the perceived strength of behavior control. Therefore, in addition to improving public opinion and residents' attitudes towards physical activities, it is necessary to reduce the perceived strength of behavior control and to improve the accessibility of health resources. This study provides some insights into actively intervening health behavior through improving built environments for health policy making.

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    Research progress on human settlements: From traditional data to big data+
    YANG Jun, YOU Haolin, ZHANG Yuqing, JIN Cui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 166-176.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.016
    Abstract330)   HTML2)    PDF (6373KB)(62)      

    With the rapid development of urbanization, environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and research on human settlements has become a hot topic in academia. Based on the literature about human settlements in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science databases, this study analyzed the important research areas of human settlements in China and internationally with CiteSpace software, and discussed the progress of data acquisition methods, research methods and technologies, and research perspectives. The results show that: 1) The data acquisition method has changed from traditional sampling survey and official statistics acquisition to satellite remote sensing, equipment perception, thus realizing the transformation of traditional data to network big data acquisition. 2) The research methods are becoming increasingly more advanced, focusing on the combination of questionnaire survey, new geometrics models, and GIS, and introducing advanced technologies such as Internet of Things big data and artificial intelligence to make research methods more diverse and research results more accurate. 3) Social perception, rural revitalization, and mimicry of human habitat have become the research directions in recent years. In the future, the study of human settlements should make comprehensive use of the data acquired by traditional methods and modern technological means, learn and mine big data at much greater depth, and strengthen the study of rural revitalization and virtual human settlements.

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    Effects of weather factors on the spatial and temporal distributions of metro passenger flows: An empirical study based on smart card data
    XU Manling, FU Xiao, TANG Junyou, LIU Zhiyuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (1): 45-55.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.01.005
    Abstract328)   HTML5)    PDF (7586KB)(43)      

    Urban geographic space, climate, and transportation system are interrelated, and recently available traffic and spatial big data bring new opportunities for understanding the relationship among them. Urban rail transit is an important transport mode for residents to travel green and relieve traffic congestion in big cities in China. In-depth study of factors that affect the changes in the spatial and temporal distributions of metro passenger flows is conducive to the formulation of reasonable land use and traffic demand management policies, and can also provide a theoretical basis for real-time response to the changes in travel demand under specific weather conditions and optimization of transit service operation. To study the impact of weather conditions on metro usage in densely populated areas, in this research the influence of local weather factors (including temperature, humidity, rainfall and so on) on hourly metro passenger flows was investigated based on metro smart card data and weather data from Nanjing City, China. A time series model—seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average with explanatory variables (SARIMAX)—was developed to investigate the impact of weather conditions on metro passenger flows. It is found that some weather factors such as rainfall have significant influence on metro passenger flows. Except for some special sites (large residential areas and large transportation hubs), the influence of weather factors on metro passenger flows reduces gradually from the city center to suburban areas. The effects of weather conditions on regular metro passengers and irregular metro passengers were explicitly compared in this study. Irregular metro passengers are found more vulnerable to adverse weather conditions than regular metro passengers.

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    Spatial pattern of China’s urban agglomerations:Theoretical background, formation mechanisms, and latest progress of research of dispersed regional concentration
    ZHENG Yanting
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2020, 39 (2): 339-352.   doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.02.014
    Abstract321)   HTML3)    PDF (2208KB)(39)      

    From the spatial perspective, an urban agglomeration can be understood as the concentration of population and economic activities within a large urban region. In this urban region, the original rural areas were densely involved in industrialization and economic development. On the basis of a comprehensive review of classical theories, this article proposes to understand urban agglomeration from the unique characteristics of spatial patterns, namely, dispersed regional concentration. We believe that the dispersed regional concentration is the result of spatial choices of economic globalization and information technology revolution, and also the product of the unique policies and institutional background of China. As a unique reflection of global manufacturing platform and coordinated control center in space, this fundamental attribute makes urban agglomeration different from traditional regions and not ubiquitous in space. Its dispersive development characteristics represents the most serious resource and environmental constraints, which deserve special attention. The planning strategy based on these decentralized regional units may be easier to implement and achieve results than the current overall urban agglomeration strategy. At the same time, with the implementation of domestic consumption demand strategy and the Belt and Road initiative, the Chinese and international backgrounds of urban agglomeration development are undergoing important transformations. The spatial pattern of dispersed regional concentration does not necessarily apply to all regions of China. This fact is of great significance and must be carefully considered in future regional planning and management.

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    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (10): 1447-1448.  
    Abstract320)   HTML37)    PDF (255KB)(183)      
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