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    The form and evolution of city size distribution and urban growth model in China: An analysis based on Zipf’s Law and Gibrat’s Law
    SUN Bindong, WANG Yanyan, ZHANG Zhiqiang, LI Wan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (3): 361-370.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.03.001
    Abstract630)   HTML23)    PDF (1740KB)(132)      

    Based on the data of permanent residents from six national population census of China over the period 1953-2010, this study conducted an empirical analysis on the size heterogeneity of city size distribution and the relationship between the evolution of city size distribution and city growth model, to which little attention was paid in previous studies. We selected all cities (including prefecture-level cities and county-level cities) and prefecture-level cities (city propers) alone as samples, and empirically analyzed the morphological characteristics and evolution trends of urban rank-size distribution in China and its relationship with Gibrat's Law. The results show that the main body of city size distribution in China conforms to the linear distribution of Zipf's Law. However, the two ends of the city size distribution spectrum, namely small cities and megacities, deviate from the linear distribution due to insufficient sizes. This phenomenon is not unique to China, but supported by evidence from other countries of the world. From the perspective of evolution, the city size distribution in China gradually dispersed and deviated from Zipf's Law in the early stage. However, from 2000, it began to return to the direction in line with Zipf's Law, with big cities taking the lead in 1990, which shows the coupling with the random growth of urban population in this stage and verifies the logical consistency between Zipf's Law and Gibert's Law. The findings of this study have important implications for promoting the high-quality development of city size distribution in China.

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    Disciplinary position and research frontiers of behavioral geography
    TA Na, CHAI Yanwei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.001
    Abstract567)   HTML32)    PDF (1858KB)(136)      

    Beginning from the behavioral revolution, behavioral geography has gradually moved towards a diversified development direction, by continuously expanding its theoretical framework and practical extension, as well as reflecting on its own meaning. It is an important part of human geography. In the 21st century, geographic mobility has increasingly become a core factor in shaping human-environment relationships. Mobility not only constitutes a new mode of operation of the world through flows and networks, but also fundamentally reshapes the relationship between geographic space and social space. As an important part of geographic mobility, space-time behavior demonstrates the diversity and dailyness of mobility, which is key to understanding urban and rural space and social development. This brings new opportunities for the development of behavioral geography, which promotes related research to micro-interpretation, simulation, and evaluation, and puts the actual problems of people and society at the core of the research. To understand the recent development and future direction of behavioral geography, this article examined the disciplinary position of behavioral geography, reviewed the latest research results of behavioral geography in the past 10 years, discussed the challenges faced by the development of behavioral geography, and explored its future development trends. Behavioral Geography is a branch of human geography describing and explaining the interactions between the geographical environment and human behavior. The core is to explore how people's spatial behaviors are generated in the geographical environment and how people's behaviors react to space. Behavioral geography has five characteristics, including microscopic perspective, behavioral process, subjective and objective combination, integration of time and space, and interdisciplinary. The development of behavioral geography has experienced rise, integration, and expansion, and has gradually developed from the initial narrow positivist framework to more diversified directions. In the recent years, behavioral geography has presented three frontier development directions, including understanding dynamic human-environment relationship, individual quality of life, and sustainable social development. First, behavioral geography provides a new perspective to understand the interaction between geographic space and individual behavior from the perspective of micro-processes. It includes three new directions including analyzing dynamic geographic backgrounds, emphasizing the combination of subjective and objective, and deepening the understanding of cognitive space. Second, behavioral geography focuses on the quality of life at the individual level, and understands the quality of life and its changes from the perspective of temporal and spatial behavior. The main topics include lifestyle, social relations, subjective well-being, and physical and mental health. Third, behavioral geography understands urban issues and improves urban governance from the perspective of micro-processes, and bridges the gap between individual research at the micro-scale and urban spatial research at the macro-scale. It brings a behavioral perspective on social equity, smart cities, low-carbon cities, and planning applications. Behavioral geography faces challenges in methodology, research methods, and interdisciplinary aspects. It needs to think about aggregation and scale issues, develop theory- and problem-oriented research, find new interdisciplinary development points, consolidate the core of geography, expand its boundary, and optimize its theoretical system.

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    Spatiotemporal change of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China and influencing factors
    LI Fengjiao, LIU Jiaming, JIANG Lili
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (4): 541-553.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.001
    Abstract557)   HTML26)    PDF (6614KB)(126)      

    Strategic emerging industries are important support for national economic development. It is of great significance to explore the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the development level of related industries in Northeast China to promote regional economy and industrial innovation development. Using the Tianyancha software to extract the A-shares and the new over-the-counter market listed company data in 2009, 2014, and 2019 for Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces and applying the methods of Markov chain, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographical detector model, this study explored the spatial and temporal change of strategic emerging industry development level and analyzed its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is constantly improving, and the growth rate is slowing down. All types of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China have achieved leap-forward development, while the industries at a high development level have achieved steady development. 2) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is characterized by a "polar area" in the central part of the region and a "S-shaped polar zone" in the south. Spatial agglomeration is weakened, and the spatial differentiation of the provinces is gradually enhanced. The spatial centers of gravity of development level of various industries have shifted southward, with both diffusion and agglomeration effects. 3) Different factors play different roles, and multiple factors jointly affect the change of the development level and spatial pattern of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China.

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    Characteristics, effects, and influencing factors of the relocation of administrative centers at or above the county level in China
    ZHAO Biao, WANG Kaiyong, ZHAO Yicai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (2): 185-198.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.02.001
    Abstract533)   HTML35)    PDF (7214KB)(330)      

    The scientific and reasonable siting of administrative centers directly affects the efficient allocation of resource elements, equality of basic public services, coordinated and balanced regional development, and modernization of national governance system and governance capacity. This study used spatial analysis and the difference-in-differences (DID) model to analyze the basic characteristics, mechanism, and economic effects of administrative center relocation in China since the reform and opening up in 1978. The results show that in terms of relocation characteristics, the higher the administrative level, the longer the relocation distance is, and the relocation is mainly concentrated after 2000, especially in North China, while the relocation distance in western China is generally much longer than that of other regions. In terms of relocation effects, the growth rates of population, economy, and construction land around the new administrative centers are obviously faster than that of the original administrative centers. On the whole, the relocation of administrative centers plays a certain role in promoting economic development, but there is also a clear spatial heterogeneity. In terms of the factors and mechanism of influence, the process is mainly influenced by the restriction of resources and environmental conditions, the promotion of old city planning and reconstruction, the guidance of the development and construction of new areas, the reform of the administrative system, and urban development strategies. The relocation of administrative centers is usually the result of the joint action of multiple factors.

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    Glacier change and response to climate in the northern slope of the middle Nyainqêntanglha Mountains during 1990-2020
    ZHANG Wei, LI Yapeng, CHAI Le, TANG Qianyu, GE Runze, MA Haonan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2073-2085.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.008
    Abstract492)   HTML21)    PDF (4665KB)(129)      

    Located on the southeast edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Nyainqêntanglha Mountains are an important area of mountain paleoglaciers. Affected by the monsoon, the glacier change characteristics in each region are obviously different. Based on Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI data, ASRTMGDEM and meteorological data, using the method of threshold ratio, visual interpretation, VOLTA model and combined with field investigations, this study analyzed the advance and retreat conditions, area changes, ice reserves changes, and glacier changes deal with climate change of modern glaciers in the middle Nyainqêntanglha Mountains from 1990 to 2020. The results show that: 1) During the period 1990-2020, the elevation of the five studied glaciers (G094383E30581N, G094574E30563, G094637E30633N, G094770E30626N and G094928E30607N) gradually increased. The glacier area and ice reserves decreased by 30.38 km2 and 64 km3 respectively. 2) The ice reserve of each glacier decreased by 0.14-1.92 km3, with an overall change rate of 0.40%·a-1. By 2020, the reserves of the above glaciers will account for 0.70, 0.99, 0.98, 0.91 and 0.82 in 1990 respectively, which shows that the larger the scale of the glacier, the smaller the change is in a short time. 3) Through the analysis of meteorological data, during 1990-2020, the average temperature change rate of the study area was 0.51 ℃, which shows that the overall glacier change was dominated by the temperature rise. It is predicted that the glacier change in the future will be controlled by the temperature and show a trend of accelerated retreat. 4) The regional comparative study showed that the glacier area change in the Nyainqêntanglha Mountains is generally in a state of retreat, but the characteristics of glacier change in different regions are obviously different. The research on glacier ice reserves in the region is relatively weak, and the simulation results of different research methods for the same glacier ice reserves have large errors, with the relative error range of 34.45%-115.49%.

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    Cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China’s automobile production network from the perspective of “global-local”: A case study of FAW-Volkswagen
    ZHAO Ziyu, WANG Shijun, CHEN Xiaofei, HAN Zhonghui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (5): 741-754.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.001
    Abstract426)   HTML16)    PDF (9464KB)(122)      

    Under the background of global production network development, the research on "global-local" cross-regional relatedness of production organizations has important theoretical significance. The cross-regional network characteristics and geospatial representations of China's joint venture automobile production network have been explored in the global-local interactive situation. Based on the perspective of global-local production relatedness and multi-scale integration and using primary supply data of automobile manufacturing, this study analyzed the cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China's joint venture automobile production network represented by FAW-Volkswagen. The results show that: 1) The global-local multi-scale integration provides a good perspective for understanding the industrial transfer footprint of multinational corporations in building global production networks. The German company Volkswagen is embedded into China's automobile manufacturing system by building global production network, and the structure of the production network shows a typical characteristic of global-local relatedness. 2) The spatial distribution of local primary suppliers in the FAW-Volkswagen automobile production network is highly consistent with the "T"-shaped pattern of China's territorial development strategy. Investment type / technology control of automobile suppliers presents a regional organization model of the same type of spatial agglomeration, and the agglomeration degree presents the characteristic of sole proprietorship ≈ joint venture > local investment business. 3) Through the production transfer of automobile assembly plants and the procurement by cross-regional supply chains, the production organization of FAW-Volkswagen has formed a cross-regional cluster network structure with the core of cities where the automobile assembly plants are located and are restricted by geographical boundaries. 4) Spatial and temporal constraints, location advantages and agglomeration effects, technological innovation represented by modular production, venture strategies of multinational groups, and foreign investement club strategies jointly influence the spatial organization structure of the FAW-Volkswagen production network. Through a typical case study, this study provides theoretical and practical bases for understanding the organizational structure of China's key industrial production networks under the global-local multi-scale.

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    Spatial characteristics and influencing factors of carbon emissions in county-level cities of China based on urbanization
    WANG Rui, ZHANG He, QIANG Wenli, LI Fan, PENG Jingyi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 1999-2010.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.002
    Abstract423)   HTML35)    PDF (4894KB)(178)      

    This study selected 1897 county-level cities in China as the research unit to examine the spatial distribution pattern of carbon emissions and the effects of population, economy, and multi-dimensional urbanization levels on carbon emissions. The data sources are CHRED-online carbon emission public database and social and economic statistics of counties and county-level cities. Spatial autocorrelation and geographic detector methods were used in the empirical research. The results show that: 1) County-level cities of China are relatively highly different in carbon emissions, and the number of areas with high carbon emissions is relatively small, but the emission value is relatively large. The carbon emissions per unit of GDP are higher than the national average. 2) The spatial distribution of total carbon emissions mainly presents a pattern of high in the east and low in the west. The high-value areas of total carbon emissions are mainly concentrated in the east, the periphery of large cities in central China, and the central and northern regions of Inner Mongolia, showing a clustered distribution structure. Per capita carbon emissions and carbon intensity show a pattern of high in the north and low in the south, mainly concentrated in the central and northern parts of Inner Mongolia and the border areas of Xinjiang and Qinghai. 3) The spatial heterogeneity of the level of economic and land urbanization has a strong explanatory power for the difference in the total carbon emissions of county-level cities, and the impact of population urbanization on the total carbon emissions is not obvious. The interaction between economic urbanization and land urbanization has the most dramatic impact on carbon emissions, and shows a nonlinear enhancement effect. 4) With regard to regional differences, the level of urbanization has the most dramatic effect on the underdeveloped areas in the west. The eastern, central, and western regions also show different spatial characteristics in terms of the explanatory power of the same indicators and the key influencing factors.

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    Total factor productivity of marine economy in China in the era of digital economy
    SUN Caizhi, SONG Xianfang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 1983-1998.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.001
    Abstract352)   HTML11)    PDF (1097KB)(93)      

    Based on the external conditions of technological progress and market demand upgrading in the process of high-quality development and the evolution of production factors, the factors of production in a digital economy are no longer limited to the traditional factors of production of labor, land, and capital. As knowledge and information, data have become the new core factor of production. However, data do not spontaneously generate economic value, and their impact on the economy does not break away from the framework of the traditional endogenous growth theory. They integrate technology flow, material flow, capital flow, and talent flow effectively, which render many factors in the traditional economic growth theory with new meanings. Therefore, it is necessary to appropriately expand the existing theoretical system. Based on the evolution of the endogenous growth model, this study constructed an input-output indicator system including data factor to measure the total factor productivity of marine economy in 11 coastal provinces of Chinese mainland (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and the productivity changes of each factor from 2006 to 2018 using the directional distance function (DDF)-Luenberger index and its decomposition model. The results show that: 1) The performance of data factor in all coastal areas of Chinese mainland increased to different degrees, but the digital divide between these areas during the study period still cannot be ignored. 2) The measurement results of the DDF-Luenberger index show that since 2006, the total factor productivity of marine economy in all coastal areas has increased, and the stage characteristics are obvious. 3) The results of single factor performance measurement show that: with regard to the data factor, having large amounts of data only indicate the potential to transform them into real productivity, and the change of total factor data productivity still depends more on the change of digital technology. With regard to the labor factor, the development of digital economy shows the Matthew effect in the improvement of labor skills. During the study period, the total factor labor productivity in all coastal areas showed an upward trend. With regard to the capital factor, the change of total factor capital productivity shows obvious temporal and spatial differentiation characteristics. With regard to the resource factor, in general, the total factor resource productivity of coastal provinces shows positive changes with obvious stage characteristics.

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    Spatial pattern change of the network structure of China's inter-provincial virtual tourism flow
    YANG Yong, SUI Xiayun, LIU Zhen
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (8): 1349-1363.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.08.001
    Abstract345)   HTML12)    PDF (13104KB)(291)      

    Virtual tourism flow (VTF) to some extent represents geographic biases of tourist demands. It is a crucial entry point for analyzing the spatial structure of China's tourism and promoting the formation of domestic circulation. From the perspective of VTF, this study built models of virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness using Baidu index search data from 2016 to 2020. Coefficient of variation and spatial autocorrelation were employed to analyze its spatial distribution characteristics. Virtual tourism dominance degree and correlation of each provincial node were analyzed to further investigate the characteristics of the spatial change of VTF network structure. The results show that: 1) Beijing, Shanghai, and Yunnan are the radiating centers in the spatial structure of China's VTF. Based on this, a virtual spatial structure with the core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta region, and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region is formed. 2) The polarization and diffusion features of VTF are manifested in the obvious diffusion effect of the Yangtze River Delta, and the significant polarization effect of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region. Among them, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south has changed from a dual core to a single core structure, while the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region has formed a robust regional circulation structure with multiple cores and multiple levels due to the region's continuously strengthened internal and external ties. 3) According to the spatial change of VTF network structure, intra-regional circulation is an effective way to balance the development of tourism within and outside a region. Meanwhile, provinces with strong virtual tourism advantage degree have stronger resilience, which can well boost the circulation of inter-regional tourism flow. 4) The change of VTF network structure is mainly affected by economic development level, tourism resource endowment, infrastructure development, and temporal and spatial proximity. This study broadens the horizon of tourism flow research by introducing the concept of VTF and analyzing both virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness. Its results provide a reference for the geographic direction of tourist demands, which can help to promote the coordinated regional development of tourism.

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    Car-sharing travel patterns in Shanghai based on big data
    TONG De, ZHOU Xincan, GONG Yongxi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2035-2047.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.005
    Abstract335)   HTML21)    PDF (5263KB)(106)      

    Based on the big data of car-sharing operation and urban point of interest (POI) data of Shanghai in 2018, the spatial, temporal, and frequency characteristics of car-sharing users' travel were studied, and the K-mean clustering of users' travel patterns was carried out to explore typical travel patterns. The research shows that: 1) There is a significant difference in car-sharing behavior between working days and weekends. Car-sharing trips on working days are more concentrated in the mixed functional areas in the central urban area, and the use volume is large in the morning and evening rush hours. The distribution of car-sharing travel space on weekends is scattered, with higher usage, shorter average single use time, and only a peak in the evening. 2) In Shanghai, car-sharing travel behavior can be divided into 10 modes: working day commuting in medium-high frequency mode, working day nocturnal high frequency mode, working day occassional dinner and home trip, occassional long-distance commuting and home trip over long distance at night low frequency mode, weekend daytime recreational activity high frequency mode, weekend away from home in the evening recreational activity and medium-long-haul low frequency mode, weekend evening recreational long-distance travel low frequency mode, weekend overtime work-related low frequency mode, and so on. 3) Medium and high frequency users mainly used shared cars to realize long-distance commuting and long-distance recreational activities on weekends, and the spatial area is mainly concentrated in the central city and sub-central areas; Low-frequency users used shared cars mostly in situations where public transportation cannot meet the demand and taxi costs are too high, such as night, long-distance, and weekend overtime work-related trips, and the spatial distribution is relatively scattered. It can promote the development of car sharing market in megacities by providing users with differentiated vehicle plans and optimizing vehicle spatial scheduling.

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    Identification of rural development types and revitalization paths in poor mountainous areas: Taking Luanchuan County, Henan Province as an example
    LUO Qing, CHEN Siyi, WANG Yifei, LI Menglin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (10): 1783-1794.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.10.001
    Abstract331)   HTML0)    PDF (9986KB)(0)      

    Accurate assessment and classification of rural development levels is an important issue in rural revitalization research, which can provide a scientific basis for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies by development type and stage. Taking Luanchuan County, Henan Province as an example, this study integrated multi-source data such as administrative village census and electronic maps to construct a multi-dimensional development potential measurement indicator system for the village scale, and carry out multi-dimensional evaluation and type identification of rural development potential. The results show that: 1) The overall situation of rural multi-dimensional development potential in Luanchuan County is poor, with only 45.89% of the villages having medium and above development potential, and the interaction between any two dimensions has a nonlinear enhancement effect on explaining the spatial differentiation of multi-dimensional development potential. 2) The spatial differentiation characteristics of rural multi-dimensional development levels are obvious. Villages with high development potential are concentrated near the county seat and where key township centers are located, while villages with low and medium-low development potential are mainly distributed in the border areas of the county and in the areas between the towns in the central part. 3) The development level of each dimension shows relatively significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, but the spatial agglomeration pattern is different for different dimensions. Villages with higher development level in geographical location and natural background are mainly concentrated in areas with good resource endowment and relatively flat terrain; and villages with higher development level in the four dimensions of geographical location, population development, economic foundation, and social welfare gather near the county seat, township centers, and tourist attractions. 4) According to the multi-dimensional development assessment results, the villages are divided into five types: priority revitalization, preliminary revitalization, maintaining the status quo, decline and relocation, and priority relocation. Based on the characteristics of different types of villages, revitalization paths and development strategies are proposed to improve the development quality of villages.

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    Progress of research of political ecology from the perspective of geography and implications
    HUANG Yiheng, ZHU Hong, YIN Duo
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2153-2162.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.014
    Abstract320)   HTML7)    PDF (2580KB)(57)      

    With the increasing severity of global environmental problems, scholars found that apolitical studies could not work on the environmental crises effectively, so they tended to seek for a more profound perspective to fix the environmental problems. Thus, political ecology has gradually become a critical field of environmental research in different disciplines. The core theme of political ecology is to trace political factors influencing environmental issues. Based on this theme, geography, a key discipline on human-environment relation studies, enhances the spatial and political perspectives in political ecology studies. It uses its professional strength, such as scale, region, and landscape to study political ecology. Summarizing theories and topics about political ecology from the perspective of geography has practical and theoretical meanings for the construction of Chinese ecological civilization. This study first mapped the theoretical timeline of political ecology and pointed out that the theories of political ecology are rooted in early environmental criticism, cultural ecology, Marxism, poststructuralism, and posthumanism, in line with the history of geographical thoughts. Political ecology claims that the understanding of environmental issues needs to be placed on broader social circumstances, uncovering the spatial conflicts among various actors including human and nonhuman in the consequence of conversation from physical nature to social nature. Second, this study analyzed nearly 30 years of literature on political ecology research in geography in the Web of Science core database, drawing a conclusion that relevant studies mainly focus on four topics: 1) ecological economics and green-development, focusing on spatial accumulation and flow of green capital; 2) environmental governance and conservation, revealing discourses producing various spatial forms in conservation; 3) environmental identity and micropolitics, demonstrating the negative and positive effects on micro environmental practices; 4) the object of ecology and agency, paying attention to how nonhuman's agency disturbing and cooperating with human politics. Finally, we conclude that the ultimate goals of political ecology from the perspective of geography are to reveal the inequality of social relations behind environmental space and to seek social improvement programs. Furthermore, based on the topics of political ecology research in geography, we put forward four future directions of political ecology research in China from the perspective of geography.

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    Urban complexity studies from the perspective of geography:A review based on the literature in the past 20 years
    XUE Bing, ZHAO Bingyu, LI Jingzhong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (1): 157-172.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.014
    Abstract311)   HTML26)    PDF (3075KB)(120)      

    As an open human-natural system with a complex organizational structure, the urban system has always been the core object of geographic research. Using the published literature from 2000 to 2020 as the data, we developed a new approach by combing quantitative and qualitative analyses to investigate related research results from the perspective of geography in terms of conceptual connotations, research themes, and technical methods, and put forward the future research needs. Over the past 20 years, urban complexity research in China has gradually shifted from single-scale pattern, process, and mechanism research to integrated and comprehensive research on complex interaction processes at multiple scales, and has gradually formed four major themes, including urban facility networks, urban habitat, urban economic activities, and urban spatial governance. In terms of data analysis methodology, the research has gradually shifted to multi-dimensional scenario analysis supported by spatial technology and social computing with panoramic whole-life cycle data. In the future, urban complexity research from the perspective of geography needs to further strengthen the construction of urban digital infrastructure and life cycle information collection capability, deepen the comprehensive measurement and monitoring of urban ecological-economic systems from the perspective of geospatial pattern, and study the urban flow space under the influence of cross-regional development mechanism.

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    Advances and prospects of livestock snow disaster mechanism research and risk assessment
    MA Heng, ZHANG Gangfeng, SHI Peijun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2116-2129.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.011
    Abstract307)   HTML7)    PDF (2814KB)(57)      

    Livestock snow disaster is one of the most serious natural hazard-related disasters with long duration and wide influences in pastoral regions during winter and spring, which can cause a large number of livestock deaths and injuries. It has seriously threatened and restricted the production and high-quality development of animal husbandry in pastoral regions, with increasing uncertainties in its risk under climate change. Based on the natural disaster system theory, this study examined the theoretical framework of livestock snow disaster formation mechanism and risk assessment, and systematically summarized the progress of relevant research and methods in view of hazard, disaster formative environment, exposure, and risk assessment, along with identifying existing questions. Finally, future research directions of livestock snow disaster are proposed as follows: 1) Enhance the study on the estimation of grass height and the accuracy of retrieving snow depth. 2) Deepen the research on the physical process and mechanism of snow distribution and the coupling risk analysis of multi-hazards and disaster formative environment. 3) Strengthen the study on the spatiotemporal changes of livestock exposure. 4) Strengthen the study on the role of hypoxia environment on the formation mechanism of livestock snow disaster. 5) Promote the cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures of livestock snow disaster. 6) Improve the study on quantitatively assessing livestock snow disaster risk in the context of climate change, as well as interdisciplinary research.

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    Characteristics and multi-dimensional proximity mechanism of the online game industry cooperative network in China
    ZHAN Yarong, GU Renxu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (7): 1145-1155.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.07.001
    Abstract306)   HTML20)    PDF (4716KB)(72)      

    In the era of digital economy, digital technology has brought profound changes to the production system of creative industries. The influence of virtual space built on Internet platforms on physical geographical space is increasing, which destroys the old spatiotemporal relationship, new socioeconomic organization geospatial pattern is created, and the changing importance of geographical proximity and its role in the decentralization of cultural production remain to be explored. In order to examine the impacts of new digital technologies on the geographies of cultural production and to provide a reference for exploring the high-quality development model of cultural industry in the new era, this study applied social network analysis and negative binomial gravity model to examine the urban cooperative network structure and multi-dimensional proximity mechanism of the online game industry, based on the data of Chinese online game projects from 2016 to 2020. The conclusions are as follows: First, the new digital technology has strengthened the decentralization and agglomeration trend of the online game industry. The findings demonstrate the dominant role that external networks play in the operation of online game projects. Small and medium-sized cities rely more on cross-regional cooperation networks in particular, because they lack strong and influential local companies. Second, the connections between cities based on the division of value chain of the online game industry are relatively sparse, the cooperative network presents an uneven diamond-shaped connection pattern, the spatial pattern of the network is highly imbalanced, and the industry is mainly concentrated in the economically developed eastern coastal region. There is a mismatch between the influence of cities in the network and the scale of local clusters. The network hierarchy basically follows that of China's existing urban system, and the core nodes are highly concentrated in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. Local administrative centers also play an important role in the cooperation network. Social proximity, cognitive proximity, urban industrial scale, external connectivity, and human capital have positive effects on the establishment of cooperative network in the online game industry, while the wide application of digital technology makes the effects of geographical proximity and institutional proximity insignificant. At present, the main channel for enterprises in remote areas to obtain resources is still the dominant cultural production centers, which is related to the complex and diverse urban structure system in China.

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    Effect of underlying surface factors on water use efficiency in the karst area
    PENG Dawei, ZHOU Qiuwen, XIE Xuemei, WEI Xiaocha, TANG Xin, YAN Weihong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2086-2100.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.009
    Abstract305)   HTML15)    PDF (9086KB)(98)      

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator of terrestrial ecosystem response to climate change, and underlying surface factors affect WUE by influencing local climate. Ecological water shortage in the karst area is serious and the underlying surface is complex, but the comprehensive influence of multiple underlying surface factors on WUE is still unclear. In this study, MODIS gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) data sets were used to calculate WUE in the karst area of Southwest China. Coupled with lithology combination, soil type, land use type, and surface roughness, the generalized linear model was used to reveal the comprehensive influence of underlying surface factors on WUE. The results show that: the WUE of the study area is affected by altitude and karst development degree, and increases from southeast to northwest. Among the underlying surface factors, the impact of lithology combination on WUE shows a difference between karst and non-karst areas. The lithology combination of carbonate rock in the karst area has a negative impact on WUE, and the negative impact of pure karst lithology combination is stronger than that of non-pure karst lithology combination; the impact of soil type on WUE is affected by the difference of distribution altitude, soil organic matter difference, and karst and non-karst landform difference; the impact of land use types generally shows a trend that more densely vegetated land use types have a stronger positive impact on the WUE; the increase of surface roughness first has a positive impact on the WUE, and then tends to have a negative impact. Carbonate rocks affect soil properties, and soil properties and surface roughness jointly affect vegetation.

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    Spatiotemporal change characteristics and differences of manufacturing industry agglomeration in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    HUANG Yujin, SUN Wei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2011-2024.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.003
    Abstract291)   HTML23)    PDF (8719KB)(148)      

    In 2015, China proposed the coordinated development strategy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Industrial coordination is the first area to promote this strategy. Therefore, the agglomeration and dispersion of industries in this area have received extensive attention from academia. This study used the Duranton and Overman (DO) index to examine the spatiotemporal change characteristics of manufacturing industry agglomeration in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2004 to 2013, and compared the differences by sub-region, industry, and firm, based on the data with the spatial location of the firms from three economic censuses. First, the agglomeration ratio of manufacturing industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 69.0% to 82.8%, and agglomeration mostly occurred in the short-distance range of 0-50 km. As the scope of agglomeration gradually expanded, the intensity of agglomeration gradually weakened with a decrease of 25.9%. Second, at the regional level, agglomeration was more likely to occur in Beijing and Tianjin with higher level of economic development; at the industry level, agglomeration was more likely to occur in technology-intensive and labor-intensive manufacturing industries; at the firm level, agglomeration was more likely to occur in small firms while large firms were also prone to agglomerate in extremely short distance (0-25 km). Third, there was a trend of the manufacturing industry spreading from Beijing and Tianjin to Hebei Province in this period, especially some manufacturing industries with low technological level and great labor demand. Therefore, it was appropriate to propose a coordinated development strategy at the time. In the process of industrial deconstruction and transfer, differentiated policies considering differences in industry and scale should be formulated.

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    Cognitive map research in the field of geography: A review and prospect
    HE Shi, YIN Jie
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (1): 73-85.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.007
    Abstract285)   HTML12)    PDF (3305KB)(104)      

    Cognitive map, as the internal representation of abstracting and ordering the complex system of human-environment relationship, is the theoretical basis of individual spatial behavior decision making, spatial cognition, and spatial planning. It is also one of the important research fields of behavioral geography. This article systematically reviewed the research progress of cognitive map in geography and urban planning, psychology and neuroscience, computer science and engineering, and business economics and management science. It also summarized the definition, research hotspots, and historical development of the cognitive map. Through CiteSpace clustering analysis and reviewing classical literature, it is found that cognitive map research plays an important role in the disciplinary development of behavioral geography, especially in cognitive space and city image, spatial distortion and preference, spatial knowledge, and decision-making behavior. Recently, the interdisciplinary research of cognitive maps related to behavioral geography has three turns: digital turn, emotional turn, and neural turn. Finally, this article identified the role and application prospect of the geography of cognitive map spatial analysis in the development of interdisciplinary integration.

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    Change of the global grain trade network and its driving factors
    GUAN Jing, SONG Zhouying, LIU Weidong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (5): 755-769.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.002
    Abstract285)   HTML13)    PDF (11192KB)(193)      

    Based on the panel data of 238 countries and regions, this study examined the change of the spatial pattern of the global grain trade network at different scales from 1988 to 2018. The zero-inflated negative binomial was introduced to construct the gravity model for analyzing the driving factors of the global grain trade network. The results show that: 1) The scale of the global grain trade showed a rapid fluctuating rising trend, while the growth rate of trade fluctuated greatly between years. The structure of trade commodities was constantly diversified but is still dominated by wheat, corn, and barley. 2) The density of the global grain trade network is increasing, with polarization of some core nodes and increasing diversification of the overall trade network. For example, the position of North America, Western Europe, East Asia, and so on, in the grain trade network is relatively declining, while the position of Eastern Europe, South America, and so on, has increased. On the national scale, the interaction of grain trade among countries and regions has enhanced, as the structure of the grain trade network has changed from an "east-west axis" to "multi-point radiation" with a gradual shift from polarization to pluralism. Although the number of core nodes in the grain export network is increasing, regional grain export networks are still dominated by only several key countries and show a strong local polarization phenomenon, while the centralized characteristics of import networks are gradually weakened and more balanced. 3) Natural endowment of land resources, the structure of agriculture, and the degree of opening up to the outside world are the core driving factors for countries and regions to participate in the global grain trade network. The levels of price differences, language proximity, spatial distance, and societal governance also have a certain impact on the participation of countries and regions in the global grain trade network. The influence of other factors is relatively small.

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    Spatial spillover effect of urban resilience on tourism economy: A case study of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration
    FANG Yelin, SU Xueqing, HUANG Zhenfang, CHENG Xuelan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (2): 214-223.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.02.003
    Abstract279)   HTML8)    PDF (3899KB)(75)      

    Cities provide support for tourism and their resilience level has an important impact on regional tourism development. Based on the panel data of various regions of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from 2004 to 2018 and the quantitative assessment of urban resilience, the spatial spillover effect of urban resilience on tourism economy was revealed by using the spatial panel Durbin model. The results show that the spatial difference of urban resilience level is significant, but the overall resilience level is on the rise. There is a strong spatial correlation between urban resilience and tourism economy, and urban resilience has a significant spatial spillover effect on tourism economy (ρ=0.444, P<0.01). Among the resilience dimensions, urban economic resilience and urban ecological resilience have positive spillover effects on tourism economy, while urban social resilience and urban engineering resilience have negative spillover effects on tourism economy. In the future, the development of urban tourism needs to pay attention to the level of urban resilience and its spatial spillover effects, and avoid the siphon effect. It is also necessary to strengthen regional exchanges and cooperation in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to promote the high quality development of tourism economy.

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    Cognitive structure testing of the geographical synthetic thinking: Based on the samples of senior high school students
    LU Xiaoxu, LUO Xi, LU Yuqi, ZHU Zheng, MI Xue, FAN Yali
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (2): 277-288.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.02.008
    Abstract277)   HTML13)    PDF (1164KB)(99)      

    Geographical synthetic thinking is the basic thinking for solving geographical problems. The concept definition and structural substantiation of this type of synthetic thinking are related to the standardization of its application in geographical research, as well as the correct cultivation direction of students' geographical synthetic thinking in geographical education. This study is an attempt to recombine subdivided categories and formulate cognitive structure model hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking based on the three mainstream categories of factor synthesis, spatiotemporal synthesis, and regional synthesis. In this study, six cognitive structure model hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking were formulated. Then the geographical synthetic thinking scale was compiled and was repeatedly revised and tested in 2017. The test results demonstrate that the scale has high reliability and good content validity. A scale structure test can be further carried out to verify the structure hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking. From 2018 to 2020, the authors used the geographical synthetic thinking scale to collect the geographical synthetic thinking level data of 2,793 student samples from eight high schools in Shanghai Municipality and Jiangsu, Hubei, and Guizhou provinces. The samples were widely distributed and were representative. Using the exploratory factor analysis method in SPSS 23.0 software and the confirmatory factor analysis method in AMOS 22.0 software, the cognitive structure hypotheses of geographical synthetic thinking was tested. The structures extracted by exploratory factor analysis are dissimilar to the six structures in the hypotheses, while the main fitting indices of confirmatory factor analysis reflect that the six structure hypotheses and data fitting are not ideal. These results indicate that factor synthesis, spatiotemporal synthesis, and regional synthesis are external forms of the cognitive structure of geographical synthetic thinking, which represent the synthetic, systematic, and dynamic thinking characteristics of this type of thought. The internal cognitive structure of geographical synthetic thinking that reflects the essence of psychological development needs further study to be correctly established.

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    On the unique features of behavioral geography and the potential avenues for its future research
    WANG Fenglong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (1): 16-26.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.002
    Abstract272)   HTML14)    PDF (1169KB)(83)      

    Behavioral geography is an important subdiscipline of human geography. It provides innovative approach and special angles for interpreting human-environment relationship. Behavioral geography had experienced rapid development in the 1970s, which was considered an era of "behavioral movement". However, the development of behavioral geography slowed down in Western geography since the 1990s and few theoretical and methodological progresses had been made until recently. Moreover, there are some confusions about the unique features and theoretical contributions of behavioral geography within both the subdisciplines of human geography and the general "behavioral science". This situation is detrimental for researchers in other subdisciplines of geography to realize the values of behavioral geography and for the communication and consensus building among behavioral geographers. Recently, the professional committee on behavioral geography was founded in the Geographical Society of China. This provides new opportunities for the development of behavioral geography in China on the one hand, yet makes more pressing requirements for discussing the disciplinary and theoretical issues in behavioral geography on the other hand. Therefore, this article summarized four related unique features of behavioral geography and provided some referential directions for future studies. Specifically, this article argued that behavioral geography is both a subject of specific objects (environment-behavior relations) and a methodological science (behaviorism), and provides individual, subjective, and process-centered perspectives to interpret the relationship between human behaviors and geographical environment. Behavioral geographers should pay more attention to the questions related to spatial behavior and behavior-environment interaction instead of behaviorism. The models and explanations at the individual level should be extended to the group level in behavioral geography. Continuous efforts should be made to explore the mediating mechanisms of psychological processes when explaining the relationship between human behaviors and geographical environment, yet more attention should be paid to models based on subjective well-being and more robust tests of causal relation. Chinese behavioral geographers should enhance their own specialty and knowledge contribution by probing into group behaviors within collective culture and exploring more applications in behavioral geography. This article may clarify the values of behavioral geographical studies, further the theoretical debates in Chinese behavioral geography, and draw more scholarly attention to some promising directions in behavioral geography.

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    Progress of research on the conception, characteristic, and influencing factors of drought propagation from the perspective of geographic sciences
    TIAN Feng, YANG Jianhua, LIU Leizhen, WU Jianjun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (1): 173-184.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.015
    Abstract269)   HTML7)    PDF (3525KB)(89)      

    Drought propagation is an important topic in the drought research field, and its theory and research framework are not yet complete. This article elucidated the spatiotemporal conception of drought propagation from the perspective of geographic sciences, and comprehensively revealed the characteristics and patterns and summarized the research status of drought propagation following the steps of defining the concept, quantifying the characteristics, and describing the processes, which has an important theoretical significance for a deep understanding of the evolution process and driving mechanism of drought propagation throughout a drought. First, the article defined the conception of drought propagation from the spatiotemporal dimensions in a comprehensive manner based on the principles of geographic sciences. Then we analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought propagation and examined the research approaches and methods, and subsequently explored the main influencing factors of drought propagation. Finally, this article summarized the research framework and provisions based on the characteristics, processes, and mechanisms of drought propagation. A review of Chinese and international literature showed that drought propagation is characterized by the two-dimensional attributes of space and time, which was mainly controlled by the catchment characteristics, climate change, and anthropogenic activities. However, the previous studies have focused mainly on the lag time and probability of drought propagation, and are inadequate in exploring the spatial dimension, describing the evolution process, and identifying the driving mechanism of drought propagation. Revealing the process and mechanism and the formation and transition of meteorological drought, hydrological drought, agricultural drought to socioeconomic drought is the essence of drought research and the primary prerequisite for formulating effective drought control measures. Understanding the characteristics and process and mechanism of drought propagation is a key component of drought research.

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    Spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors of urban consumer service space in the consumption upgrading era: A case study of Wuhan food markets
    GAN Yilin, ZHU Yuanyuan, LUO Jing, GAO Zhe
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (1): 118-130.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.011
    Abstract266)   HTML22)    PDF (4833KB)(203)      

    Consumption upgrading breeds new business forms of consumer services, which changes the urban spatial pattern of consumer service industry. This study took the food markets as a representative of consumer service space, selected Wuhan City that experiences urban consumption upgrading and post-epidemic recovery as a case area, and integrated GIS spatial analysis and STATA statistical analysis techniques to analyze the formation process, types of markets, and influencing factors of the food market system. The results show that: 1) The food markets in Wuhan City had experienced a development process from the traditional farmers' market to the expansion of new retail formats and then down to the community scale. They had formed a new compound consumer service space with the fresh food products department of hypermarket, farmers' market, fresh food products supermarket, and community vegetable shop, and this system showed a certain resilience after the epidemic. 2) The spatial structure of the food markets changed from dual-cores to multi-cores, and the spatial distribution extended from the city center to the periphery. The spatial layout of different types of food markets presented the differentiated distribution pattern of cluster-shaped (farmers' market), strip-shaped (fresh food products supermarket), punctiform-shaped (hypermarket), and butterfly-shaped (community vegetable shop). 3) The spatial configuration of all forms of food markets was significantly influenced by social, economic, and locational factors and development foundation, traditional food market layout was significantly affected by market and locational factors, and new retail format food market layout was significantly affected by economic factors and early food market agglomeration basis. Under the situation of consumption upgrading, the site selection of new food markets prefers experiential consumption places represented by shopping malls. This study has a certain theoretical significance for enriching the research of modern food market system, expanding the disciplinary perspectives of urban consumer service space research, and has a certain practical value for optimizing the spatial structure of urban consumer service to meet residents' increasing needs for a better life and the pursuit of service quality.

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    Structural resilience change of China’s marine economic network based on the data of sea-related A-share listed companies
    LI Bo, CAO Gai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (6): 945-955.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.06.001
    Abstract260)   HTML2)    PDF (7268KB)(45)      

    With the continuous improvement of the strategic status of China's marine economy, enhancing the resilience of marine economy in China's coastal areas under internal and external disturbances has become an inevitable way and an important guarantee for its development. In this study, we carried out resilience research from the perspective of marine economic network structure. We used the data of sea-related A-share listed companies and their subsidiaries to build a marine economic network, and evaluated the structural resilience of the marine economic network in 2010, 2015 and 2020 from the three dimensions of hierarchy, assortativity, and transmission. The results show that: 1) The hierarchical structure of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas has been enhanced, and regional absolute polarization and relative equilibrium coexist. 2) Assortativity has changed to disassortativity, and the connection between core cities and peripheral cities has been strengthened. 3) Transmission is generally at a low level but has the tendency to improve. 4) The enhancement of hierarchical structure, disassortativity, and transmission has improved the cohesion, innovation, and openness of the marine economic network, which increased the structural resilience of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas. This study aimed to enrich the resilience research in economic geography and provide some basis and reference for the safe development of the marine economy, in order to facilitate the high-quality development of marine economy in China.

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    Progress, problems, and strategies of innovation and development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LIU Yi, REN Yawen, MA Li, WANG Yun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (9): 1555-1565.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.09.001
    Abstract260)   HTML4)    PDF (3059KB)(8)      

    Building an international science and innovation center is the strategic direction for the sustainable development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), and it is also an important spatial carrier for China to cope with future global competitions. On the occasion of the third anniversary of the promulgation and implementation of the "Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Development Plan Outline", by reviewing the main progress and problems of the innovation and development of the region, this article presents the strategic re-thinking of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area international science and technology innovation center under the new situation. The GBA has initially entered the stage of "innovative economy" development. Platform construction, talent agglomeration, and policy support have continued to be strengthened. Diversified cross-regional innovation collaboration models have emerged, but real challenges also exist in the areas of R&D output quality, resource allocation, and structure of talents. On the basis of continuing to consolidate the progress made in the construction of an international science and technology innovation center in the region, it is necessary to focus on the acquisition of innovation resources and improvement of innovation capabilities and the coordination and redistribution of innovation resources in the future, with continuous strategic optimization and adjustment.

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    Spatial differentiation of multi-functional mixed use of construction land based on points of interest
    LI Jianchun, QI Xiaoxing, YUAN Wenhua
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (2): 239-250.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.02.005
    Abstract255)   HTML23)    PDF (7997KB)(84)      

    Mixed land use is of great significance for improving the efficiency of use of regional land and territorial space. A framework for analyzing and optimizing multi-functional mixed use of construction land based on production-living-ecological space was developed in this study. Based on the point of interest (POI) data, entropy model, landscape pattern analysis, and association rules mining were applied to explore the spatial differentiation of mixed land use, taking Jinan City as the study area. The results show that the main types of mixed use of construction land in the city are production space, production-living space, and living space. The degree of mixed utilization of the core urban area is high, the production and living spaces are concertrated and connected, however, the ecological space is not embedded enough. The landscape fragmentation in the rural areas is obvious, and the mixed use led by production and living space is weak. The living-ecological space in the industrial parks is in a very marginal position in the network. Strengthening the internal planning of the parks or forming a complementary living and ecological space with the surrounding areas is the key to realize the sustainable development of the parks. The research of association rules shows that reasonable production space planning is an important way to guide and optimize the mixed land use. At the same time, strengthening the rational use of ecological space plays an important role in promoting mixed land use. Based on the POI data, this study explored the patterns of multi-functional combination of construction land from the perspective of behavioral spatial interaction theory, which enriches the existing land mixed use theory and methods and provides a theoretical basis for land use policy making and spatial pattern optimization.

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    From technocentrism to humanism: Progress and prospects of smart city research
    GUO Jie, WANG June, JIANG Lu, ZHANG Hong'ou, HUANG Gengzhi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2022, 41 (3): 488-498.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.03.011
    Abstract254)   HTML12)    PDF (710KB)(80)      

    With the implementation of new technologies such as 5G networks, the Internet of Things, cloud computing, big data analysis, and so on, inclusive and innovative governance and efficient innovation and application of technologies that lead cities towards smartness have become crucial and frontier topics of exploration in current international urban geography. The study of smart cities from the perspective of humanism provides an effective theoretical tool for geographiers in this field. Different from the perspective of technocentrism that regards smart cities as a collection of physical spaces composed of a communication infrastructure network and digital technology, the humanism perspective emphasizes the interaction of technology, humanistic governance (society), and space in a specific (local) context. It calls for a micro-survey of the local cooperation mechanism of information and communication technology (ICT) innovation and smart city construction, as well as governance decision making carried out by multiple actors, with a view to revealing the construction process and localized driving mechanism of smart cities, and with an emphasis on the data analysis of individual actions to find out a development path consistent with local conditions. This study examined the latest developments in humanistic research on smart cities, arguing that current studies still follow the technocentric perspective or adopt the opposite knowledge-centric position, but lack a technology-society synergy perspective. On this basis, this article proposes future research topics that are worthy of in-depth discussion, namely, the symbiosis of technology and society, the complexity of social interactions on technology innovation, and the contextual analysis of technology innovation and interactions. Our discussion may help to understand how smart cities, as a complex human-environment system, undergo transformation in the continuous interaction of people and technology, and provide some theoretical references for the study of smart cities in China.

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    Progress of research on economic complexity and regional economic development in the perspective of evolutionary economic geography
    REN Zhuoran, HE Canfei, WANG Wenyu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2101-2115.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.010
    Abstract246)   HTML8)    PDF (1739KB)(76)      

    Economic complexity is one of the important topics in evolutionary economic geography in recent years. Its attention to the transformation of industrial structure and the path of endogenous growth plays an important role in deepening the theories of economic geography and development economics, and helps to understand the transformation process of regional economic structure. This article reviewed the theoretical background of economic complexity, and examined the connotation, concept, and theoretical framework of economic complexity from the perspective of evolutionary economic geography. Then it reviewed the mainstream measurement methods of economic complexity. Based on the theory of diversification and product space, this article explored the mechanism of economic complexity on regional economic development, and then reviewed the progress of empirical research of economic complexity on regional economic growth, regional income disparity, and innovation. We found that most of the literature has proved the positive effect of economic complexity on regional economic development. Based on the idea of improving the product space density, regional economic complexity can be promoted by improving the industrial capacity and innovation ability. China's economic complexity is higher than that of other countries at the same income level, and its development path has unique characteristics, which provides a case for the theoretical study of economic complexity and has strong policy implications.

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    Comparative evaluation of the ability of GHCN-CAMS and CMFD reanalysis data to reflect regional temperature in Ningxia
    YAN Weixiong, ZHAO Junfang, YANG Yang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (12): 2061-2072.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.007
    Abstract246)   HTML7)    PDF (4794KB)(33)      

    Due to the lack of enough in-situ observation data, there are uncertainties in geoscience research and climate research. Since the 1990s, several sets of reanalysis data have been developed, such as the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, ECMWF reanalysis data, and so on. These reanalysis data can effectively make up for the shortcomings of the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of observation data. However, different reanalysis data have different quality and inconsistent performance in different regions. Therefore it is of great significance to carry out the regional suitability assessment of reanalysis data for the study of geo-atmospheric process and climate analysis. Based on the monthly average temperature of 24 meteorological stations in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Ningxia), the reanalysis data of GHCN-CAMS (Global Historical Climatology Network and the Climate Anomaly Monitoring System) and CMFD (China Meteorological Forcing Dataset) were evaluated for the ability to reflect the surface temperature at two spatial scales of 0.5° × 0.5° and 0.1° × 0.1° and two temporal scales of annual and monthly, using statistical indices of bias, absolute bias, root-mean-square error, and correlation coefficient. The results show that: 1) The reanalysis data of GHCN-CAMS and CMFD all have strong ability to reflect the temperature in Ningxia as a whole, the former slightly overestimates the temperature in Ningxia, and the latter slightly underestimates the temperature. 2) The reanalysis data of the two spatial scales have periodic positive and negative deviations at the annual and monthly scales, and the correlation at the annual scale is better than that at the monthly scale. 3) GHCN-CAMS and CMFD show different ability to reflect the temperature under different underlying surfaces. The temperature of farmland (gravel-mulched field) is overestimated in the cold season and underestimated in the warm season. For urban land, its temperature is overall underestimated. The temperature of grassland is underestimated by CMFD in cold season and slightly overestimated in warm season; while overestimated by GHCN-CAMS in cold season and underestimated in warm season. On the whole, CMFD have a better ability to reflect the surface temperature in Ningxia.

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