PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 314-329.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.012

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International research on national park management for public welfare and implications

SUN Kun1, ZHONG Linsheng2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism and Culinary, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, Jiangsu, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-01-13 Revised:2020-10-22 Online:2021-02-28 Published:2021-04-28
  • Contact: ZHONG Linsheng
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China, No(17BJY156)


National parks achieve their public welfare objective through public welfare oriented management that takes different stakeholders' behaviors as the main object of management, and the management focuses on maximizing the positive externalities of related behaviors and minimizing their negative externalities. There has been a history of 148 years since the first national park was set up in the world. From then on, numerous international studies relevant to the public welfare orientated management have been conducted. This study examined the international research literature by using bibliometric analysis, summarizing the key contents on managing national park stakeholders' behaviors for public welfare, and systematically reviewing international research related to these key contents. Implications for the public welfare orientated management of national parks in China for addressing the current problems and realizing the main management goals, improving the ownership relationship, enhancing social participation, realizing public welfare, and protecting local communities' interests include: 1) to promote management through managing non-state land by signing contracts, granting regulatory agency systematic administration authority, institutionalizing the protection duty, normalizing social donation, and improving environmental conservation; 2) to realize public involvement in conservation and management by establishing channels and scientifically organizing such activities so as to achieve greater protection and sound decision making and to reflect public interests; 3) to provide recreational services aiming at reflecting public welfare of national parks, optimizing tourist experience, and implementing environment education; 4) to manage private enterprises and visitors according to the principles of maximizing positive externalities and minimizing negative externalities; and 5) to guarantee local people's rights and to realize community co-management and sharing of benefits through integrating conservation and development.

Key words: national parks, management for public welfare, international literature, review of research