PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 395-402.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.04.001

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Review of Payments for Ecosystem Services and the Key Issues in a Watershed

QIAO Xuning1,2, YANG Yongju1, YANG Degang2   

  1. 1. School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China;
    2. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Received:2011-08-01 Revised:2011-10-01 Online:2012-04-25 Published:2012-04-25

Abstract: In a watershed, competitive water use in upstream and downstream causes a conflict between development of human beings and eco-environment. It is high time to establish mechanism of payments for ecosystem services (PES). Domestic and foreign researches on PES in watersheds mainly focus on assessment on PES implementation, choice of compensation scale, calculation of compensation standard, relationship between PES and poverty reduction, and spatial differentiation of PES. The key issues are how to make eco-compensation standard and how to realize the beneficial owner recuperation. Compensation bodies and compensation objects are defined by analysis of stakeholders and water quantity and quality between upstream and downstream. Meanwhile, maximum standard, minimum standard and reference standard of eco-compensation are determined by calculating ecological profit and loss from upstream to downstream, opportunity cost and willingness to pay (WTP). Furthermore, PES mechanism of multi-level, multi-subject and multi-factor is established. Finally, difficulties are analyzed during the construction of PES mechanism in watersheds.

Key words: compensation bodies and compensation objects, eco-compensation standard, ecosystem service, PES (payments for ecosystem services), watershed