PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 451-460.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.03.008

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Effects of warming and photoperiod changes on the leaf-out date of typical temperate woody plants

GAO Chengxi1,2(), WANG Huanjiong1,*(), GE Quansheng1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-04-13 Revised:2021-06-04 Online:2022-03-28 Published:2022-05-28
  • Contact: WANG Huanjiong;
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China, No(2018YFA0606103);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41871032);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41807438);Program for 'Kezhen' Excellent Talents in IGSNRR, CAS, No(2018RC101)


Clarifying the climatic factors driving plant phenological changes is vital for assessing the effects of global change on the ecosystem. The previous controlled experiments on European and North American woody plants demonstrated that spring phenological changes were mainly affected by chilling, forcing temperature, and photoperiod. However, it was unclear whether these three climatic factors have similar effects on the spring phenology of East Asian woody plants. In this study, we selected five typical woody plants (Jasminum nudiflorum, Forsythia suspensa, Viburnum dilatatum, Yulania denudata and Cerasus yedoensis) to investigate the leaf-out date of their dormant twigs in growth chambers with controlled environments. We set three forcing temperature treatments (12 ℃, 15 ℃, and 18 ℃), three chilling treatments (3 d, 38 d, and 59 d), and two photoperiod treatments (10 h and 14 h) and monitored the leaf-out date in each treatment. Finally, we established the relationship between the leaf-out dates and the climatic factors using the hierarchical Bayesian model. The results show that 1 ℃ warming in forcing temperature advanced the leaf-out dates by 2.6-9.0 d, but the temperature sensitivity of the leaf-out dates decreased with the increase in forcing temperature and chilling days. Chilling is also an important factor affecting the leaf-out dates of woody plants. Compared with 3 d chilling treatment, 59 chilling days advanced the leaf-out dates by 20.3-66.6 d. However, the sensitivity of leaf-out dates on chilling decreased with the increase in chilling days. Longer photoperiod caused earlier leaf-out dates, but the effect of photoperiod was smaller than that of forcing temperature and chilling. When the photoperiod was extended from 10 h to 14 h, the leaf-out dates were advanced by 0.3-12.9 d, and the effect of photoperiod was more significant in lower chilling treatment. These results provide a scientific basis for understanding spring phenological changes in responses to climate warming over the past decades.

Key words: chilling, forcing temperature, photoperiod, leaf-out date, controlled experiment