PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 181-193.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.02.004

• Urban and Regional Development • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Evaluation of Kazakhstan's urbanization during 1992-2011 and its influencing factors

YEERKEN Wuzhati1,2,3, LIU Hui1,2, LIU Weidong1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-07-01 Revised:2013-11-01 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-02-25
  • Contact: 刘慧(1964-),女,陕西兴平人,研究员,主要从事城市化与区域发展研究,E-mail:liuh@igsnrr.ac.cn。 E-mail:yeek.10s@igsnrr.ac.cn;liuh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • About author:K915

Abstract: After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has been confronted with serious social and economic conflicts, and in urban areas, these problems are more obvious and severe. However,the 21st century is very significant to Central Asia, especially to Kazakhstan. Oil industry has promoted the rapid economic growth and lots of new oil cities have emerged in this region, but the traditional industrial cities are still struggling. The aim of this research is to analyze the degree of Central Asia's urbanization and the evolutional process from the collapse of the Soviet Union, and establish a comprehensive evaluation index system based on the case of Kazakhstan's urbanization. Through studying the essential meanings of urbanization and the characteristics of Kazakhstan, this research set up a comprehensive evaluation index system, including changes in population, economy, society and land, and othersixteen specific secondaryindicators. Moreover, using the method of information entropy to determine the weight of each indicator and calculate its comprehensive value. Firstly, the results show that the weight of social class index is the highest, andthe weight of population class index is the lowest,whichindicates that the rural-urban migration is not the main urbanization process of Kazakhstan during the past 20 years. Secondly, the comprehensive values suggest that Kazakhstan's comprehensive urbanization process can be divided into four stages, and the studies on the evolution process found that the mechanisms of population, economy, society and land present different characteristics during the four stages of urbanization. (1) In the rapid reduction stage (1992-1996), the main processes of Kazakhstan's urbanization were the rapid decline of the four aspects, especially the society index class. (2) In the slow declining stage (1997-2000), the main processes of Kazakhstan's urbanization were the rising of population index and slow declining of other aspects. (3) In the slow rising stage (2001-2004), Kazakhstan's urbanization was mainly the gradual recovery of economy and society indexes; (4) In the rapid rising stage (2005-2011), Kazakhstan's urbanization mainly witnessed a rapid economic growth. Finally, this research studied the influencing factors of Kazakhstan's urbanization based on the method of Four Dimensional Analysis on market forces, intrinsic forces, exterior forces and administrative forces. (1) The political mutation under the destruction of the urban functions was the reason for the decline of the Kazakhstan's urbanization level from 1992 to 2000. (2)A large number of urban residents with higher vocational skills and more knowledge had escaped from Kazakhstan, leading to the collapse of the urban population, and this phenomenon was even more significant from 1992 to 1996. (3) The recovery of Kazakhstan's urbanization was due to the administration power and policy implications, and these were also the reasons for the slow decline of Kazakhstan's urbanization from 1997 to 2000 and the strengthening of Kazakhstan's urbanization after 2000. (4) Driven by the oil industry and trades, Kazakhstan's urbanization improved in terms of its industrial structure and employment.

CLC Number: 

  • K915