PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (6): 940-949.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.06.011

• Tourism and Leisure Geography • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Temporal-spatial variability of tourism festivals and its mechanism in Shandong Province during 1990-2011

LUAN Fuming1,2, ZHANG Xiaolei1, YANG Zhaoping1, XIONG Heigang3, HAN Fang1,2, WANG Zhaoguo1,2   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. College of Art and Science, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2012-10-01 Revised:2012-12-01 Online:2013-06-25 Published:2013-06-25

Abstract: In this paper, by using geostatistical methods, such as semi-variance function and Kriging spatial interpolator method, we analyzed temporal-spatial distribution pattern, structural characteristics and variability of tourism festivals in Shandong Province in 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011, and established suitable models. Based on quantitative analyses, we made the conclusions as follows: (1) Spatial distribution of the numbers of tourism festivals is significantly imbalanced, showing an overall "high in the east, low in the west" pattern with the shape of a three-step ladder. (2) There are clear spatial structural characteristics in terms of correlations of the events, with positive and negative correlations existing simultaneously. When the separation distance gets longer, the positive spatial correlation decreases, and in the meantime negative correlation increases. (3) Compared to 1990, the value of partial sill increased by 20.61 times in 2011; variable range increased from 115.5 km to 335 km; structural variance ratio decreased from 69% to 26%; the impact of random factors weakened, but the role of structural factors strengthened. (4) In terms of spatial fractal dimension, the values trended down and the spatial variations increased in all directions. The most significant variation was in the east-west direction; the rest of the directions were relatively balanced, showing a spatial development pattern with the characteristics of plate-like and anisotropic distribution. (5) Three main factors contribute to the evolvement of developmental variability of tourism festivals in Shandong Province: level of economic development, tourism supply capacity, and transportation accessibility.

Key words: Shandong Province, evolvement of spatial pattern, semi-variance function, temporal-spatial characteristics, tourism festival