PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY ›› 2005, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 41-49.

• Original Articles •

### Progress and Prospect of Observation on Wetland Ecosystem

JIANG Ming1,2, LV Xianguo1, LIU Jiping1, YANG Qing1

1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China|
2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039, China
• Received:2005-03-01 Revised:2005-07-01 Online:2005-09-25 Published:2005-09-25

Abstract:

As the kidney of the earth, wetland has many functions which include reducing flood levels, moderating global climate condition, controlling runoff in urban areas, buffering shorelines erosion and so on. Because of the inning, over-grazing, irrigation, silt sediment, and wetland environment pollution, wetland area is declining, fragmentation of wetland landscape is obvious, and loss of the biodiversity is severe, so the task to protect wetlands becomes more and more important. 　　The state of wetland utilization and exploitation, the change of wetland structure and functions, and the extent of wetland damage will all depend on the long and effective observation data of the wetland ecosystem. Observation of wetland ecosystem is to acquire the information of wetland ecosystem and its environment elements, whose results can be utilized to predict the change of wetland ecosystem, so that accurate protection measures can be made. 　　Observation of Wetland ecosystem started with the utilization of wetlands from sixteen centuries to the middle period of twenty centuries in the former USSR and Northern Europe. From 1950s to now, observation of wetland ecosystem has been developed greatly; at the same time observation networks of wetland ecosystem for the world were built up, such as The Long Term Ecological Research Network (U.S.A), The Environment Change Network (Great Britain)，The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network（Canada）, and Chinese Ecology Research Network (China) . Wetland ecosystem observation is more sophisticated and highly developed in the northern America and mediterranean sea region. 　　Many field stations were built for the wetland observation of climate, water quality, wildlife, soil and social activities which occurred in the wetland region; many indicators were monitored, but the monitoring indicators are different from different types of wetland ecosystem, so indicator system should be improved according to different types of wetland ecosystem; at the same time wetland observation network should be more perfect and new techniques and means should be utilized. 　　In a word, wetland normalizing wetland ecosystem observation can provide basic data for wetland science research, and the level of observation reflects the extent of wetland science research; scientific observation data is the theory basis of wetland management for the policy makers, wetland managers, and local communities.