地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (6): 724-736.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.06.006

• 生态文明与旅游专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

环境伦理观与可持续旅游行为研究进展

徐菲菲1,2(),何云梦1   

  1. 1. 东南大学人文学院旅游学系,南京 210096
    2. 江苏省道德发展高端智库,南京 210096
  • 出版日期:2016-06-28 发布日期:2016-06-28
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571133);国家社科基金项目(15CKS014);江苏省道德发展高端智库(2242016S30041);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2242015R30020)

A review of environmental ethics and sustainable tourism behavior

XU Feifei1,2,*(),HE Yunmeng1   

  1. 1. Tourism Department, School of Humanities, Southeast University,Nanjing 210096, China
    2. Think-Tank of Ethics in Jiangsu,Nanjing 210096, China
  • Online:2016-06-28 Published:2016-06-28
  • Contact: XU Feifei
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41571133;National Social Science Foundation of China, No.15CKS014;Jiangsu Think-Tank of Ethics Development, No.2242016S30041;Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University, No.2242015R30020

摘要:

环境伦理观是促进人与环境和谐发展的核心理念,对可持续旅游行为具有积极的指导作用。本文通过对中英文主流数据库期刊的文献回顾,对环境伦理观的理论内涵、影响因素以及环境伦理观对可持续旅游行为的影响进行系统梳理。结果表明:环境伦理观的概念体系主要包括环境道德、环境情感和环境信念三要素。现有研究往往不区分环境道德和环境信念,对环境情感的度量往往缺乏统一标准,导致研究结果不一致。对环境伦理观具有直接影响力的是价值观理论,社会文化因素、宗教因素、教育水平、媒体和广告影响、政策、国内和国际移民经历等因素也有一定的作用。西方对环境伦理观与可持续旅游行为进行了大量的定性和定量研究,而国内以概念性研究居多,既有研究中往往仅关注旅游中的环境行为,对可持续旅游行为关注较少,缺乏对这一特定行为的概念界定,因此,未来应在以下几个方面加强研究:①对环境伦理观理论内涵的度量;②对环境伦理观影响因素的研究;③对可持续旅游行为的界定和度量;④文化因素对于环境伦理观和可持续旅游行为的影响;⑤运用定量和定性研究方法探求环境伦理观对可持续旅游行为的作用机理和影响,为促进生态文明建设提供理论支撑和实证研究。

关键词: 环境伦理, 环境道德, 环境信念, 环境情感, 可持续旅游, 研究进展

Abstract:

Environmental ethics is a key concept in the development of human-nature relationship. Sustainable tourism has become a research focus in the past decades, but researchers argue that mainstream tourism is still far from sustainable as any movements towards sustainable tourism behavior depends on further advancement in environmental ethics. Through extensive and critical literature review based on the main databases in English and Chinese, this article discusses the conceptual development of environmental ethics, the influencing factors of environmental ethics, and the effect of environmental ethics on sustainable tourism behavior. The results suggest that the conceptual framework of environmental ethics includes environmental morality, environmental attachment, and environmental belief. Most studies did not differentiate environmental ethics and environmental belief. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) by Dunlap et al. is often used to examine environmental ethics and environmental belief, but there is a lack of consistency in the measurement of environmental attachment, therefore, different research findings are reported for environmental attachment. The most direct influencing factors to environmental ethics is value system as it deeply influences attitude, belief, norm, and behavior. Due to different value systems, people often have different attitudes towards the environment and resource management. Value Basis Theory (Stern and Dietz 1994) and Value-Belief-Norm (Stern et al. 1999) are often used in explaining environmental attitudes. Social-cultural factors are also key in shaping environmental ethics but this is often a under researched area. Other factors including religion, education, media, policy, and migration experiences within countries and abroad all contribute to the development of a person’s environmental ethics. Among the studies on environmental ethics and sustainable tourism, environmental attitude and environmental behavior in the tourism context have become a research focus. A variety of qualitative and quantitative methods have been used by western researchers, while Chinese scholars mainly focus on conceptual studies. Current studies frequently focus on environmental behavior while less consideration is given to the principles of sustainability, justice, and harmony in sustainable tourism. Future studies could focus on the following areas: (1) the measurement of the connotations of environmental ethics; (2) the influencing factors of environmental ethics; (3) the conceptual definition and measurement of sustainable tourism behavior; (4) the influence of cultural factors on environmental ethics and sustainable tourism behavior; and (5) the influencing mechanism and effect of environmental ethics on sustainable tourism behavior using quantitative and qualitative methods, contributing to the conceptual development and case studies of advancing ecological civilization from theory to practice.

Key words: environmental ethics, environmental morality, environmental belief, environmental attachment, sustainable tourism, research progress