地理科学进展 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 112-120.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.02.015

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国农户土地利用阶段差异及其 对粮食生产和生态的影响

孔祥斌,张凤荣   

  1. 中国农业大学,北京100094
  • 收稿日期:2008-02-01 修回日期:2008-03-01 出版日期:2008-03-25 发布日期:2008-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 孔祥斌(1969-), 男,承德市人, 博士, 副教授.主要研究方向是土地资源可持续利用和管理.E- mail:kxb@cau.edu.cn E-mail:kxb@cau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:国家自然科学基金(70573111) .国家科技支撑计划(2006BAD05B03) .
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(70573111) .国家科技支撑计划(2006BAD05B03) .

The Effects of the Household Land Use Objects Change on the Gr ain and Ecology in China

KONG Xiangbin,ZHANG Fengrong   

  1. Dept. of Land Resource Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China
  • Received:2008-02-01 Revised:2008-03-01 Online:2008-03-25 Published:2008-03-25

摘要:

土地利用通过改变陆地表面形态和土地利用强度对全球的粮食安全和生态安全产生了重要影响, 在满足 人类物质需求和保证生态多功能方面进行有效权衡是全球科学家关注的问题。中国处在快速的经济发展转变过程 中, 研究中国的土地利用变化对于全球粮食安全和生态安全变化将产生巨大的影响。本文从中国不同经济发展阶 段的农户特征出发, 率先提出了中国农户土地利用的四个阶段, 分析了四个阶段的土地利用特征及其对于粮食生 产和生态安全的影响。在中国目前的经济发展水平下, 中国农户存在“物质生存型”、“物质生产和利润优化型”、“利 润最大化”和“景观效用最大化”四个阶段。在“物质生存型”阶段, 农户土地利用满足家庭物质消费需求, 土地利用 集约化程度低, 粮食安全水平低, 农地的多功能得到发挥; 在第二个阶段, 农户土地利用处于“物质生产和利润优化 阶段”, 农户土地利用集约度化程度提高, 农地的生产功能不断得到强化, 农地的其他功能不断弱化, 此时的粮食生 产接近粮食的技术生产水平, 却是中国目前粮食安全的保障; 在农户土地利用的“利润最大化”阶段, 农户土地利用 转型以效益为核心, 耕地粮食水平与耕地的技术生产水平差异巨大, 但是耕地的生产潜力最大, 通过土地产权制度 创新, 可以实现耕地生产能力, 耕地的生产功能强化, 而耕地的其他功能弱化; 在农户土地利用的“景观效用最大 化”阶段, 农户土地利用目标以发挥农地的多功能为主, 而弱化了其生产功能。由于中国经济发展水平的差异存在 的长期性, 农户的四种类型将长期存在, 根据农户土地利用阶段性特征, 进行农户土地利用预期转型特征, 制定既 可以保障国家粮食安全, 又可以保障全球生态安全的政策。

关键词: 粮食生产, 农户类型, 生态, 效应, 中国

Abstract:

Land use has effects on grain and ecology security by changing the landscape and the intensification all over the world. How to keep a balance between meeting human needs and maintaining land diversity is the focus of scientists around the world. Great land use change has taken place in China, which will have great effects on the global grain and ecology security. Many researches about the land use change and the effects have been conducted, but few researchers analyzed the household land use objective change with the economic development in China. In this paper, the household land use objectives are divided into four phases and different phases have different effects on grain and ecology security in China. The four household types include subsis-tence land use phase, subsistence and profit optimization phase, profit maximization phase and landscape effect maximization phase. In the first phase, the household land use objective is to gain the family grain needs, but the technical margin yield is very low, so the household has to expand the cultivated land and change the grass and forest land into cropland. In the second phase, the household land use objective is to meet family grain needs and will make good use of other lands to make more profit. They will make good use of the land and improve the intensification. Many households are at this phase and produce high grain yield, which is the support of grain security in China. However, the intensification in land use has negative effects on ecology. At the third phase, the household land use goal is to make money, and farmers will configure the land, labor and the capital to pursue the highest profit. If the land size is too small, they will decrease the input, but the technical margin yield is high. At the last phase, the household has gone beyond seeking for the subsistence and the money, and they will use the land according to the landscape needs. They will decrease the production and input, which leads to the diversity of agricultural lands.

Key words: China, grain and ecology effects, household, land use