地理科学进展 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 238-244.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.011

• 气态变化与生态安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京郊区生态安全动态评价与分析

万利1, 陈佑启1, 谭靖2, 张洁瑕1   

  1. 1. 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京100081|
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101)
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-01 修回日期:2009-01-01 出版日期:2009-03-25 发布日期:2009-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈佑启,E-maill:chenyqi@mail.caas.net.cn E-mail:chenyqi@mail.caas.net.cn
  • 作者简介:万利(1980-),女,博士生,四川绵阳人,主要从事景观生态、3S 技术与土地利用的研究.E-mail: myra035@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    科技部科研院所社会公益研究专项(2004DIB3J092).

RS/GIS-Based Assessment and Analysis of Ecological Security Dynamics in the Suburbs of Beijing

WAN Li1, CHEN Youqi1, TAN Jing2, ZHANG Jiexia1   

  1. 1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China|
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2008-12-01 Revised:2009-01-01 Online:2009-03-25 Published:2009-03-25

摘要:

以京郊三个具有不同功能的区(县)为例,基于景观生态学的基本理论,探讨在GIS 和RS 技术支持下从景观 格局角度进行快速城市化地区的生态安全动态评价方法。首先,根据遥感数据解译出1996 和2005 两期土地利用 图;然后计算景观干扰指数和景观脆弱度指数,它们合成景观稳定性指数,在此基础上,构建生态安全指数(ESI);最 后,利用空间分析方法对生态安全指数进行空间化,并对生态安全指数的采样结果进行半变异函数分析和空间插 值分析。结果表明:(1)1996-2005 年研究区的各景观类型呈不同的变化趋势,其主要的景观变化特征为建设用地景 观持续增加、耕地景观大量减少,尤其以建设用地景观变化最快;(2)研究区的斑块数量、破碎度、多样性指数和分形 维数都表现出增加的趋势;(3)生态安全指数受人为干扰影响较大,局部区域的景观类型从1996 年的零散分布发展 至2005 年的连片分布,整体生态安全强度的空间分布不均匀性增强;(4)生态安全指数值从城市功能拓展区(朝阳 区)到远郊城市发展新区(顺义区)和生态涵养发展区(密云县),呈现出由低而高的变化趋势,其低值区域随着城市化 进程的加快而逐渐扩大。表明生态安全指数能够定量评价区域生态环境的状况及其演变方向。

关键词: 北京, 城市化, 景观结构, 生态安全, 遥感和地理信息系统

Abstract:

In this paper, the temporal and spatial dynamic trend of ecological security in the suburbs of Beijing from 1996 to 2005 is analyzed in terms of landscape ecological security index (ESI), on the ground of landscape ecology theory and the stability of landscapes. Semivariogram analysis and Kriging interpolation are conducted to get the distribution map of ecological security. The results show that: (1) The landscapes in the study area from 1996 to 2005 changed in different trends, with persistent increase in construction land and substantial decrease in cropland landscape. (2) The landscape indexes of patch number, landscape fragmentation and fractional dimension have all shown an increasing trend in the study area. (3) Human activity has much influence on the ecological security index, giving rise to quite uneven spatial distribution of ecological security in the whole area. (4) The ecological security index (ESI) can be used to quantitatively evaluate the ecological environment and its evolution direction. The ESI takes on an ascending tendency from Chaoyang District through Shunyi to Miyun counties, and the area of low ESI has been expanding gradually with the acceleration of urbanization of Beijing.

Key words: Beijing, ecological security, landscape structure, RS and GIS, urbanization