Lloyd R. Spatial Cognition - Geographic Environments. Dordecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.
 Mennis J L. Cognition & Semantic Database Representation in GIS
[D]. The Pennsylvania State University, 2001.8.
 Piaget J, Inhelder B. The child's conception of space. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1956.
 Montello D R. The geometry of environmental knowledge. In A. U. Frank, I. Campari, & U. Formentini (Eds.), Theories and methods of spatio - temporal reasoning in geographic space. Berlin: Springer, 1992, 136~152.
 Ishikawa T, Montello D R. Spatial knowledge acquisition from direct experience in the environment: Individual differences in the development of metric knowledge and the integration of separately learned places, Cognitive Psychology, 2006, 52:93~129.
 顾朝林, 宋国臣. 北京城市意象空间及构成要素研究. 地理学报, 2001, 56(1):64~74.
 Cadwallader MT. Problems in cognitive distance: Implications for cognitive mapping. Environment and Behavior, 1979, 11:559~576.
 Golledge R G, Stimson R.J. Spatial behavior: A geographic Perspective. New York: The Guilford press, 1997.
 Friedman A, Montello D R. Global - Scale location and distance estimates: common representations and strategies in absolute and relative judgments, Journal of experimental psychology learning, memory and cognition, 2006, 32 (3):333~346.
 Stevens S S. The direct estimate of sensory magnitudes - loudness. American journal of psychology, 1956, 69:1~25.
 Crompton A. Perceived distance in the city as a function of time. Environment and Behavior, 2006, 38:173~182.
 Qi C, Shu H, Xu A. Formal Properties of Cognitive Distance in Geographical Space," in 16th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence- -Workshops (ICAT'06), 2006: 408~412.
 Lee T R. Brenman's law of shopping behavior. Psychological Reports, 1962, 11:662.
 Paskin J. Are differences in children's travel reflected in their cognitive maps? In Underwood G. (Eds.) Traffic and transport psychology: Theory and Application, London, Elsevier, 2005:49~62.
 Xiao D, Liu Y. Cross - culture study of biases in location judgments, in: Winter S., Duckham M., Kulik L., Kuipers B. (Eds) COSIT'07, Lecture notes in computer science 4736, Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 2007, 20~31.
 Montello D R. The perception and cognition of environment distance: direct sources of information, in Hirtle S. C., Frank A.U. (Eds.) COSIT'97. Lecture notes in computer science 1329, Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 1997, 1329: 297~311.
 Buttenfield B SIG. Comparing distortion on sketch maps and MDS configurations, Professional Geographer, 1986, 38(3): 238~246.
 Schiffman S S, Reynolds M L. Introduction to multidimensional scaling: theory, methods, and applications, Burlington: Academic press, 1981.
 Friedman A, Kohler B. Bidimensional regression: Assessing the configural similarity and accuracy of cognitive maps and other two dimensional data sets, Psychology methods, 2003, 8(4):468~491.
 Nobbir A, Miller, H J. Time- space transformations of geographic space for exploring, analyzing and visualizing transportation systems, Journal of Transport Geography, 2007, 15:2~17.
 Kruskal J B, Wish M. Multidimensional Scaling, London: Sage Publications, 1978.
 Tobler W R. Bidimensional regression, unpublished manuscript, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1978.