地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (11): 1735-1746.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

非国家行为体的地缘政治空间影响及实现路径

刘晓凤1,2, 葛岳静1,3,*(), 胡伟1, 黄宇1, 马腾4   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
    2. 香港大学地理系,香港 999077
    3. 高原科学与可持续发展研究院,西宁 810008
    4. 杭州师范大学经济与管理学院,杭州 311121
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-21 修回日期:2019-05-01 出版日期:2019-11-28 发布日期:2019-11-28
  • 通讯作者: 葛岳静 E-mail:geyj@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘晓凤(1994— ),女,山东青岛人,博士生,主要从事全球化与地缘环境研究。E-mail:liuxf@mail.bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(16ZDA041);国家自然科学基金项目(41871128);国家自然科学基金项目(41801132)

Spatial impacts of the geopolitics of non-state actors and their formation pathways

LIU Xiaofeng1,2, GE Yuejing1,3,*(), HU Wei1, HUANG Yu1, MA Teng4   

  1. 1. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
    3. Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability, Xining 810008, China
    4. Economics and Management School, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China
  • Received:2018-12-21 Revised:2019-05-01 Online:2019-11-28 Published:2019-11-28
  • Contact: GE Yuejing E-mail:geyj@bnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China, No(16ZDA041);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41871128);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41801132)

摘要:

全球治理背景下,国家仍是国际社会最重要行为体,但非国家行为体作为重要的国际活动参与者也逐渐成为不可忽视的力量。在地理学框架中深入探讨非国家行为体的地缘政治角色,可以更加系统地理解“一带一路”建设中的多元地缘关系。论文依据地理学尺度思想梳理了非国家行为体的概念和分类,并归纳其地缘政治空间影响及实现途径,以期在理论上完善对地缘政治主体的研究,搭建非国家行为体的地缘政治认识框架,实践上指导中国“一带一路”等对外合作的开展。主要结论包括:① 非国家行为体没有动摇国家主权的决定性地位,但在世界政治中仍发挥着不可替代的独特作用,一是作为国家力量的拓展,二是对传统的国家边界、主权有空间上的突破;② 在国际事务上,非国家行为体与国家的互动及相关行为对国际安全、制度、认知和权力空间既产生了积极作用,也造成了一定损害和威胁;③ 非国家行为体通过参与和维护全球治理,塑造地缘政治想象与认同,以及调节和重塑地缘政治空间边界三种方式实现地缘政治影响。因此,为更好地服务“一带一路”建设,需要从不同角度分析非国家行为体的影响,通过与之加强对话、开展合作,合理管理、警惕部分非国家行为体的威胁以及培育鼓励中国的非国家行为体等多种方式应对其潜在影响。

关键词: 非国家行为体, 非政府组织, 国际组织, 批判地缘政治, 全球治理, 地缘政治空间

Abstract:

With the emergence of global governance, non-state actors have increasingly attracted attentions around the world as a key participant of governance, although nation state is still the most important actor. As the Belt and Road initiative being promoted around the world, it becomes unavoidable to deal with the relationship with numerous non-state actors along the road. Many disputes between Chinese enterprises and foreign stakeholders are embedded in the complex social relations, which cannot be completely solved through official agreements or negotiations between the states. But non-state actors play an irreplaceable role in the generation and settlement of these problems. Geopolitics, particularly critical geopolitical theories (a key branch of geopolitics), and global governance theories have emphasized studies of diverse actors and their interpretation of international affairs, raising the necessity to examine the role and influence of non-state actors. Therefore, it is necessary to inspect their roles. However, the research on the geopolitics of non-state actors is under-developed, especially lacking the thinking from a spatial perspective. This article examines the impacts and the pathways of influence of non-state actors on the basis of existing studies to provide some references for understanding the role of non-state actors. First, this article examines the conception and classification of non-state actors. Then their geopolitical influences in space and pathways of these influences are explored, aiming to improve the framework for understanding non-state actors theoretically and instruct China's international cooperation in practice. We drew conclusions as follows. First, although non-state actors have not shaken the status of nation state on the world stage, they do have unique and irreplaceable roles to play in many issues. They not only act as the extension of states or governments on some occasions, but also make a breakthrough on traditional national border and territory. Second, they have both positive and negative impacts in the process of interacting with state actors in international spaces. The impact can be understood by the question that how non-state actors participate to change the security space, the institution space, the perception space, and the power space in the world. Third, the main approaches that non-state actors adopt comprise participating in and maintaining global governance, molding geopolitical imagination and perception, as well as adjusting the geopolitical space and borders. At last, drawn from what is found above, this article puts forward that in the ongoing global processes, Chinese government and enterprises need to attach importance to the power of various non-state actors and the coordination of their relations. When dealing with the relationship with them, it is counterproductive to simply define them as collaborators or challengers of the state actors. This article also proposes some ways to cope with the potential impacts of non-state actors, such as enhancing dialogue, expanding cooperation, improving management, staying alert of possible threats, and encouraging China's non-state actors to participate in international affairs actively.

Key words: non-state actors, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, critical geopolitics, global governance, geopolitical space