地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (11): 1712-1725.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.11.007

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于计划行为理论的城市居住分异对居民健康活动的影响研究

李智轩, 胡宏*()   

  1. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-25 修回日期:2019-02-03 出版日期:2019-11-28 发布日期:2019-11-28
  • 通讯作者: 胡宏 E-mail:hu@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李智轩(1996— ),男,山西太原人,硕士生,主要研究方向为建成环境与居民健康行为。E-mail: 771445516@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501169);北京大学-林肯研究院城市发展与土地政策研究中心2017—2018年度研究基金(FS04-20180101-HH)

Using the theory of planned behavior to understand the effects of urban residential differentiation on residents’ physical activities

LI Zhixuan, HU Hong*()   

  1. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2018-12-25 Revised:2019-02-03 Online:2019-11-28 Published:2019-11-28
  • Contact: HU Hong E-mail:hu@nju.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41501169);Foundation of Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy (2017-2018), No(FS04-20180101-HH)

摘要:

虽然国内外大量研究探讨了居住环境与健康关系,但较少将城市地理学与社会心理学结合,从理性行为角度分析居住环境对居民身体活动的影响机制。论文引入计划行为理论的分析框架,以中国居住空间分异的特殊性为切入点,以南京为实证对象,运用结构方程模型解析居民态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制和行为意向对居民身体活动的影响路径。结果表明:传统社区、单位社区、保障房社区、城中村和商品房小区的居民社会经济特征和健康活动存在明显差异。影响居民健身意向和健身活动的最重要因素为知觉健身行为控制强度感知。消减居民健身的主观限制,包括为其提供健身设备、公共健身资源和对健身进行补贴,可提升其健身活动水平。研究结果可为通过改善建成环境进行健康行为的主动干预提供对策建议。

关键词: 计划行为理论, 居住分异, 居民健康, 身体活动, 南京

Abstract:

Residential differentiation refers to the spatial agglomeration of different social classes due to various socioeconomic backgrounds, housing preferences, and so on. Although rich literature has explored the relationship between residential differentiation and public health, few have combined urban geography with social psychology to analyze such relationship from the perspective of rational action. This study constructed a theoretical framework based on the theory of planned behavior. It took Nanjing City as the case study area and employed a structural equation model to analyze the complex influencing paths between residents' attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, physical activity intention, and actual physical activities by taking into account the unique residential differentiation context in China. This study collected 747 valid survey questionnaires from 31 neighborhoods in March-June 2018. The results show that there are significant differences in the socioeconomic characteristics and physical activity hours per week, perceived neighborhood environment, physical activity intention of respondents of traditional neighborhoods, working unit housing areas, affordable housing neighborhoods, urban villages, and commercial housing neighborhoods. Although urban villages and affordable housing neighborhoods have relatively less health resources and more lower income families than commercial housing neighborhoods, residents living in these neighborhoods perceive stronger health behavior control and show more positive health behavior intention and longer physical activity hours. Residents' physical activities are influenced by their perceived neighborhood environment and health behavior intention. Residents with more positive subjective norms are more satisfied with their residential environment, tend to positively evaluate benefits of physical activities, and consequently feel less barriers of doing physical activities. This can be explained by that the norms of residents' social environment affect residents' recognition effects of physical activities. When more people around are engaged in physical exercises, the surveyed residents think that physical activities are more important. The most significant factor affecting residents' intentions of physical activities and actual physical activities is the perceived strength of behavior control. Therefore, in addition to improving public opinion and residents' attitudes towards physical activities, it is necessary to reduce the perceived strength of behavior control and to improve the accessibility of health resources. This study provides some insights into actively intervening health behavior through improving built environments for health policy making.

Key words: theory of planned behavior, residential differentiation, residents' health, physical activity, Nanjing City