地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (10): 1514-1522.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.10.007

• 专辑| 实证研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际贸易对地区劳动力技能升级的影响——基于中国大陆地区地级市的数据分析

黎诗扬1,3,朱华晟1,2,*(),丁玥1,4   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
    2. 北京师范大学环境遥感与数字城市北京市重点实验室,北京 100875
    3. 北京师范大学珠海分校不动产学院,广东 珠海 519087
    4. 中国人民银行重庆营业管理部,重庆 401120
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-27 修回日期:2019-08-07 出版日期:2019-10-28 发布日期:2019-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 朱华晟 E-mail:zhuhs@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:黎诗扬(1990— ),女,博士生,研究方向为城市与区域规划。E-mail: lishiyang@mail.bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(No. 41171098);国家重点研发计划项目(No. 2017YFA0603600)

The impact of international trade on regional skill upgrading: Analysis of prefecture-level cities in the mainland of China

LI Shiyang1,3,ZHU Huasheng1,2,*(),DING Yue1,4   

  1. 1. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Remote Sensing and Digital City, Beijing Normal University, Beijing100875, China
    3. Real Estate College, Beijing Normal University, Zhuhai, Zhuhai 519087, Guangdong, China
    4. Chongqing Operations Office, the People's Bank of China, Chongqing 401120, China
  • Received:2019-05-27 Revised:2019-08-07 Online:2019-10-28 Published:2019-11-01
  • Contact: ZHU Huasheng E-mail:zhuhs@bnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(No. 41171098);National Key R&D Program of China(No. 2017YFA0603600)

摘要:

随着中国人口红利逐渐消失,劳动力技能升级的问题日益突出。已有研究表明,发展中国家融入全球生产网络体系并非必定能够促进劳动力技能的升级。论文以中国大陆地区主要地级市为例,利用2005、2010、2015年的面板数据,试图分析国际贸易对各地区劳动力技能结构变动及技能升级方面的影响。结果表明:出口贸易对地区高技能劳动力就业比重具有抑制作用,表现为出口贸易对劳动力技能降级的影响;而进口贸易所产生的技术扩散效应尚未显现,进出口贸易整体影响并不显著。进一步来看,从区域产业地理格局角度,对外贸易影响了不同技能水平劳动力人群的区域间流动,使得对外贸易对劳动力技能升级的影响效果在不同的区位与城市规模特征间存在显著差异。沿海城市和大城市主要表现为进口贸易显著促进高技能劳动力就业比重进而带来地区劳动力技能升级,相对于内陆地区和小城市而言,出口贸易会带来高技能劳动力就业比重下降,地区劳动力技能呈现降级趋势。

关键词: 国际贸易, 劳动力, 技能升级, 人力资本, 中国

Abstract:

With the gradual disappearance of China's demographic dividend, skill upgrading is becoming increasingly prominent. Studies have shown that the integration of developing countries into the global production network system does not necessarily lead to the upgrading of the skills of the labor force. Therefore, this study examines the impact of international trade on the upgrading of labor skills, using the panel data of major prefecture-level cities in the mainland of China in 2005, 2010 and 2015 for analysis. The results show that the overall impact of import and export trade is not significant. Specifically, export trade has a restraining effect on the employment of highly-skilled labor force while the technology diffusion effect produced by import trade has not yet appeared. Further, with regard to regional industrial geographical pattern, international trade affects inter-regional flow of labor force with different levels of skill, and the effect of trade on skill upgrading varies across different locations and city size characteristics. Import trade in coastal cities and large cities significantly promotes the employment of highly-skilled labor force and brings about the upgrading of regional labor skills. By contrast, for inland regions and small cities, export trade negatively affects the highly-skilled labor force, which results in a decrease of regional labor skills.

Key words: international trade, labor force, skill upgrading, human capital, China