地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 1435-1446.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.09.016

• 乡村振兴路径与模式 • 上一篇    

基于乡村多功能理论的贫困村域演变特征与振兴路径探讨——以海南省什寒村为例

马历1,2,3,龙花楼1,2,3,*(),屠爽爽1,4,张英男1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 南宁师范大学地理与海洋研究院,南宁 530001
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-15 修回日期:2019-04-16 出版日期:2019-09-28 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 龙花楼 E-mail:longhl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:马历(1991— ),女,四川宜宾人,博士生,主要研究方向为城乡发展与土地利用转型。E-mail: mal.17b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(No.41731286);国家自然科学基金项目(No.41971216);国家自然科学基金项目(No.41901207);中国科学院科技扶贫项目(No.fp-2018-4)

Characteristics of change and vitalization pathways of poor villages based on multifunctional rural development theory: A case study of Zahan Village in Hainan Province

MA Li1,2,3,LONG Hualou1,2,3,*(),TU Shuangshuang1,4,ZHANG Yingnan1,2,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Institute of Geography and Oceanography, Nanning Normal University, Nanning 530001, China
  • Received:2019-02-15 Revised:2019-04-16 Online:2019-09-28 Published:2019-09-25
  • Contact: LONG Hualou E-mail:longhl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.41731286);National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.41971216);National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.41901207);Project of Poverty Alleviation Supported by Science and Technology, CAS(No.fp-2018-4)

摘要:

对于多数农村地区而言,贫困是制约乡村发展的重要因素,为摆脱对农业的过度依赖和单一生产功能,乡村多功能逐步进入人们的视野并日渐受到关注,在很大程度上多功能路径有助于减少贫困发生率,并提高农村社区和家庭面对生存压力的能力。论文立足于乡村振兴的时代背景,在阐释乡村多功能概念内涵的基础上,采用实地调研和半结构式访谈等方法,基于多功能视角剖析贫困村域乡村发展的演变特征及驱动因素,总结提炼其创新发展模式,在此基础上进一步探讨贫困村域乡村振兴的路径选择。结果表明:① 在内外部驱动力的作用下,海南省什寒村实现了从弱势的贫困农村向产品多样化的多功能乡村转变;② 乡村农业生产、就业与社会保障、生态保育及文化传承等多项功能的协调发展,对于提高农村社会经济发展水平、增强乡村弹性具有积极意义;③ 驱动乡村多功能演化的因素包含政策支持、市场需求、自然本底、资金技术、行为主体和文化特质等多个方面;④ 针对贫困村域乡村发展存在的制约因素,提出从宏观层面提供乡村振兴外援力、从中观层面促进乡村振兴交互力、从微观层面激发乡村振兴内生力,通过总体谋划、各个击破以实现乡村振兴。最后从多功能视角,对乡村振兴发展的困境与出路进行了探讨。

关键词: 乡村振兴, 农村贫困化, 乡村多功能理论, 路径选择, 海南省

Abstract:

For most regions in rural China, poverty is an important factor restricting rural development. In order to reduce excessive dependence on agriculture and single production function, rural multifunctionality is receiving increasing more attention. Multifunctional rural development is to a great extent conducive to reducing the incidence of poverty and improving the ability of rural communities and families to face the pressure of survival. Under the background of rural revitalization in China, this study used field investigation and semistructured interview results to analyze the characteristics of change and driving factors of rural development in poor villages from the perspective of multifunctionality. Based on the development model of Zahan Village, we further explored alternative pathways for vitalizing poor rural villages. The results show that: 1) Under the influence of "policy opportunity geography", Zahan Village has experienced a transition from a vulnerable poor rural village to a village with diversified functions. 2) The coordinated development of agricultural production, social security, ecological conservation, and cultural heritage protection in rural areas has positive implications for improving the level of rural socioeconomic development and enhancing rural resilience. 3) Factors driving rural multifunctional transition include policy support, market demand, natural environment, capital and technology, stakeholders, and cultural traits. 4) In view of the constraints of rural development in poor villages, it is proposed to provide external support for rural vitalization from the macro level, promote synergistic interaction from the meso level, stimulate endogenous forces from the micro level, and achieve rural vitalization through overall planning and various breakthroughs. Finally, based on the multifunctional rural development theory, the dilemmas and prospect of rural vitalization and development were discussed.

Key words: rural vitalization, rural poverty, multifunctional rural development theory, alternative pathway, Hainan Province