地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (6): 768-778.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.06.010

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

清代青藏高原东北部河湟谷地林草地覆盖变化

吴致蕾1(), 刘峰贵1,2,3,*(), 张镱锂3,4, 陈琼1, 周强1, 杨登兴1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学生命与地理科学学院,西宁 810008
    2. 青藏高原环境与资源教育部重点实验室,西宁 810008
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心,北京 100101
  • 出版日期:2016-06-23 发布日期:2016-06-23
  • 通讯作者: 刘峰贵 E-mail:wuzl32@163.com;lfg_918@163.com
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:吴致蕾(1992-),女,四川绵阳人,硕士研究生,主要从事自然地理综合研究,E-mail: wuzl32@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271123, 41261010, 41371120);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB03030500)

Forest and grassland coverage change in the Yellow River-Huangshui River Valley in northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the Qing Dynasty

Zhilei WU1(), Fenggui LIU1,2,3,*(), Yili ZHANG3,4, Qiong CHEN1, Qiang ZHOU1, Dengxing YANG1   

  1. 1. College of Biologic and Geographic Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Resources and Environment, Xining 810008, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Online:2016-06-23 Published:2016-06-23
  • Contact: Fenggui LIU E-mail:wuzl32@163.com;lfg_918@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271123, No.41261010, No.41371120;Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.XDB03030500

摘要:

河湟谷地是青藏高原东北缘典型的农牧交错区,清代以来耕地的扩张导致林草地覆盖发生明显变化。本文在现代植被图的基础上,选取土壤、地形因素,并依据历史文献数据,重建河湟谷地潜在林地草地格局,在此基础上结合清代耕地变化的重建结果,推算出清代河湟谷地林草地覆盖的变化状况。结果显示:①清代耕地扩张之前,其林、草地分布与现今各类植被类型的空间分布格局基本一致,林地分布范围比现代略大,灌木林地在空间上连续性更强,草地分布区域更广;②估算出河湟谷地潜在林地、灌木林地、草地面积分别约为0.28×104、0.93×104、2.1618×104 km2,由于耕地开垦,至清代末期,河湟谷地草地、灌木林地、林地面积分别累计减少5180.41、1330.35、441.31 km2,其中草地被垦殖占用的面积最大,程度最深,减少的区域主要集中在湟水谷地中游的乐都盆地、西宁盆地以及黄河谷地的尖扎盆地、化隆盆地等;③清代河湟谷地中人类垦殖原始覆盖类型的差异性不仅受自然环境的限制,同样受到社会政策因素的影响。

关键词: 清代, 青藏高原, 林草地, 覆盖变化, 河湟谷地

Abstract:

The Yellow River-Huangshui River Valley(YHV) located in the northeast edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a typical farming-pastoral area. Since the Qing Dynasty, the expansion of cultivated land has led to a significant change in forest and grassland cover in this region. Base on the current vegetation map, soil and topographic factors, and historical data in literature, this study reconstructed the potential forest and grassland spatial distribution in the YHV. Combined with the reconstructed farmland change in the Qing Dynasty, we calculated the change of forest and grassland coverage in the YHV in the Qing Dynasty. The results show that: (1) The spatial distribution of forest and grassland before cropland expansion in the Qing Dynasty was consistent with present day vegetation distribution. The forest area was slightly larger, the shrub area was spatially more contiguous, and the distribution of grassland was wider. (2) The estimated area of forestland was 0.28×104 km2, the area of shrub was 0.93×104 km2, and the area of grassland was 2.1618×104 km2 before reclamation in the Qing Dynasty. Because of farmland reclamation activities, it is estimated that the areas of grassland, shrub, and forest have decreased by 5180.41 km2, 1330.35 km2, and 441.31 km2 in the YHV region at the end of the Qing Dynasty. The area of reclaimed grassland was the largest (52% of potential grid of grassland became cultivated cropland) and the intensity of conversion was high (the average reclamation index of grassland grids was 10%). The reduced areas mainly concentrated in the LeDu Basin, Xining Basin in the middle of the Huangshui Valley, Jianzha Basin in the Yellow River Valley, and the Hualong Basin. The target vegetation types that have been reclaimed by humans in the YHV in the Qing Dynasty were not only influenced by factors of natural environment but also social policies.

Key words: Qing Dynasty, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, forest and grassland, coverage change, Yellow River-Huangshui River Valley