地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 462-475.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.04.007

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

乌鲁木齐市职住空间组织特征及影响因素

英成龙1,2(), 雷军1,**(), 段祖亮1, 杨振1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2016-04-27 发布日期:2016-04-27
  • 通讯作者: 雷军 E-mail:happyyingcl@163.com;leijun@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:英成龙(1988-),男,山东临沂人,硕士研究生,主要从事城市与区域规划研究,E-mail: happyyingcl@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071113)

Characteristics of jobs-housing spatial organization in Urumqi City and influencing factors

Chenglong YING1,2(), Jun LEI1,*(), Zuliang DUAN1, Zhen YANG1,2   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2016-04-27 Published:2016-04-27
  • Contact: Jun LEI E-mail:happyyingcl@163.com;leijun@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071113

摘要:

本文借助职住分离指数分析法从宏观层面分析了乌鲁木齐市辖区的职住空间匹配状况,利用问卷调查数据,从微观角度分析了不同类型居住区居民的通勤距离和通勤时间。研究发现:职住空间分离是乌鲁木齐城市空间结构的突出特征;全市职住空间不匹配程度较大,居住主导区的街道有35个,占街道总数的44.3%;就业主导区的街道有25个,占街道总数的31.65%;基本匹配区的街道仅有7个。居住区类型、居民受教育程度、职业类型、收入水平、住房形式等社会经济属性对其职住分离程度均有一定程度的影响;采用GWR模型定量分析了职住空间关系的影响因素,认为学历构成、住房产权性质、职业类型、流动人口以及住房面积是影响乌鲁木齐市职住空间关系的主要因素。

关键词: 职住空间, 空间匹配关系, GWR模型, 乌鲁木齐市

Abstract:

Residential space and employment space as two important components of urban structure can exert great impacts on overall urban structure and people’s livelihood. Internationally, research has mainly focused on the spatial organizational relationships between job and housing spaces, their spatial match, influence of mismatch between job and housing spaces on urban traffic, and other spatial mismatch issues. Similar studies began to be conducted in China since the late 1980s. The related literature mainly focused on introducing the theories and research progresses, impact of spatial matching between employment and housing spaces on traffic, spatial organization of job-housing, development patterns of urban land, and so on. The studies were mainly concentrated in the few largest cities but rarely involved the absolute majority of medium-sized cities in the central and western parts of China that are experiencing rapid growth. Urumqi City developed very quickly with industrialization and urbanization since the reform and opening up of China since the late 1970s. Meantime, the residential and employment spaces also started restructuring. This article presents a case study of the Urumqi area to explore the relationship between employment and residential locations. Based on various statistics and using the job-housing spatial bias index, kernel density estimation, and the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, the authors examined the jobs-housing spatial matching issue and influencing factors of job-housing space relations. The study found that job-housing spatial separation is a prominent feature of urban spatial structure in Urumqi. The degree of job-housing spatial mismatching is relatively large—35 neighborhoods are mainly residential areas, which account for 44.3% of the total number of neighborhoods; 25 neighborhoods are mainly employment-oriented zones, which account for 31.65% of the total number of neighborhoods; and the number of neighborhoods where residential and employment functions largely match is only seven. Education, occupation, ownership of housing property, floating population, size of household living space, and other socioeconomic attributes have certain influence on the degree of separation of the two basic urban functions.

Key words: job and housing spaces, spatial match, GWR model, Urumqi City