地理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 431-439.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.04.004

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

交通拥堵对急救医疗服务时空可达性的影响——以广州市为例

陈建国1(), 周素红1,3, 柳林1,2,**(), 肖露子1, 宋广文1   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院/综合地理信息研究中心,广州 510275
    2. 辛辛那提大学地理系,美国 辛辛那提 OH45221-0131
    3 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
  • 出版日期:2016-04-27 发布日期:2016-04-27
  • 通讯作者: 柳林 E-mail:chenjianguosysu@163.com;liulin2@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈建国(1980-),男,湖北松滋人,博士研究生,研究方向为时空可达性,E-mail: chenjianguosysu@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41531178);国家自然科学基金优秀青年基金项目(41522104)

Estimating the effect of traffic congestion on accessibility to emergency medical care services: Take Guangzhou as an example

Jianguo CHEN1(), Suhong ZHOU1,3, Lin LIU1,2,*(), Luzi XIAO1, Guangwen SONG1   

  1. 1. School of Geography Science and Planning/Center of Integrated Geographic Information Analysis, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Hamilton OH 45221-0131, USA
    3. Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-Simulation, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Online:2016-04-27 Published:2016-04-27
  • Contact: Lin LIU E-mail:chenjianguosysu@163.com;liulin2@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41531178;National Natural Science Foundation for Outstanding Youth, No.4152210]

摘要:

时间是急救服务的敏感因素,急救服务设施可达性的时空差异对于评估急救设施的选址及急救服务调度的效率,解决公众急救医疗需求与供给之间的矛盾,辅助政府部门的决策都至关重要。交通拥堵是常见的城市问题,尤其是在城市中心区域更为明显,由于交通拥堵带来的时间滞后对急救服务产生的影响不容忽视。本文通过浮动车GPS大数据,分析交通拥堵对广州市中心城区急救医疗设施时空可达性的影响。结果表明:①在考虑道路实际通行状况的情况下,在交通高峰期,社区的急救医疗服务平均可达时间和最长可达时间分别比采用设计时速计算增加20%和25%。②可达性存在明显的时空差异。急救医疗服务可达性以急救医院为中心,沿着路网向四周呈现衰减趋势。急救医院布局较多、路网密集区域的可达性高,反之则低。交通拥堵对路网密集、行车规则设计复杂以及存在通过性交通流的地区影响显著。③对不同阻抗系数下可达性变化的敏感性分析,发现随着阻抗系数的增大,可达性变化的趋势有所放缓,紧急医疗服务可达性的分异变小;这一变化趋势在交通平峰期表现更为明显。因此,在研究城市中心区域急救医疗服务时,考虑交通拥堵对可达性的影响,需要构建基于实时交通状况的可达性评估模型,合理选择模型参数,优化实时急救医疗服务调度,提升急救服务的效率和质量。

关键词: 急救医疗服务, 时空可达性, 浮动车, 大数据, 交通拥堵, 广州市

Abstract:

Time is a sensitive factor in emergency medical service (EMS). The spatial and temporal differences of EMS accessibility are important for the assessment of siting of emergency facilities and the efficiency of emergency service dispatch. Traffic congestion is a common problem in the central areas of cities, and the impact of congestion on EMS accessibility cannot be ignored. In this study, the impact of traffic congestion on the temporal and spatial accessibility to EMS in the city of Guangzhou was analyzed by using the floating car data. The results show that: (1) During rush hours, the average and longest time between 120 hospitals and communities are 17% and 19% higher respectively than using standard road speed. (2) The accessibility of EMS to an emergency hospital as the center decays along the road network. The accessibility of EMS is high where the emergency hospital number is large and the road network is dense, and vice versa. The impact of traffic congestion on EMS accessibility is significant in areas where the road network and traffic rule are complex. (3) With the increase of time impedance, accessibility change slowed. This trend is more obvious in off-rush hours. Therefore, real-time traffic condition should be considered in research on EMS accessibility to optimize EMS scheduling and improve the efficiency.

Key words: Emergency Medical Service (EMS), spatial-temporal accessibility, floating car, big data, traffic congestion, Guangzhou City