地理科学进展 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (4): 561-573.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.04.013

• 社会文化地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国犯罪地理研究述评

姜超1,2, 唐焕丽3, 柳林1,2,4   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院综合地理信息研究中心, 广州 510275;
    2. 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室, 广州 510275;
    3. 广东省海洋资源研究发展中心, 广州 510070;
    4. 辛辛那提大学地理系, 辛辛那提, 俄亥俄州 45221-1031, 美国
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-01 修回日期:2014-02-01 出版日期:2014-04-25 发布日期:2014-04-25
  • 作者简介:姜超(1988- ),男,河北衡水人,博士生,主要研究方向为犯罪地理学、地理信息系统、犯罪时空分析与模拟,E-mail:zsjc_2007@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171140);国家“863”计划项目(2012AA121402,2013AA122302)。

Review of crime geography in China

JIANG Chao1,2, TANG Huanli3, LIU Lin1,2,4   

  1. 1. Center of Integrated Geographic Information Analysis, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    3. Guangdong Center for Marine Resource Research & Development, Guangzhou 510070, China;
    4. Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-1031, USA
  • Received:2013-12-01 Revised:2014-02-01 Online:2014-04-25 Published:2014-04-25
  • Contact: 柳林(1965- ),男,湖南湘潭人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事人文地理信息科学与犯罪时空分析与模拟研究,E-mail:liulin2@mail.sysu.edu.cn。 E-mail:liulin2@mail.sysu.edu.cn

摘要: 当前社会犯罪问题严峻,以空间为视角的犯罪地理研究因其独特的综合性在犯罪防控中的作用日益凸显。以中国知网、维普和万方三大数据库中获得的期刊文献为基础,对中国犯罪地理的研究状况进行综合评述。在对国内五大研究主题进行回顾的基础上,围绕“研究主题”和“研究领域”两方面,分析了中国犯罪地理学的发展动态。总体来看,在过去的25 年中,中国犯罪地理研究逐渐起步,发展趋势良好,已经吸引了来自地理学、法学与警务管理、城市规划、应用数学等诸多领域的学者关注。尽管研究焦点各有侧重,但始终注重对国外研究和实践经验的引入,并提出了基于综合分析、情境预防、CPTED、PGIS的诸多防控对策。在犯罪时空分布特征、犯罪发生诱因等方面,研究范围宽广,但研究深度有待加强。未来中国犯罪地理学发展任重而道远。学界应充分重视城市犯罪与农村犯罪、犯罪与微观环境的互动关系、犯罪主体的行为空间等研究,并积极探索虚拟犯罪模拟新技术的应用。

关键词: 犯罪地理, 研究领域, 研究述评, 研究主题, 中国

Abstract: As crime is becoming a serious problem in today's society, there exists a great opportunity for anticrime studies in China. Crime geography, which focuses on the spatial aspect of crime from a comprehensive perspective, is playing an increasingly more important role in crime prevention and control. Although it emerged in the late 1980s in China, it has not gained much attention from academics and practitioners of law enforcement. The potential of crime geography studies is considerable. In order to promote disciplinary development and explore the application value of the subject, we review related studies in China based on articles published in scholarly journals, which are obtained from three popular e-databases in China: Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WANFANG DATA, and VIP Database. Our analysis are divided into three parts. (1) we classify all articles into five research topics: introduction of foreign research and practices, discipline building and theoretical research, spatio-temporal characteristics of crime distribution, causes and mechanisms of crimes, and crime prevention strategies. Each theme is reviewed comprehensively. (2) We gain insights from a longitudinal and cross-over analysis on the development of the research areas (disciplinary backgrounds) and topics in Chinese crime geography. (3) We point out the priorities and directions in future research. The results show that crime geography in China has maintained a growing momentum during the past 25 years (1986-2010). It has attracted scholars from various disciplinary backgrounds, such as geography, policing management, urban planning and applied mathematics. Although their focuses vary, they all pay much attention to the introduction of foreign research and practices whilst crime prevention strategies research is gaining increasing attention. Until now, a primary anticrime system has been formed based on four different theories and techniques including comprehensive analysis, situational crime prevention, Crime Prevention through Environment Design (CPTED) and Policing Geographic Information System (PGIS). In terms of spatial- temporal distribution and causes of crimes, Chinese researchers have engaged in a broad range of research, yet in-depth studies are inadequate. Most studies employ simple indicators such as crime rate, crime density, and locational quotient to characterize the spatial distribution of crimes, while few pay attention to the temporal and temporal-spatial aspects, for example repeat and near repeat crimes. Quantitative methods such as correlation and regression are mainly used to analyze the causes of crimes, while few methods are put forward and used to explore the micro-level interactive mechanisms of crime. Considering the current state of research, much work needs to be done in the future. (1) Interdisciplinary academic exchanges should be encouraged to develop a commonly accepted framework of crime geography in China. (2) Chinese scholars should carry out more empirical case studies highlighting the domestic context, and explore unique theoretical contributions of Chinese scholars to the world. (3)We should deepen and broaden the research contents, especially the study of interactive relationships between crime and micro- environment, and behavioral spaces of agents in crime events. (4) Special attention should be given to the application of new research methods, for example agent-based crime simulation, in crime geography studies. (5) more collaboration between academics and practitioners should be made to satisfy the social needs and improve the quality of research.

Key words: China, crime geography, disciplinary backgrounds, research topics, review

中图分类号: 

  • K901