地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (4): 463-469.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.009

• 区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆三工河流域生态移民的农户响应

唐宏1,2, 杨德刚1, 张新焕1, 王国刚2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐830011;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2010-07-01 修回日期:2010-12-01 出版日期:2011-04-25 发布日期:2011-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨德刚(1962-),男,新疆阜康人,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事区域发展、干旱区绿洲农业研究。 E-mail:dgyang@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:唐宏(1985-),男,四川金堂人,博士生,主要从事区域规划与可持续发展研究。E-mail: tanghongwa@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40801065);中国科学院研究生社会实践资助项目。

Respond of Farm Household to Eco-immigration in Sangong River Basin of Xinjiang

TANG Hong1,2, YANG Degang1, ZHANG Xinhuan1, WANG Guogang2,3   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2010-07-01 Revised:2010-12-01 Online:2011-04-25 Published:2011-04-25

摘要: 基于农户访谈和问卷调查,对新疆三工河流域生态移民前后农户生产生活和土地利用等问题进行调查,以 了解生态移民政策的成效,并探讨政策执行中存在的相关问题,对该区域及其他地区继续实施生态移民提供借 鉴。研究结果显示:① 2007 年前后搬迁农户的类型具有一定差异性,农户生态移民意愿与户主文化程度无关,与 户主年龄和家庭人口数有一定关系,家庭人口较少的农户趋于先搬迁,后迁农户则更趋于年轻化;② 搬迁后农户 主要经济来源有所变化,从事种植业与经商的农户数量变化不大,畜牧业农户略有减少,旅游业农户比重大幅下 降;③ 因耕地质量差异,农户耕种结构也有所变化,由种植玉米为主变为以小麦为主,搬迁后政府给予一定程度 的补助;④ 从事畜牧业农户数量有所下降,牲畜饲养方式也发生了变化,放养率大幅下降,圈养时间显著延长,草 场超载情况明显改善。总体而言,生态移民后三工河谷生态环境得到明显改善,但由于管理制度与政策落实不到 位,移民农户经济收入难以保障,其移民态度不够积极。政府应该做好相关稳民政策,提供扶持措施,以提高农户 移民的积极性。

关键词: 农户响应, 三工河流域, 生态移民, 土地利用, 新疆

Abstract: Based on questionnaire and farm household interview survey, the article investigates about farmer's production and lives and land use change, discusses problems in the process of policy implementation and provides experience for continuing to implement eco-immigration policy. This investigation helps to understand the effects of eco-immigration policy. The results show that: (1) the will of farm households'eco-immigration is relative to the age of the householders and family's size, but not to the householders'educational attainments. (2) The main pocketbook of farm households has been changed after migration. The number of farmers engaged in stockbreeding reduces slightly, and the number of farmers engaged in tourism reduces greatly. (3) Because of the difference in cultivated land quality, cropping is changed from corn to wheat. (4) The way of livestock breeding has been changed. Scattering rate is declined greatly, captive period is expanded, and grass overloading is improved notably. On the whole, the environment in Sangong River Basin has been improved notably after eco-immigration, but management system and policies have not been carried out well, so the farm households'income level is not stable and immigrant attitude is not actively enough. In the future, the government should implement proper policies and provide support to promote migration positivity of farm households.

Key words: eco-immigration, land use, response of farm household, Sangong River Basin, Xinjiang