地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (6): 701-708.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.06.009

• 区域经济与交通 • 上一篇    下一篇

轴辐网络模型及其在交通地理学中的应用

吴旗韬1,2,3, 张虹鸥2, 陈凤桂1,2,3, 叶玉瑶2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南海海洋研究所,广州510301;
    2. 广州地理研究所,广州510070;
    3. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-07-01 修回日期:2010-02-01 出版日期:2010-06-25 发布日期:2010-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 张虹鸥,男,广东梅州人,研究员,主要从事区域发展与城市规划研究.E-mail: hozhang@gdas.ac.cn E-mail:hozhang@gdas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:(1982-),男,河南平顶山人,博士生,主要从事交通地理、港口和城市发展研究.E-mail: wooqitao@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAJ05A10);广东省基金项目(06020306).

The Hub and Spoke Network and Its Application in Transportation Geography

WU Qitao1,2,3, ZHANG Hong'ou2, CHEN Fenggui1,2,3, YE Yuyao2   

  1. 1. South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS, Guangzhou 510301, China;
    2. Guangzhou Institute of Geography,Guangzhou 510070, China;
    3. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2009-07-01 Revised:2010-02-01 Online:2010-06-25 Published:2010-06-25

摘要:

轴辐网络从20 世纪80 年代开始广泛应用到美国的航空网络。由于轴辐网络结构简单,能有效减小网络输 送成本,对货物的集中处理和分类实现了规模经济等优点使得这种网络形式被应用到越来越多的运输系统中。国 外学者对轴辐网络的研究已有近30 年历史,对轴辐网络的概念、理论机制,规模效益,数学模型及其应用有了较为 深入的研究和探讨。目前的研究正在向深度和广度方向发展,相对而言,国内的研究则相对落后。本文系统介绍了 轴辐网络的原理、概念、分类和研究视角,并对轴辐网络标准数学模型进行了描述,总结了国外轴辐网络的应用领 域,对国内外轴辐网络的研究进行了评述。最后指出运用轴辐网络模拟国内航空网络,货运网络等研究还处于起始 阶段,轴辐网络在国内的实际运用是未来值得研究的方向之一。

关键词: 地理学应用, 枢纽位置问题, 轴辐网络

Abstract:

After the 1978 Airline Deregulation Act, USA, more and more airline companies in USA adopted the hub-and-spoke systems. Flights from different origins to the same destination or from the same origin to different destinations were consolidated via intermediate nodes instead of direct interlink. Compared to traditional many-to-many network, these configurations reduce and simplify network construction costs, centralize commodity handling and sorting, and allow carriers to take advantage of scale economies through consolidation of flows. O'Kelly presented the first recognized mathematical formulation for a p-hub location problem by studying airline passenger networks in 1987, and the wide application of hub and spoke network motivated the geographers' study on it. The hub location problem is concerned with locating hub facilities and allocating demand nodes to hubs in order to route the traffic between origin-destination pairs. In fact, hub location problem is a complex mixture of location analysis and spatial interaction theory. The hub location problem can be classified to four fundamental types of discrete facility location problems: the p-median problem, the hub location problem with fixed costs, the p-center problem and the hub covering problems. The hub and spoke network was mainly used by airline company, so the research also focused on the application to airlines. Moreover, it can also be applied in maritime transport system, telecommunication systems, post service or rail systems and so on. Few researches on hub and spoke can be found in Chinese literature, so the model constructing and application are the main subjects for further research.

Key words: geographical application, hub and spoke network, hub location problem