地理科学进展 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 223-230.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.02.009

• 气态变化与生态安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

拉萨河流域高山水热分布观测结果分析

谢健1,2, 刘景时1, 杜明远3, 康世昌1, 汪奎奎1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所,北京100085;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100080;
    3. 日本农业环境技术研究所,日本,筑波3050053
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-01 修回日期:2009-01-01 出版日期:2009-03-25 发布日期:2009-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘景时,Email:jsliu@itpcas.ac.cn E-mail:jsliu@itpcas.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:谢健(1978-),男,江西宜春人,在读博士,从事寒区气象水文与冻土方面的研究. E-mail: jianxie@itpcas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    973 "我国冰冻圈动态过程及其对气候、水文和生态的影响机理与适应对策"(2007CB411503);欧盟第六框架项目" BRAHMATWINN"(036952);国家自然科学基金项目(40561002);日本环境省项目“利用青藏高原实施温暖化的早期 发现和早期预测”;中国科学院“百人计划”项目.

Analysis of the Observation Results of Temperature and Precipitation over an Alpine Mountain, the Lhasa River Basin

XIE Jian1,2, LIU Jingshi1, DU Mingyuan3, KANG Shichang1, WANG Kuikui1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100085, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China;
    3. Department of Agro-Meteorology, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3050053, Tsukuba, Japan
  • Received:2008-12-01 Revised:2009-01-01 Online:2009-03-25 Published:2009-03-25

摘要:

利用架设在念青唐古拉山南坡9 个海拔高度(4300~5500m)的自动气象站一年(2006 年8 月1 日-2007 年7 月31 日)的实测数据,对山坡1.5m 高度的气温和季风期(6-9 月)降水随海拔梯度和时间的变化进行了分析。表明 4300~4950m 存在一个逆温带,逆温时间自10 月至翌年4 月。年逆温频率为11.5%(42 天)。4300~5500m 年平均气温 直减率为0.61℃/100m;念青唐古拉山南坡季风期各月最大降水带都在海拔5100m。最大降水高度以下,山坡降水 量递增率为4~7mm/100m,最大降水高度以上,降水递减率数值上为降水递增率的1.6~2.3 倍。7 月和8 月降水量占 季风期总降水量比例大于6 月和9 月。降水月内分配山坡上部总体较山坡下部均匀。降水主要发生在4:00-10:00 以外的时间段,而大-中雨(3~14mm/h)主要发生在18:00-22:00。山坡强降水段相对集中在4650~5100m 海拔高度。

关键词: 降水梯度, 气温直减率, 青藏高原, 山地气候, 水热条件

Abstract:

Altitudinal and temporal distribution of surface based air temperatures and monsoon period precipitation were analysed, using an original data set, spanning Aug. 1, 2006 to Jul. 31, 2007, from 9 automated weather stations set up along an altitudinal gradient from 4300 to 5500 m a.s.l. on the southern slope of Nyainqentanglha Mountains, the Lhasa River basin. Surface based inversion was found typically during October to the following April. The annual inversion frequency was 11.5% (i.e. 42 days). The lapse rate of mean annual air temperature was 0.61℃/100m for the elevation interval of 4300~5500 m. Analysis on the precipitation indicated the presence of the maximum precipitation belt (MPB) at about 5100 m a.s.l, with an increasing rate of 4~7mm/100m below the MPB. The precipitation decreased at a rate of 1.6~2.3 times of the increasing rate over the MPB. The precipitation amounts in July and August were larger than those in June and September. The intra-month distributions of precipitation were generally more homogeneous for the upper hillslope than for the lower. The precipitation events generally occurred at any time except for 4:00~10:00, with the heavy rainfall(3~14mm/h) mainly occurring within 18:00~22:00. The larger precipitation events concentrated roughly between 4650 m a.s.l. and 5100 m a.s.l.

Key words: hydrothermal condition, mountain climate, precipitation gradient, temperature lapse rate, Tibetan Plateau