地理科学进展 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 112-120.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.06.016

• 交通地理 • 上一篇    

交通运输网络的复杂性研究

莫辉辉1,2,3, 王姣娥1, 金凤君1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049;
    3. 中国交通运输协会,北京100053
  • 收稿日期:2008-07-01 修回日期:2008-10-01 出版日期:2008-11-25 发布日期:2008-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 王姣娥(1981-),女,博士后.E-mail:jiaoewang@163.com E-mail:jiaoewang@163.com
  • 作者简介:莫辉辉(1979-),男,助理研究员,博士研究生,主要研究方向:地理系统复杂性、交通运输与区域发展. E-mail:huihuimo@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学重点基金项目(40635026).

Complexity Perspectives on Transportation Network

MO Huihui1,2,3, WANG Jiao'e1, JIN Fengjun1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. China Communications and Transportation Association,Beijing 100053, China
  • Received:2008-07-01 Revised:2008-10-01 Online:2008-11-25 Published:2008-11-25

摘要:

通过分析复杂网络理论在航空、轨道交通(地铁和铁路)、城市交通(公交和道路)等中的应用,指出系统复 杂性是交通运输网络复杂性的根源,以及复杂网络分析方法中忽视地理空间性所引起的问题,即一般性地认为交 通运输网络为小世界网络或无标度网络。目前基于统计物理学的交通运输网络的复杂性研究多为拓扑化的理论分 析或数据建模,与实际网络结构特征及动力学机理仍存在较大差距。研究进一步指出,交通运输网络由需求网络、 组织网络、径路网络和设施网络四种网络结构组成,是一类具有“开放性”复杂系统的网络化复合结构。交通运输作 为一门实践应用性较强的学科,应围绕“理论→模型与方法→实践”模式前向性循环推进。综合分析复杂网络的理 论与实践情况,提出未来交通运输网络的复杂性研究的主要内容:①对交通运输系统的网络结构复杂性的基础认 识;②以地理空间特性为基础的网络复杂性分析;③基于组织与效率的网络结构复杂性分析及应用;④相互作用产 生的各种流与网络结构的互动关系;⑤网络局域结构特征及对广域结构的影响;⑥系统开放性对网络演化的影响。

关键词: 复杂网络, 复杂性, 交通运输网络, 无标度, 小世界

Abstract:

Based on analyzing complex network theory applied in aviation, railway and urban transportation, we conclude that complexity of transportation network comes from its systematic complexity, and that the general analysis method of complex network ignores the attribute of geographic space, which brings out many problems in analyzing real-world network. Complex network analysis based on statistical physics is mostly about theoretical analysis or data modeling on topology network, which has greater disparity in transportation networks and dynamic mechanism. Transportation network includes four kinds of network structure: demand network, organization network, route network and infrastructure network, and is a compound networked structure with open complex system. Transportation is a kind of science which focuses strongly on practical application, so it needs a recurrent force to drive theory to modal and method, then to practice. We put forward in future some vital aspects of complexity analysis on transportation network, which includes (1) elemental recognition on the structure complexity of transportation system; (2) network complex analysis based on geographic spatial characteristics; (3) analysis and application of network structure based on organization and efficiency; (4) interplay between the network structure and flow caused by interaction; (5) character of local structure of network and its effect on global structure; and (6) network evolution affected by systemic open.

Key words: complex network, complexity, scale-free, small-world, transportation network