地理科学进展 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 34-44.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2006.01.004

• 资源、生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

地下水硝酸盐污染研究综述

陈建耀,王 亚,张洪波,赵新峰   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2005-06-01 修回日期:2005-12-01 出版日期:2006-01-25 发布日期:2010-08-07
  • 作者简介:陈建耀(1966-),教授,博导,E-mail:chenjyao@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    本研究得到国家自然科学基金(40571027),"985工程"GIS与遥感的地学应用科技创新平台(项目编码105203200400006)及留学回国人员科研启动基金资助.

Overview on the Studies of Nitrate Pollution in Groundwater

CHEN Jianyao,WANG Ya,ZHANG Hongbo,ZHAO Xinfeng   

  1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2005-06-01 Revised:2005-12-01 Online:2006-01-25 Published:2010-08-07

摘要:

地下水为重要的资源,一旦受污染,将难以更新与恢复。近年来,地下水硝酸盐污染问题正日益受到国内外研究者的关注。关于这方面的研究主要在以下方面:地下水硝酸盐的转化过程与机理;地下水硝酸盐污染的来源以及避免污染的方法措施;地下水硝酸盐氮、亚硝酸盐氮的确定方法;如何减少或者除去地下水中的硝酸盐;另外还有一些地下水硝酸污染与人体健康的研究等。在综述有关文献的基础上,提出未来地下水硝酸盐污染的三个方向:水与硝酸盐运移的耦合;界面过程;人文影响与全球角度。

关键词: 地下水, 人类活动, 硝酸污染

Abstract:

More than 90 papers of the last 20 years on nitrate pollution in groundwater were reviewed, and the issue both in China and abroad was found focusing on the following aspects: the transform processes and mechanism of nitrate in groundwater, the form of pollution and the sources of nitrate, and the methods to avoid and treat nitrate pollution. The transform processes include: mineralization-immobilization, fixation, nitrification and denitrification. All kinds of nitrate are classified into point origin and area origin. There are two approaches, structural approache and non-structural approache, reported to deal with nitrate pollution in groundwater. The structural approach was well reported to dispose of nitrate in a local or point scale, while the non-structural approach could be adopted in the regional scale, but few case studies were reported. Techniques to treat nitrate pollution were well reported in China, e.g. carbon dioxide regenerated ion exchanger, bio-film-electrode process, etc. Nitrate pollution in groundwater is closely related to human activities, and the main sources of nitrate were identified as excessive application of commercial fertilizers, manure, and the irrigation by non-treated wastewater, etc. The main factors affecting the occurrence, distribution and change of nitrate in groundwater were identified as: · Dramatic increasing in population that requires much more food supply, · Urbanization that discharges too much waste to be absorbed by soil and water bodies, · Over use of fertilizer, · Poor management in water and land resources, · Land use and land cover change, · Public concern and policy issues, · Change in global food production and trade Three themes were thus proposed for further study in nitrate, given as follows: 1. Integration of nitrogen and water cycle and processes, with respect to nitrogen aspects of hydrological cycle (NAHC); 2. Interface processes and mechanism regarding nitrate transformation in soil, plant, atmosphere and groundwater; 3. Impacts of nitrate in groundwater in the interaction of land and ocean, and assessment of human activities, such as urbanization, food production and trade, on the change of nitrate in groundwater in the global perspective.

Key words: groundwater, human activities, nitrate pollution

中图分类号: 

  • P342