地理科学进展 ›› 2023, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 89-103.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.01.008

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

邻里目的地建成环境对老年日常活动机会的影响——基于感知和参与视角

魏越(), 杨东峰*()   

  1. 大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院,辽宁 大连 116024
  • 收稿日期:2022-06-06 修回日期:2022-08-08 出版日期:2023-01-28 发布日期:2023-02-06
  • 通讯作者: *杨东峰(1977— ),男,河南陕县人,教授,博士,主要研究方向为健康城市与区域可持续发展。E-mail: yangdongfeng@dlut.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:魏越(1992— ),女,山东东营人,博士生,主要研究方向为老龄友好城市。E-mail: weiyue03@mail.dlut.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(52078095);国家自然科学基金项目(51638003)

Impact of neighborhood destination built environments on daily activity opportunities of the elderly population: Based on perception and participation

WEI Yue(), YANG Dongfeng*()   

  1. School of Architecture and Art, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning, China
  • Received:2022-06-06 Revised:2022-08-08 Online:2023-01-28 Published:2023-02-06
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(52078095);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51638003)

摘要:

老年人的日常活动水平与身心健康密切相关,且受到多种邻里目的地空间的复杂干预。但目前研究较少关注到老年人的活动机会特征和以邻里目的地为中心的建成环境范围。论文结合“城市人”理论,从老年人的生存、接触和社交等需求出发,以大连市主城区为例,基于老年人对日常活动感知和参与数量的问卷调查数据,并选取商业服务设施、医疗卫生设施、教育设施和休闲娱乐设施作为老年人潜在接触的邻里目的地,借助聚类分析、线性回归和Logistic回归模型探究活动机会类型及其建成环境影响因素。研究结果表明:老年日常活动机会可分为旁观型、目标型和活跃型3类;商业服务设施对活动感知、休闲娱乐设施对活动参与有显著影响;医院的环境适宜性对旁观型老年人、商场的空间区位条件对活跃型老年人分别存在较大的作用效应。研究结果可为精细化地建设老龄友好城市提供新思路。

关键词: 邻里目的地, 建成环境, 老年人, 城市人理论, 日常活动感知, 日常活动参与

Abstract:

Daily activities of the elderly population are closely related to their physical and mental health, and are complicatedly affected by the attributes of multiple neighborhood destination built environments. However, current research has paid little attention to the activity opportunity characteristics of the elderly population and scope of the built environment centered on neighborhood destinations. Combined with the theory of homo-urbanicus, this study constructed a research framework on the relationship between neighborhood destinations and daily activity opportunities from the needs of the elderly for survival, contact, and social interaction. Taking the main urban area of Dalian City as an example, data on the perception and participation in daily activities were collected from 1149 older adults in 2017 and 2019. From the three dimensions of accessibility, attractiveness, and friendliness, built environment indicators were measured for the neighborhood destinations that the elderly have potential contact with, including commercial, medical, educational, and leisure facilities. We used the multiple linear regression and the multinomial logistic regression methods to analyze the impact of neighborhood destination built environments on older adults' daily activity opportunities. The main findings of the study are as follows: 1) The daily activity opportunities of the elderly can be divided into three categories: bystander type, target type, and active type. In addition to being severely constrained by individual attributes, these types also show heterogeneity in their spatial distributions. 2) Commercial facilities have a significant impact on activity perception, and leisure facilities have a significant impact on activity participation. Specifically, indicators such as the proportion of residential areas around community activity centers and the distance to shopping mall intersections have a greater impact on activity perception. The road network density around chess and card rooms and the proportion of cars around community activity centers have a greater impact on activity participation. 3) The environmental suitability of hospitals has an effect on the bystander elderly, and the spatial location of shopping malls has an effect on the active elderly. The research results show that in the optimization of the built environment of urban public service facilities, it is necessary not only to meet the needs of the elderly for the use of space, but also to meet their needs for rest and observation. In addition, urban planners should pay attention to the differences in the impact of different types of service facilities on daily activity opportunities of the elderly, and carry out targeted planning and policy interventions. This study provides new ideas for the refined construction of age-friendly cities.

Key words: neighborhood destination, built environment, elderly population, homo-urbanicus, daily activity perception, daily activity participation