地理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (7): 1210-1223.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.07.013

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

居住迁移对居民健康的影响研究进展述评

程晗蓓1,2(), 邹游1, 林赛南1,2, 李志刚1,2,*()   

  1. 1. 武汉大学城市设计学院,武汉 430072
    2. 湖北省人居环境工程技术研究中心,武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-16 修回日期:2019-09-25 出版日期:2020-07-28 发布日期:2020-09-28
  • 作者简介:程晗蓓(1990— ),女,湖北武汉人,博士生,主要研究方向为人口流动与城镇化效应、社会融合与健康不平等。E-mail: hanbei.cheng@whu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771167);国家自然科学基金项目(41422103);国家自然科学基金项目(41801156)

Review of recent research on the impacts of residential mobility on health

CHENG Hanbei1,2(), ZOU You1, LIN Sainan1,2, LI Zhigang1,2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Urban Design, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    2. Hubei Provincial Research Centre of Human Settlement Engineering and Technology, Wuhan 430072, China
  • Received:2019-05-16 Revised:2019-09-25 Online:2020-07-28 Published:2020-09-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771167);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41422103);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801156)

摘要:

进入城市时代以来,居住环境与居民健康的联系愈发密切,尤其在“流动性"增强的大背景下,居住迁移对居民健康的影响问题受到广泛关注。论文结合知识图谱分析和文献研究法,系统评述居住迁移影响居民健康问题的最新进展。研究发现:① 近15 a来,该领域的文献数量逐年增多,关注度持续上升;文献空间分布主要集中在发达国家,但不同地区的研究内容存在显著差异。② 主要研究对象由“同质性群体”向“异质性群体”转变,从“一般性群体”向“特殊群体”转变;研究方法由数理统计向混合研究、综合应用转变。③ 研究视角经历“人口迁移—个体健康”“居住迁移—环境—个体健康”与“迁居轨迹—环境演变—个体健康发展”等3个演变阶段。④ 近期研究重点有:迁居行为与儿童健康,迁居时空特征与身心健康,住房生涯与身心健康,邻里环境、累积剥夺与健康发展等。结合以上分析,提出如下建议:注重“整合性”分析;关注城市内部迁居行为和多次迁居轨迹对居民健康的影响;扩大迁居引发的“环境”因素(如居住隔离、社会分异、职住空间错位等)研究;更多关注迁居对二代流动人口儿童健康的影响,侧重对非正规居住空间如“城中村”等的研究。

关键词: 居住迁移, 居民健康, 知识图谱分析, 影响因素

Abstract:

China has witnessed a mass migration and mobility movement over the past four decades. Although a plethora of literature has studied the motivations, characteristics, and effects of residential mobility, little research has been done to reveal the impact of residential mobility on heath in urban China. Thus, this study combined the method of knowledge map analysis and traditional literature research analysis to review existing studies from 2004-2018 in the Web of Science database, to provide suggestions for promoting such research in China. A total of 338 papers in Web of Science on "residential mobility and health" in related fields was extracted and visually analyzed by VOSviewer. The results and conclusions are as follows. First, the influence of residential mobility on residents' health has drawn growing attention in the recent 15 years, evidenced by the increasing number of published articles, especially in the field of geography, urban planning, and environment studies. Spatial distribution of outputs was mainly concentrated in the developed countries. However, the research contents significantly differed between the United Stated and Europe. Second, the main research subjects have shifted from "homogeneity within groups" to "heterogeneity within groups", and from "common subjects" to "specific subjects" (for example, children, women, and the eldlies). On the other hand, quantitative methods, particularly cross-sectional analysis of individuals, were widely used in the early period, while mixed research methods (qualitative and quantitative) and longitudinal analysis of linked lives were adopted in follow-up studies. In terms of measurement indicators, 53% of papers selected "stress" and "depression" to estimate mental health; 32% of papers used "birth weight", "perinatal mortality", and so on as physical health outcomes, followed by "all-cause mortality rate"(16%), "obesity"(14%), and "BMI"(10%). Residential mobility indicators referred to three aspects: life course factors (personal biographies, work and housing transitions, life events), spatial and temporal factors (moving frequency, distance, location, and direction, and so on), and mobility motivations (voluntary or forced). Third, in terms of theoretical evolution, it has undergone three stages: "migration-health" from a macro (general mobility) perspective at the early stage, "residential mobility-environment-health" from a micro (individual) perspective at the second stage, and "mobility trajectory-environment change-health development" from a mobility (a range of mobility categorizations and time scales) perspective at the third stage. Fourth, based on the result of cluster analysis, four main topics were identified: 1) Disadvantaged neighborhood, instability of family structure, and vulnerable school networks led by frequent mobility would influence children's health. Children with different demographic profiles responded differently to the social contexts in which they were exposed (age-dependent neighborhood effect). 2) There were uncertainty in the spatial and temporal features of residential mobility impact on physical and mental health. 3) Diverse housing career factors (facility index, crowding rate, renting cost, and so on), on the one hand, can directly influence physical and mental health. On the other hand, they can be moderated by perceived stress to affect health indirectly. 4) Frequent mobility can result in the cumulative effect of neighborhood environment, and long-term neighborhood deprivation would induce disease risks. Finally, through a critical re-thinking of existing research in China, this article suggests that we should realize interdisciplinary analysis, and focus on the impact of intra-urban residential mobility as well as mobility trajectory on residents' health. More importantly, researchers need to explore further the mediating factors (for example, residential segregation, social differentiation, jobs-housing imbalance, and son on) and keep a close watch on the health development of migrant children living in the informal residential spaces (urban village).

Key words: residential mobility, residents' health, knowledge mapping, influencing factors