地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. ›› Issue (1): 78-87.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.01.011

• 陆地生态系统碳收支专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国区域陆地生态系统碳收支综合研究的科技需求与重要科学问题

王秋凤1, 刘颖慧2, 何念鹏1, 方华军1, 伏玉玲1, 于贵瑞1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室,CERN综合研究中心,北京 100101;
    2. 北京师范大学资源学院,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2011-10-01 修回日期:2012-01-01 出版日期:2012-01-25 发布日期:2012-01-25
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2010CB833504);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项项目(XDA05050600)。

Demands and Key Scientific Issues in the Synthesis Research on Regional Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Budget in China

WANG Qiufeng1, LIU Yinghui2, HE Nianpeng1, FANG Huajun1, FU Yuling1, YU Guirui1   

  1. 1. Synthesis Research Center of CERN, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2011-10-01 Revised:2012-01-01 Online:2012-01-25 Published:2012-01-25

摘要: 陆地生态系统碳收支及其循环过程机制研究一直是全球气候变化的成因分析、变化趋势预测、减缓和适应对策分析等领域的热点,受到科技界和国际社会的广泛关注。本文在简要回顾中国陆地生态系统碳收支及其循环过程研究领域的发展历史,总结各个发展阶段主要特征的基础上,讨论了开展中国区域陆地生态系统碳收支综合研究的科技需求和社会需求,评述了中国在相关领域研究中存在的主要问题,探讨了当前的科学研究前沿领域及其关键科学问题。本文指出,现阶段中国开展区域尺度陆地生态系统碳收支及其循环过程机制综合研究工作不仅是提升中国生态系统生态学、地球系统科学与全球变化科学的创新能力的科技发展需求,更是中国参与应对全球气候变化国际合作、改进生态系统管理、保障生态安全的社会经济发展需求。同时还指出,中国现阶段在该领域的研究工作还缺乏各类生态系统碳收支的实际调查数据,缺乏国家尺度碳收支科学数据的整合,缺乏可用于碳收支计量与综合评估的模型工具,也没有形成国家层次的碳源汇计量、评估、认证及决策分析信息系统平台。本文通过国内外科技发展的分析认为,中国在该领域的研究工作,应在大力发展陆地生态系统碳收支和碳汇功能的定量监测、评价和认证的方法与技术基础上,重点关注并前瞻性地开展陆地生态系统碳-氮-水循环过程耦合关系及其对全球气候变化的响应与适应、碳-氮-磷生态化学计量学特征及其环境影响、碳-氮-水耦合循环过程的生物调控机制等前沿领域,以提高中国生态系统与全球变化科学研究水平,为国家的生态系统与温室气体管理提供基础理论、科学知识和先进技术的储备。

关键词: 陆地生态系统, 碳-氮-水耦合循环, 碳汇功能, 碳收支与碳循环, 增汇技术与潜力, 中国

Abstract: Process mechanisms of carbon budget and carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems are the research hotspots in analyzing the causes of global climate change, forecasting the climate change trend, and making mitigation and adaptation countermeasures, which have attracted broad attention from the scientific community and international community. In this paper, we review the history of the research on the carbon budget and carbon cycle process in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems; summarize the main characteristics of each development stage. Based on the review, we discuss the demands for carrying out the systhesis research on regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budget in China from the aspects of science and technology and society, bring forward the main existing problems, and explore the key scientific issues in related fields. The paper analyzes the importance for carrying out the synthesis research on regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budget in China from various aspects such as socio-economic development, ecosystem management, and eco-security as well. Simultaneously, the paper points out that, in China, we are still lack of practical investigation data of carbon budget for various ecosystem types, lack of data integration at national scale, lack of modelling tools that can be used in carbon accounting and assessment, and no information system platform has been developed for national carbon source/ sink accounting, assessment, authorization and decision making. Through the above analysis, we think that, in order to enhance the innovation capacity in the area of ecosystem and global change in China, to provide fundamental theory and advanced technology for national ecosystem and greenhouse gases management, more emphasis should be placed on the following frontier fields, such as the coupling relationships among carbon-nitrogen- water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and their response and adaptation to global climate change, ecological stoichiometry characteristics of carbon-nitrogen-phosphor and their environmental impact, and the biological regulation mechanisms of the processes of carbon-nitrogen-water coupling cycles as well.

Key words: carbon cycle and carbon budget, carbon sink function, carbon-nitrogen-water coupling cycles, China, sink enhancement technology and potential, terrestrial ecosystem