地理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (8): 1308-1318.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.08.006

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北地区城市女性就业水平空间分异机制

付占辉(), 梅林*(), 郑茹敏, 王彤彤   

  1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-03 修回日期:2019-09-07 出版日期:2020-08-28 发布日期:2020-10-28
  • 作者简介:付占辉(1989— ),男,河南南阳人,博士生,主要研究方向为城市地理、城市与区域规划。E-mail: fuzh475@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471111)

Spatial differentiation mechanism of urban female employment rate in Northeast China

FU Zhanhui(), MEI Lin*(), ZHENG Rumin, WANG Tongtong   

  1. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2019-06-03 Revised:2019-09-07 Online:2020-08-28 Published:2020-10-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41471111)

摘要:

促进女性就业,不仅能够提高女性社会经济地位,还有助于提高社会生产力和经济活力。论文以东北三省“五普”“六普”和2015年1%人口抽样调查数据为基础,借助空间自回归模型方法,探讨东北地区城市女性就业水平的时空特征及其驱动机制。结果表明:① 东北地区城市女性就业水平整体较低,其中南部城市的女性就业水平高于北部。② 从影响因素来看,高学历、便捷的交通、较高的工业水平、完整的家庭以及更多的家庭支持对城市女性就业水平具有积极效应;而养育负担对女性就业水平具有负向效应。其中,三代及以上家庭户比例是2000—2015年老工业基地城市女性就业水平空间分异的主导因素,可见,一个完整的家庭对女性就业具有极其重要的作用。

关键词: 女性就业, 空间分异, 空间自相关, 影响因素, 东北地区

Abstract:

Females are important force in promoting social development. As the most direct way for women to participate in social and economic developments, employment has always been an important topic in scientific research. Taking the old industrial bases in Northeast China as an example, this study explored the spatial and temporal characteristics and driving mechanism of urban female employment level by means of spatial analysis. The results show that: 1) The level of urban female employment in the old industrial bases in Northeast China from 2000 to 2015 was generally low, mainly at medium and low levels; the medium level was mainly found in the central and southern regions, and the lower level was mainly distributed in the north. 2) From the analysis of influencing factors, it can be seen that higher education, convenient transportation, developed industries, the proportion of women with spouses, the proportion of the elderly aged 65 and above, and the proportion of households with three or more generations had a positive effect on the level of urban female employment, while demographic pressure had a negative effect on female employment level. Obviously, a complete family plays an extremely important role in female employment. 3) The government should integrate all sectors of society, encourage social capital to participate in the development of the elderly and childcare, and provide more and better quality services to families with strong needs for elderly care and childcare. In addition, promote the "family" culture of "respecting the old, loving the young, and being friendly with neighbors", encourage family members to participate in housework together, build an equal relationship between men and women in housework, create a harmonious family environment and social atmosphere, and relieve women conflict between work and housework.

Key words: female employment, spatial pattern, spatial error/lag model, influencing factors, Northeast China