地理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 935-944.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.015

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    

社区尺度社会—生态系统适应途径述评

王奕佳1(), 刘焱序1,*(), 宋爽1, 姚莹1, 傅伯杰1,2   

  1. 1.北京师范大学地理科学学部,地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
    2.中国科学院生态环境研究中心,城市与区域生态国家重点实验室,北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-22 修回日期:2021-12-02 出版日期:2022-05-28 发布日期:2022-07-28
  • 通讯作者: *刘焱序(1988— ),男,陕西西安人,讲师,主要从事人地系统耦合与可持续发展研究。E-mail: yanxuliu@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王奕佳(1997—),女,广东汕头人,博士生,主要从事植被和气候相互作用与社会—生态系统研究。E-mail: yijiawang27@mail.bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42041007);国家自然科学基金项目(42171088);中央高校基本科研业务费

A review of community-based social-ecological system adaptation pathways

WANG Yijia1(), LIU Yanxu1,*(), SONG Shuang1, YAO Ying1, FU Bojie1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2021-07-22 Revised:2021-12-02 Online:2022-05-28 Published:2022-07-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(42041007);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42171088);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China.

摘要:

全球变化背景下,社区作为社会—生态系统的基础单元,既面临着可能或已经出现的冲击性干扰,也发生着系统结构和功能的趋势性变化。以社区为基础的适应(community-based adaptation, CBA)便为社区缓解变化甚至抓住时机转型提供了一种有效的应对方式。为了把握当前社区社会—生态系统适应途径的机理,论文梳理了近20 a来关于社区社会—生态系统适应的研究。在CBA过程中,资助机构、权力机构、研究机构和执行者是参与行动的主体。适应主体所要适应的对象有冲击性的一阶影响,也有伴生的二阶影响。适应途径具有层次,对应的步骤包括明晰适应对象、清算适应资产、评估适应能力、摸清适应需求、确立适应目的、划分适应阶段、制定适应措施和采取适应措施8个步骤。物质障碍、资源障碍和社会障碍的负向作用则会诱发适应不良。基于此,论文提出优化以社区为基础的适应途径的研究方向展望,包括完善监测和评估体系以搭建长期社区适应的指标框架、以社会—生态网络为抓手强化多主体决策和促进基于自然的解决方案整体提升社会—生态系统适应能力。

关键词: 社区, 社会—生态系统, 适应, 脆弱性, 恢复力

Abstract:

In the context of global change, the community, as the basic unit of a social-ecological system, is facing potential or existing shocks and trends in the structure and function of the system. Community-based adaptation (CBA) provides an effective way for communities to mitigate change and even seize the opportunity for transformation. In order to understand the mechanisms of current CBA pathways, a review of research on CBA over the past 20 years is presented. In the CBA process, funding agencies, authorities, research institutions, and implementers are the agents engaged in action. The objects to which the adaptation agents adapt have shocking first-order impacts as well as concomitant second-order impacts. The adaptation pathway has a hierarchy, which corresponds to the eight steps of clarifying adaptation objects, liquidating adaptation assets, assessing adaptation capabilities, clarifying adaptation needs, setting adaptation purposes, dividing adaptation stages, designing adaptation measures, and implementing adaptation measures. The negative effects of physical, resource, and social barriers can induce maladaptation. Thus, we propose a prospective direction for optimizing community-based adaptation, including improving monitoring and evaluation systems to build an indicator framework for long-term community adaptation, using social-ecological networks as a tool to strengthen multiple-agent decision making, and promoting nature-based solutions to enhance social-ecological system adaptation.

Key words: community, social-ecological systems, adaptation, vulnerability, resilience