地理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (10): 1691-1703.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.10.007

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

京津冀地区无人机航路气象因子高分辨率模拟分析

赵磊1(), 谢丰2,*(), 徐晨晨3,4,5, 钟若嵋1, 文小航1   

  1. 1.成都信息工程大学工程实践中心,成都 610225
    2.青岛市气象局,山东 青岛 266003
    3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,资源环境与地理信息国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    4.中国科学院无人机应用与管控研究中心,北京 100101
    5.天津中科无人机应用研究院,天津 301800
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-25 修回日期:2021-01-26 出版日期:2021-10-28 发布日期:2021-12-28
  • 通讯作者: *谢丰(1983— ),女,陕西汉中人,工程师,研究方向为气候变化、数值模拟。E-mail: xiefengqd@163.com
  • 作者简介:赵磊(1988— ),女,四川南充人,助理实验师,研究方向为气象信息可视化、数值模拟。E-mail: zhaolei@cuit.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0503005);国家自然科学基金项目(41971359)

High-resolution simulation analysis of meteorological factors of unmanned aerial vehicle air route in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

ZHAO Lei1(), XIE Feng2,*(), XU Chenchen3,4,5, ZHONG Ruomei1, WEN Xiaohang1   

  1. 1. Electronic Experimental Center, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, China
    2. Qingdao Meteorological Bureau, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. The Research Centre for UAV Application and Regulation, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    5. Institute of UAV Application Research, Tianjin and CAS, Tianjin 301800, China
  • Received:2020-11-25 Revised:2021-01-26 Online:2021-10-28 Published:2021-12-28
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFB0503005);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971359)

摘要:

京津冀地区低空环境复杂多变,低空飞行安全受到雷暴、风切变、能见度、温度和湿度等气象因子的影响,准确地模拟和预报无人机低空航路上的气象要素是一个难题。基于中尺度天气预报模式(WRF)及其先进的三维变分同化系统(3D-Var),论文以2016年华北“7·20”特大暴雨作为研究案例,对京津冀地区无人机低空航路上的温度场、湿度场和风场进行资料同化与数值模拟,对比地面观测资料和数值模拟结果,分析其结构及特征,以期为京津冀地区无人机航路飞行安全保障提供参考。结果表明:WRF模式能够较好地模拟出该地区近地面温度、湿度和风速的日变化趋势。平原站点(天津和密云)模拟值与观测值的均方根误差(RMSE)和偏差(Bias)较小,风速在山区的模拟值偏大,平原地区的模拟效果优于北部和西部山区。强降水发生时,平原地区和山区的温度相差15 ℃左右,相对湿度达95%以上,边界层高度低于500 m,强烈的温差、较高的湿度和较低的边界层都会影响无人机的飞行安全。900 hPa高空,沿117°E经线在河北省廊坊—衡水一线出现超过10 m·s-1的风速值,形成强劲的东北风,区域北部(39°N~40.5°N)出现了明显的上升气流,1000 m高度处垂直风速也超过2 m·s-1。强烈的上升气流极不利于无人机的飞行,会对无人机飞行姿态和飞行高度产生重大影响,造成安全隐患。

关键词: 无人机, 低空航路, WRF模式, 资料同化, 气象因子, 京津冀

Abstract:

The low-altitude air route environment in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is complex and unstable. The safety of low-altitude flight is mostly affected by meteorological factors such as thunderstorms, wind shear, low visibility, and extreme temperature and humidity. It is difficult to accurately simulate and forecast the meteorological elements on the low-altitude air route of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Based on the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its advanced three-dimensional variational assimilation system (3D-Var), we took the "7·20" heavy rainfall of North China in 2016 as a study case. The temperature field, humidity field, and wind field of the UAV low-altitude air route in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were simulated, and the ground observation data and numerical simulation results were compared and analyzed. The aim was to provide a reference for the flight safety of UAVs in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The conclusion is as follows: WRF model can better simulate the daily variation trend of near-surface temperature, humidity, and wind speed in this area. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the bais between the simulated values and the observed values of the plain sites (Tianjin and Miyun) is lower, the wind speed simulations in mountainous areas is higher, and the simulation effect in plain areas is better than that in the northern and western mountainous areas. When heavy rainfall occurs, the temperature difference between the plain areas and the mountainous areas is about 15 ℃, the relative humidity is above 95%, and the boundary layer height is less than 500 m. The strong temperature difference, higher humidity, and lower boundary layer will affect UAV flying performance. At an altitude of 900 hPa along the 117°E longitude line, a wind speed of more than 10 m·s-1 appeared in Langfang-Hengshui in Hebei Province, forming a strong northeast wind. The northern part of the region (39°N-40.5°N) has a clear updraft. The vertical wind speed at a height of 1000 m also exceeds 2 m·s-1. The strong updraft is extremely unfavorable to the flight of the UAV, and will have a significant impact on the flight attitude and flying height of the UAV, causing potential safety hazards.

Key words: UAV, low-altitude air route, WRF model, data assimilation, meteorological factors, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region