地理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 607-619.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.006

• "社区生活圈规划"专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市公共服务设施与人口是否匹配?——基于社区生活圈的评估

常飞1,2(), 王录仓3,*(), 马玥3, 严翠霞3, 刘海洋3   

  1. 1.深圳大学建筑与城市规划学院,广东 深圳 518000
    2.深圳大学智慧城市研究院,广东 深圳 518000
    3.西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-14 修回日期:2020-11-19 出版日期:2021-04-28 发布日期:2021-06-28
  • 通讯作者: *王录仓(1967— ),男,甘肃天水人,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为城乡发展与规划。E-mail: wanglc007@nwnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:常飞(1994— ),男,甘肃庆阳人,博士生,主要研究方向为城市建成环境信息技术。E-mail: 326354132@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFB2100704)

Do urban public service facilities match population demand? Assessment based on community life circle

CHANG Fei1,2(), WANG Lucang3,*(), MA Yue3, YAN Cuixia3, LIU Haiyang3   

  1. 1. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, China
    2. Research Institute for Smart Cities, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, China
    3. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2020-09-14 Revised:2020-11-19 Online:2021-04-28 Published:2021-06-28
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Project(2018YFB2100704)

摘要:

公共服务设施是城市社会服务最基本的承载体,公共服务设施分配的公平与否,事关城市健康发展和社会公正运行。目前由于城市微观尺度人口数据的缺失,鲜有研究将供给侧(公共服务设施)与需求侧(人口)统一起来。鉴于此,论文以互联网地图API为支撑,建立了5 min、10 min、15 min三个层级的社区生活圈,并模拟了高分辨率、高精度的人口分布图,对案例城市兰州市的公共服务设施与人口的匹配关系进行了详细评估。研究发现: ① 不同类型公共服务设施与人口的匹配关系差异较大,但均表现为区级中心匹配状况较好,城市边缘区域漏配较多;② 兰州市大部分公共服务设施与人口匹配关系两极分化性较强,即高配型与漏配型生活圈数量较多,适配型与低配型生活圈数量相对较少;③ 从中、高匹配度的生活圈的比例来看,各级出行类、就餐类、娱乐类、医疗类设施(10 min生活圈对应的社区卫生服务中心除外)的覆盖范围最广,各级养老类设施和基层文化设施的配置严重不足,其他设施介于两者之间。对于暴露出的问题需要查漏补缺,研究认为,当前公共服务设施规划的重点在于解决养老类设施普及性低和城市边缘区各类公共服务设施配置不足的问题。

关键词: 公共服务设施, 社区生活圈, 匹配关系, 适配性, 人口, 兰州市

Abstract:

Public service facilities (PSF) are the basic guarantee for urban production and living. Whether the distribution of public service facilities is equitable is related to the healthy development of cities and the society. At present, due to the lack of urban micro-scale population distribution data, there are few studies that consider both the supply side (PSF) and the demand side (population). In view of this, using the Internet maps application programming interface (API), this study established the 5-minute, 10-minute, and 15-minute community life circle of Lanzhou City, and then used Worldpop grid data, population census data, and Baidu heat map data to simulate the population distribution at high spatial resolution and with high accuracy. We evaluated the matching relationships between population and public service facilities in Lanzhou City. The study found that: 1) The matching relationships between different types of PSF and population are very different. However, they show a common phenomenon that the matching degree close to district administrative centers is often better than that of urban fringe. 2) In Lanzhou City, the matching relationships between PSFs and population are highly polarized, that is, there are more highly matched and mismatched life circles, and the number of moderately matched and relatively poorly matched life circles is fewer. 3) Based on the coverage of moderately and highly matched life circles, the coverage of all levels of travel, medical (except community health service centers corresponding to 10-minute life circle), dining, and entertainment facilities is the widest. The allocation of elderly care facilities at all levels and grass-roots cultural facilities is seriously inadequate, and other facilities are between the two types. The study concludes that the problems that have been identified need to be addressed. It suggests that urban planning should focus on the allocation of various PSF in the urban fringe, and improve the coverage of all levels of elderly care facilities.

Key words: public service facilities, community life circle, matching relationship, adaptability, population, Lanzhou City