地理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (6): 902-912.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2020.06.002

• 专辑 | 减贫与发展理论 • 上一篇    下一篇

论乡村聚落优化与乡村相对贫困治理

周国华1,2, 张汝娇1,2, 贺艳华1,2,*(), 戴柳燕1,2, 张丽1,2   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院,长沙 410081
    2. 湖南师范大学地理空间大数据挖掘与应用湖南省重点实验室,长沙 410081
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-09 修回日期:2020-05-07 出版日期:2020-06-28 发布日期:2020-08-28
  • 作者简介:周国华(1965— ),男,湖南娄底人,教授,博导,主要研究方向为国土空间规划与区域发展、乡村地理。E-mail: uuy828@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971224);湖南省国内一流培育学科(地理学-5010002)建设项目

Optimization of rural settlements and the governance of rural relative poverty

ZHOU Guohua1,2, ZHANG Rujiao1,2, HE Yanhua1,2,*(), DAI Liuyan1,2, ZHANG Li1,2   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    2. Hunan Key Laboratory of Geospatial Big Data Mining and Application, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
  • Received:2020-03-09 Revised:2020-05-07 Online:2020-06-28 Published:2020-08-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971224);The Construction Program for First-Class Disciplines (Geography-5010002) of Hunan Province, China

摘要:

2020年后,中国反贫困将转入相对贫困治理的新阶段。乡村聚落居住、就业、教育、医疗、环卫、文化、防灾减灾等功能的发展不充分和多维剥夺,是乡村相对贫困的重要表现和重要原因,乡村相对贫困治理必须从乡村聚落的整体优化出发。论文在梳理相对贫困概念内涵的基础上,着眼于乡村聚落与相对贫困治理的内在关联,分析乡村聚落与乡村相对贫困发生、乡村聚落优化与相对贫困治理长效机制建立之间的关系,提出基于相对贫困治理的乡村聚落优化策略,以期为2020年后的乡村相对贫困治理和乡村振兴提供理论依据。研究认为:① 乡村相对贫困的形成与聚落要素、功能密切相关,并因区位、布局、规模、形态的差异而有所不同;② 乡村聚落是缓解乡村相对贫困长效机制建立的空间基础,乡村相对贫困治理长效机制的建立要充分发挥乡村聚落的要素支撑与空间载体功能;③ 基于相对贫困治理的乡村聚落优化策略包括振兴村落产业、优化村落空间组织、强化村落文化认同、建立绿色生态村落、促进村落多功能协同转型、坚持分类施策等6个方面。

关键词: 乡村聚落, 相对贫困, 相对贫困治理, 聚落优化, 中国

Abstract:

After 2020, China's anti-poverty program will move into a new stage of relative poverty governance. The inadequate development and multidimensional deprivation of functions such as housing, employment, education, medical care, sanitation, culture, and disaster prevention and reduction in rural settlements are important manifestations and causes of rural relative poverty. The governance of rural relative poverty must start from the overall optimization of rural settlements. In this study, on the basis of reviewing the relative poverty concept and by focusing on the internal connection of rural settlements and relative poverty governance, we analyzed the relationship between rural settlements and the occurrence of rural relative poverty, the optimization of rural settlements, and the establishment of a long-term mechanism of relative poverty governance; and proposed the optimization strategy of rural settlements based on relative poverty governance, in order to provide a theoretical basis for relative poverty governance and rural revitalization after 2020. The results show that: 1) The formation of rural relative poverty is closely related to the factors and functions of settlements, and is different spatially due to the differences in location, layout, scale, and form of rural settlements. 2) Rural settlements are the spatial basis for the establishment of a long-term mechanism to alleviate rural relative poverty; the establishment of the long-term governance mechanism of rural relative poverty should give full play to the functions of supporting factors and spatial carriers of rural settlements. 3) The optimization strategy of rural settlements based on relative poverty governance includes six aspects: revitalizing village industry, optimizing village spatial organization, strengthening village cultural identity, establishing green ecological villages, promoting multifunctional collaborative transformation of villages, and adopting targeted strategies.

Key words: rural settlements, relative poverty, governance of relative poverty, settlement optimization, China