地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 605-618.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180655

• 乡村振兴规划与方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

赋权视角下的乡村规划社区参与及其影响分析——以陈庄为例

徐辰1,2,5(), 杨槿3, 陈雯1,2,4()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 南京工业大学建筑学院,南京 211816
    4. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    5. 江苏省城市规划设计研究院,南京 210000
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-15 修回日期:2019-01-29 出版日期:2019-03-20 发布日期:2019-03-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:徐辰(1988-),男,江苏南京人,博士研究生,研究方向为城市与区域规划、乡村治理。E-mail: 531489380@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771193);美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项(XDA230201);中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS计划)项目(KFJ-SW-STS-174);江苏省环保科研课题(2016055);中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所一三五重点培育方向自主部署项目(NIGLAS2017GH06)

Community participation in rural planning and its impact from the perspective of Empowerment Theory: A case study of Chenzhuang Village

Chen XU1,2,5(), Jin YANG3, Wen CHEN1,2,4()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Architecture, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
    4. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    5. Jiangsu Institute of Urban Planning and Design, Nanjing 210000, China
  • Received:2018-06-15 Revised:2019-01-29 Online:2019-03-20 Published:2019-03-25

摘要:

面向乡村振兴的规划需要真正的社区参与,已有研究多聚焦于规划技术改进,对村民参与主动性关注不足,更受制于村民较弱的参与能力。本文从赋权理论激发弱势群体权能的新视角出发,以江苏省句容市陈庄的社区参与乡村规划试验为例,结合社区心理学行为分析的“认知-情感-互动”逻辑,构建乡村规划赋权作用于社区参与行为的分析框架,并从模拟参与选择、活动参与度和组织化程度三方面测度社区参与行为及其变化。研究通过三年半共计84次跟踪调研的参与式观察、访谈和问卷调查,收集村民、规划团队、政府言行的全过程资料,分析得出:针对不同规划阶段社区参与的特定目的,规划采用差异化的赋权策略,对社区进行了很高程度的信息、教育和制度赋权。尽管规划中后期的实际参与率稍低于初期模拟的参与意愿,但赋权仍维持了较高的社区参与广度,且显著提升了社区参与深度,包括村民参与动机的转变以及个体学习、集体行动等参与能力的提高。赋权的作用,通过增加村民的信息与知识、增强村民的信心和责任,进而改变村民对规划、社区发展和自身的认知、情感以及互动能力这一传导路径得以实现。研究深化对乡村规划社区参与行为的认识,并对激发村民参与积极性与能力具有借鉴意义。

关键词: 乡村规划, 社区参与, 赋权, 影响, 句容茅山陈庄

Abstract:

The Report of the 19th CPC National Congress has put forward the strategy of rural revitalization, which pays more attention to villagers' needs and subjective initiatives. This provides an opportunity to change status quo of rural planning which lacks community participation. While most current researches concerning the improvement of community involvement in rural planning are focused on the maturing of planning methods and techniques, little attention is paid to the motivations and abilities to participation of villagers. However, there are specific challenges for rural community participation in China, especially, most villagers are ignorant, diffident and lack of responsibilities to participate. The Empowerment Theory, which was proposed by an American sociological researcher in the 1970s, offers a new perspective in stimulating initiatives and powers of vulnerable groups and improving their abilities to participate. However, there are still short of domestic relevant experimental studies. Taking the experiment in Chenzhuang Village, which has implemented community participation in its planning as a case, and from the perspective of villagers' behaviors, this study has carried out 84 fieldworks in three and a half years, and adopted participatory observations, non-structured interviews, and questionnaire surveys to collect information and data about behaviors of villagers, local government officials, and rural planners during the whole process. Firstly, this research described the empowerment process of Chenzhuang planning and analyzed its empowering strategies applied in different planning stages. Secondly, the study tried to measure the changes of community involvement behaviors through three groups of indicators, namely situation selection of ways to participate, the width and depth of engagement in community activities and organizations. Finally, this paper explored the action path of empowerment on community participation behavior via mediating variables, namely perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of concerning actors. The results are as follows: (1) Chenzhuang planning has adopted diverse empowering methods in different planning stages according to their differentiated community participation goals and has achieved to implement high-intensity information, education, and institutional empowerment on the rural community. (2) The rural residents who actually have taken steps to participate in rural planning are slightly smaller than those who have expressed their willingness to participate in simulated situation; however, the rate of community participation still keeps high at a level of 63%. In the meantime, villagers' initiatives to engage and their abilities have been promoted rapidly. They have been driven by responsibilities instead of self-interest only, which has facilitated community collective action. The depth of community participation has been continuously strengthened. (3) Thanks to being given information and knowledge through empowerment, the villagers set up confidence and responsibilities to participate, which has changed their cognition of, emotion for and interaction with community planning, development and themselves. Furthermore, this has promoted villagers' participation motivations and abilities.

Key words: rural planning, community participation, empowerment, impact, Chenzhuang Village