Export growth is a key driver for China's economic development. The entry of new export firms is an important indicator of export growth. The New Trade Theory believes that knowledge spillover brought about by agglomeration externalities is a crucial factor affecting the exporting decision making of firms. Global and local knowledge spillovers encourage firms to acquire necessary export knowledge and thus reduce their difficulty of entering export markets. Theories of evolutionary economic geography emphasize that cognitive proximity is the prerequisite for the validity of export spillovers. Global and local export experience and product proximity are the main contents of export spillovers. This study used China Customs Trade Data from 2002 to 2011 to analyze the impact of export spillovers on the entry of new firms into the export market. The results show that export spillovers can significantly increase the probability of new exporters entering the export market. Private firms are more likely to enter markets with stronger spillovers. Besides, export spillovers have a stronger role in promoting the entry of follower firms, especially domestic firms. State-owned collective enterprises emphasize the overflow of overall export experience, and private companies place more emphasis on product knowledge spillovers. Local spillovers are beneficial for the expansion of new exporting firms to new destination countries, while global spillovers are useful for new exporters expanding into new product areas. This study improved the research on the spatial dynamics of export firms, expanded the spatial dimension in which export spillovers affect export decisions, and helped deepen the understanding of China's trade market.
. 全球-地方出口溢出效应对新企业进入出口市场的影响[J]. 地理科学进展,
2019, 38(5): 731-744.
. Impact of export spillovers on the entry of new firms into the export market[J]. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY,
2019, 38(5): 731-744.
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Case studies of export behavior suggest that firms who penetrate foreign markets reduce entry costs for other potential exporters, either through learning by doing or through establishing buyer- supplier linkages. We pursue the idea that spillovers associated with one firm's export activity reduce the cost of foreign market access for other firms. We identify two potential sources of spillovers: export activity in general and the specific activities of multinational enterprises. We use a simple model of export behavior to derive a logit specification for the probability a firm exports. Using panel data on Mexican manufacturing plants, we find evidence consistent with spillovers from the export activity of multinational enterprises but not with general export activity.(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
BatheltH, MalmbergA, MaskellP.2004. Clusters and knowledge: Local buzz, global pipelines and the process of knowledge creation[J]. , 28(1): 31-56.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1191/0309132504ph469oa
BatheltH, SchuldtN.2010. International trade fairs and global buzz, part I: Ecology of global buzz[J]. , 18(12): 1957-1974.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09654313.2010.515815
This paper investigates the importance of temporary face-to-face (F2F) contact and the physical co-presence of global communities in establishing a particular information and communication ecology during international trade fairs, referred to as lobal buzz . International trade fairs bring together agents from all over the world and create temporary spaces for presentation and interaction. Within a specific institutional setting, participants not only acquire knowledge through F2F communication with other agents, but also obtain information by observing and systematically monitoring other participants. The fact that firms do not necessarily have to be in direct contact with a specific source of information to get access to this knowledge makes participation in these events extremely valuable. International trade fairs have become important expressions of new geographies of circulation through which knowledge is created and exchanged at a distance. This paper analyses the constituting components of global buzz and aims to dismantle the complexity of this phenomenon in a multi-dimensional way. When applying this concept to Internet trade fairs, the question arises whether a similar information and communication ecology, or virtual buzz, can be established. We explore similarities and differences between both forms of buzz, using the same classification scheme.
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This article presents estimates of the impact of regional variety and trade linkages on regional economic growth by means of export and import data by Italian province (NUTS 3) and sector (three-digit) for the period 1995 2003. Our results show strong evidence that related variety contributes to regional economic growth. Thus, Italian regions that are well endowed with sectors that are complementary in terms of competences (i.e., that show related variety) perform better. The article also assesses the effects of the breadth and relatedness of international trade linkages on regional growth, since they may bring new and related variety to a region. Our analysis demonstrates that regional growth is not affected by simply being well connected to the outside world or having a high variety of knowledge flowing into the region. Rather, we found evidence of related extraregional knowledge sparking intersectoral learning across regions. When the cognitive proximity between the extraregional knowledge and the knowledge base of a region is neither too small nor too large, real learning opportunities are present, and the external knowledge contributes to growth in regional employment.
Boschma RA, MinondoA, NavarroM.2012. Related variety and regional growth in Spain[J]. , 91(2): 241-256.
Boschma RA, WentingR.2007. The spatial evolution of the British automobile industry: Does location matter?[J]. , 16(2): 213-238.https://academic.oup.com/icc/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/icc/dtm004
This article aims to describe and explain the spatial evolution of the automobile sector in Great Britain from an evolutionary perspective. This analysis is based on a unique database of all entries and exits in this sector during the period 1895–1968, collected by the authors. Cox regressions show that spinoff dynamics, agglomeration economies and time of entry have had a significant effect on the survival rate of automobile firms during the period 1895–1968. Copyright 2007 , Oxford University Press.
ChaneyT.2014. The network structure of international trade[J]. , 104(11): 3600-3634.http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/10.1257/aer.104.11.3600
I build a simple dynamic model of the formation of an international social network of importers and exporters. Firms can only export into markets in which they have a contact. They acquire new contacts both at random, and via their network of existing contacts. This model explains (i) the cross-sectional distribution of the number of foreign markets accessed by individual exporters, (ii) the cross-sectional geographic distribution of foreign contacts, and (iii) the dynamics of firm level exports. I show that the firm level dynamics of trade can explain the observed cross section of firm level exports. All theoretical predictions are supported by the data.
Gertler MS.1995. "Being there": proximity, organization, and culture in the development and adoption of advanced manufacturing technologies[J]. , 71(1): 1-26.https://www.jstor.org/stable/144433?origin=crossref
Recent work on innovation and technology implementation suggests the importance of closeness between collaborating parties for the successful development and adoption of new technologies. "Closeness" is used here both in the literal sense, as allowing more frequent, effective, often unplanned interaction, and more broadly, to encompass common language, modes of communication, customs, conventions, and social norms. Such relationships are said to be particularly important in the case of production process innovations. These theoretical ideas are subjected to empirical scrutiny through a postal survey and set of interviews with users of advanced manufacturing technologies in Southern Ontario. Given the premise that intensive interaction and collaboration between users and producers of advanced process technologies is necessary for successful technology implementation to occur, then the chronically underdeveloped state of the Ontario advanced machinery sector ought to create major difficulties for manufacturers there trying to implement leading-edge processes. The analysis indicates that "closeness" between user and producer, defined physically, organizationally, and "culturally," is important for the successful implementation of these advanced technologies. The paper suggests a set of circumstances in which proximity of the user to the producer is most important. In doing so, it offers an interpretation of "culture" that goes beyond common language, codes of communication, and norms to incorporate shared workplace practices and training regimes. The paper concludes that industrial policies based on free trade in industrial machinery will be inadequate, on their own, to ensure that firms in mature regions make effective use of advanced process technologies.
Hidalgo CA, KlingerB, Barabasi AL, et al.2007. The product space and its consequences for economic growth[J]. , 317: 482-487.http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1144581
Economies grow by upgrading the products they produce and export. The technology, capital, institutions, and skills needed to make newer products are more easily adapted from some products than from others. Here, we study this network of relatedness between products, or "product space," finding that more-sophisticated products are located in a densely connected core whereas less-sophisticated products occupy a less-connected periphery. Empirically, countries move through the product space by developing goods close to those they currently produce. Most countries can reach the core only by traversing empirically infrequent distances, which may help explain why poor countries have trouble developing more competitive exports and fail to converge to the income levels of rich countries.
KoenigP.2009. Agglomeration and the export decisions of French firms[J]. , 66(3): 186-195.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0094119009000436
This paper asks whether export spillovers influence the export behavior of French manufacturers. I use a database containing export flows by firm and importing country between 1986 and 1992. The decision to start exporting to a particular country is estimated using a logit model, controlling for the specific characteristics of firms, locations, countries and years. The export spillovers identified are industry- and/or destination-specific, and are computed at a very disaggregated geographical level. The results indicate that the pool of local exporters positively affects the decision to start exporting to a country. These effects are clearly destination-specific, and are larger for firms that export to remote markets.
KoenigP, MaynerisF, PoncetS.2010. Local export spillovers in France[J]. , 54(4): 622-641.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014292109001226
This paper investigates the presence of local export spillovers on both the extensive (the decision to start exporting) and the intensive (the export volume) margins of trade, using data on French individual export flows, at the product-level and by destination country, between 1998 and 2003. We investigate whether the individual decision to start exporting and exported volume are influenced by the presence of nearby product and/or destination specific exporters, using a gravity-type equation estimated at the firm-level. Spillovers are considered at a fine geographical level corresponding to employment areas (348 in France). We control for the new economic geography-type selection of firms into agglomerated areas, and for the local price effects of firms agglomeration. Results show evidence of the presence of export spillovers on the export decision but not on the exported volume. We interpret this as a first evidence of export spillovers acting through the fixed rather than the variable cost. Spillovers on the decision to start exporting are stronger when specific, by product and destination, and are not significant when considered on all products ll destinations. Moreover, export spillovers exhibit a spatial decay within France: the effect of other exporting firms on the export decision is stronger within employment areas and declines with distance.
Malecki EJ.2010. Global knowledge and creativity: New challenges for firms and regions[J]. , 44(8): 1033-1052.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00343400903108676
Malecki E. J. Global knowledge and creativity: new challenges for firms and regions, Regional Studies. As companies locate research and development in more places, they seek to tap knowledge in new, open ways, to respond to diverse customer demand and short product life cycles. The globalization of research and development has added costs as firms communicate across national, cultural, and linguistic boundaries, using both information and communication technology networks and face-to-face interaction. Intermediaries in knowledge transfer, such as knowledge brokers and gatekeepers, have become more important as new nodes join the global system of knowledge. As firms respond to the knowledge-based global economy, each region must construct a ‘knowledge monopoly’ to stand out in the global landscape of capabilities. Malecki E. J. La connaissance et la créativité mondiales: de nouveaux défis pour les entreprises et les régions, Regional Studies. Au fur et à mesure que la localisation des activités de recherche et de développement des entreprises devient de plus en plus répandue, ces dernières cherchent à exploiter la connaissance de fa04ons nouvelles et ouvertes afin de répondre à la demande diverse du client et aux cycles de vie courts des produits. La mondialisation de la recherche et du développement a augmenté les frais vu que les entreprises communiquent à travers des limites nationales, culturelles et linguistiques, employant à la fois des réseaux TIC et de l'interaction face à face. Les intermédiaires dans le transfert de la connaissance, tels les courtiers et les gardiens, sont devenus plus importants en réponse à l'adhésion des nouveaux noyaux au système de connaissance mondiale. Au fur et à mesure que les entreprises répondent à une économie mondiale basée sur la connaissance, chaque région doit construire une ‘monopole de connaissance’ qui se détache dans le paysage mondial des capacités. Recherche et Développement69Intégration des systèmes69Mondialisation69Connaissance Malecki E. J. Globales Wissen und Kreativit01t: neue Herausforderungen für Firmen und Regionen, Regional Studies. Wenn Firmen ihre Forschung und Entwicklung an neuen Standorten ansiedeln, versuchen sie, auf neue und offene Weise Wissen zu nutzen, um auf die verschiedenartigen Bedürfnisse der Kunden und die kürzeren Lebenszyklen der Produkte zu reagieren. Durch die Globalisierung der Forschung und Entwicklung haben sich die Kosten erh02ht, da die Firmen nun über nationale, kulturelle und linguistische Grenzen hinweg kommunizieren, wofür sie sowohl Netzwerke der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie als auch pers02nliche Gespr01che nutzen. Die Bedeutung der Vermittler von Wissenstransfer, wie z.02B. Wissensbroker und Gatekeeper, ist gewachsen, da das weltweite Wissenssystem durch neue Knoten erg01nzt wird. W01hrend die Firmen auf die wissensbasierte globale Wirtschaft reagieren, muss sich jede Region ein ‘Wissensmonopol’ aufbauen, um in der globalen Landschaft der F01higkeiten hervorzustehen. Forschung und Entwicklung69Systemintegration69Globalisierung69Wissen Malecki E. J. Conocimiento global y creatividad: nuevos retos para empresas y regiones, Regional Studies. Cuando las empresas ubican los centros de investigación y desarrollo (I65+65D) en nuevos lugares, tratan de sacar el mejor provecho del conocimiento con un nuevo enfoque abierto para responder a las distintas demandas de los clientes y a los ciclos de vida más cortos de los productos. Con la globalización de I65+65D han aumentado los costes porque las empresas se comunican a través de fronteras nacionales, culturales y lingüísticas usando tanto redes de TIC (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) como interacciones personales. Los intermediarios en la transferencia de conocimientos, tales como agentes y guardianes del conocimiento, han cobrado más importancia ya que se unen nuevos nodos al sistema global del conocimiento. Dado que las empresas responden a la economía global basada en el conocimiento, cada región debe construir un ‘monopolio del conocimiento’ para destacar en el panorama global de capacidades. Investigación y desarrollo69Integración de sistemas69Globalización69Conocimiento
MalmbergA, LundequistP.2000. Agglomeration and firm performance: Economies of scale, localisation, and urbanisation among Swedish export firms[J]. , 32(2): 305-322.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/a31202
ManovaK, ZhangZ.2012. Export prices across firms and destinations[J]. , 127(1): 379-436.https://academic.oup.com/qje/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/qje/qjr051
This article establishes six stylized facts about firms' export prices using detailed customs data on the universe of Chinese trade flows. First, across firms selling a given product, exporters that charge higher prices earn greater revenues in each destination, have bigger worldwide sales, and enter more markets. Second, firms that export more, enter more markets, and charge higher export prices import more expensive inputs. Third, across destinations within a firm-product, firms set higher prices in richer, larger, bilaterally more distant and overall less remote countries. Fourth, across destinations within a firm-product, firms earn bigger revenues in markets where they set higher prices. Fifth, across firms within a product, exporters with more destinations offer a wider range of export prices. Finally, firms that export more, enter more markets, and offer a wider range of export prices pay a wider range of input prices and source inputs from more origin countries. We propose that trade models should incorporate two features to rationalize these patterns in the data: more successful exporters use higher quality inputs to produce higher quality goods (stylized facts 1 and 2), and firms vary the quality of their products across destinations by using inputs of different quality levels (stylized facts 3, 4, 5, and 6).
MartinR.2010. Roepke lecture in economic geography-rethinking regional path dependence: Beyond lock-in to evolution[J]. , 86: 1-27.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01056.x/full
This article argues that in its "canonical" form, the path dependence model, with its core concept of lock-in, affords a restrictive and narrowly applicable account of regional and local industrial evolution, an account moreover that is tied to problematic underpinnings based on equilibrist thinking. As such, the canonical path dependence model actually stresses continuity rather than change. The article explores recent developments in political science, in which there have been active attempts to rethink the application of path dependence to the evolution of institutions so as to emphasize change rather than continuity. These developments are used to argue for a rethinking of path dependence ideas in economic geography.
Melitz MJ.2003. The impact of trade on intra-industry reallocations and aggregate industry productivity[J]. , 71(6): 1695-1725.http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/ecta/71/6
This paper develops a dynamic industry model with heterogeneous firms to analyze the intra-industry effects of international trade. The model shows how the exposure to trade will induce only the more productive firms to enter the export market (while some less productive firms continue to produce only for the domestic market) and will simultaneously force the least productive firms to exit. It then shows how further increases in the industry's exposure to trade lead to additional inter-firm reallocations towards more productive firms. The paper also shows how the aggregate industry productivity growth generated by the reallocations contributes to a welfare gain, thus highlighting a benefit from trade that has not been examined theoretically before. The paper adapts Hopenhayn's (1992a) dynamic industry model to monopolistic competition in a general equilibrium setting. In so doing, the paper provides an extension of Krugman's (1980) trade model that incorporates firm level productivity differences. Firms with different productivity levels coexist in an industry because each firm faces initial uncertainty concerning its productivity before making an irreversible investment to enter the industry. Entry into the export market is also costly, but the firm's decision to export occurs after it gains knowledge of its productivity.
The purpose of this article is twofold. First, we present an alternative model of agglomeration and trade that displays the main features of the recent economic geography literature while allowing for the derivation of analytical results by means of simple algebra. Second, we show how this framework can be used to permit (i) a welfare analysis of the agglomeration process, (ii) a full-fledged forward-looking analysis of the role of history and expectations in the emergence of economic clusters, and (iii) a simple analysis of the impact of urban costs on the spatial distribution of economic activities.
PoncetS.2013. Export upgrading and growth: The prerequisite of domestic embeddedness[J]. , 51(5): 104-118.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0305750X13001319
Our work contributes to the literature relating output structure and economic development by showing that growth gains from upgrading are not unconditional. Relying on data from a panel of Chinese cities, we show that the level of capabilities available to domestic firms operating in ordinary trade is an important driver of economic growth. However, no direct gains emanate from the complexity of goods produced by either processing-trade activities or foreign firms. This suggests that the sources of product upgrading matter, and that domestic embeddedness is key in order for capacity building and technology adoption to be growth enhancing.
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate business visitor behaviour at trade shows and to propose a complementary view based on the experiential perspective in marketing. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports an ethnographic study conducted in the context of ten international trade shows in the textile-apparel industry in Europe. Findings – The study sheds light on the nature of the experience provided by trade show exhibitors and organisers and on visitors' lived experiences. Trade shows immerse industrial buyers in a physical and cognitive experience that requires their active participation. Under such circumstances, industrial marketers who employ experiential marketing techniques are likely to increase their trade show performances. Originality/value – The paper adopts a new perspective that sees business visitor behaviour from an experiential standpoint and discusses the managerial implications that highlight the interplay of exhibitors and trade show organisers in designing and setting valuable experiences for visitors.
TimmermansB, BoschmaR.2014. The effect of intra-and inter-regional labour mobility on plant performance in Denmark: The significance of related labour inflows[J]. , 14(2): 289-311.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/lbs059
TorreA.2008. On the role played by temporary geographical proximity in knowledge transmission[J]. , 42(6): 869-889.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00343400801922814
Torre A. On the role played by temporary geographical proximity in knowledge transmission, Regional Studies. This paper defends the thesis that geographical proximity remains essential for knowledge transfer, but not often implies the co-location of innovation and research activities. The need for geographical proximity now mostly affects certain stages of the process of production, research or development. Short- or medium-term visits are often sufficient for the partners to exchange the information needed for cooperation. The mobility of individuals makes it possible to implement this mechanism. Temporary geographical proximity implies a strong relation to space, but one that differs in nature from that described by the traditional approaches. Torre A. R00le de la proximité géographique temporaire dans la transmission de la connaissance, Regional Studies. Dans cet article, nous défendons la thèse selon laquelle la proximité géographique demeure essentielle au transfert des connaissances mais qu'elle n'implique pas souvent la co-localisation d'activités d'innovation et de recherche. La nécessité de la proximité géographique affecte surtout, aujourd'hui, certaines étapes des processus de production, de recherche et de développement. Les visites à court ou moyen terme suffisent souvent aux partenaires pour échanger des informations nécessaires à leur coopération. La mobilité des individus permet de mettre en 04uvre ce mécanisme. La proximité géographique temporaire induit une forte relation à l'espace mais une relation qui diffère en nature de celle qui est décrite par les approches classiques. Proximité géographique69Proximité organisée69Ubiquité69Agrégats Torre A. Die Rolle der vorübergehenden geografischen N01he zur Wissensübertragung, Regional Studies. In diesem Artikel verteidigen wir die These, dass eine geografische N01he zur Wissensübertragung nach wie vor unverzichtbar ist, aber oft keinen gemeinsamen Standort der Innovations- und Forschungsarbeit voraussetzt. Die Notwendigkeit einer geografischen N01he betrifft heute meistens bestimmte Phasen im Produktions-, Forschungs- oder Entwicklungsprozess. Oft sind kurze oder mittellange Besuche für die Partner ausreichend, um die für eine Zusammenarbeit ben02tigten Informationen auszutauschen. Die Mobilit01t der einzelnen Personen macht eine Umsetzung dieses Mechanismus m02glich. Eine vorübergehende geografische N01he setzt eine enge Verbindung zum Raum voraus, deren Beschaffenheit jedoch von den Beschreibungen der traditionellen Ans01tze abweicht. Geografische N01he69Organisierte N01he69Ubiquit01t69Cluster Torre A. El papel desempe09ado por la proximidad geográfica temporal en la transmisión de conocimiento, Regional Studies. En este artículo defendemos la tesis de que la proximidad geográfica sigue siendo un factor fundamental para la transferencia de conocimientos aunque esto no suele implicar la ubicación conjunta de las actividades de innovación y las de investigación. La necesidad de proximidad geográfica ahora afecta sobre todo a ciertas fases del proceso de producción, investigación y desarrollo. Las visitas a corto o medio plazo son con frecuencia suficientes para que los socios intercambien la información que necesitan para cooperar. La movilidad de los individuos facilita la aplicación de este mecanismo. La proximidad geográfica temporal entra09a una estrecha relación en el espacio pero que difiere en naturaleza de la que se describe en enfoques tradicionales. Proximidad geográfica69Proximidad organizada69Ubicuidad69Agrupaciones