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PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY
 
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地理科学进展    2019, Vol. 38 Issue (5): 675-685     DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.05.005
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
大都市区城市扩张过程及形态对比分析——以东京、纽约和上海为例
焦利民1,2(),龚晨1,2,许刚1,2,董婷1,2,张博恩3,李泽慧1,2
1. 武汉大学资源与环境科学学院,武汉 430079
2. 武汉大学地理信息系统教育部重点实验室,武汉 430079
3. 香港理工大学土地测量及地理资讯学系,香港 九龙 999077
Urban expansion dynamics and urban forms in three metropolitan areas—Tokyo, New York, and Shanghai
JIAO Limin1,2(),GONG Chen1,2,XU Gang1,2,DONG Ting1,2,ZHANG Boen3,LI Zehui1,2
1. School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information System, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
3. Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 999077, China
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摘要 

大都市区化是全球城市化进程中的普遍现象,研究大都市区域城市扩张进程对理解其未来增长趋势、区域可持续发展具有重要意义。大都市区土地扩张及区域间的对比分析,以及都市区发育过程中城市扩张的一般化空间模式还未被深入理解。论文选取东京、纽约和上海3个大都市区,获取1990—2015年间3期Landsat影像数据,使用梯度和格网分析法,采用城市土地密度函数和城市扩张指数,从建设用地数量变化及其时空分布、城市形态变化等方面,多角度对比分析各城市不同阶段建设用地增长的时空差异。结果表明:① 大都市区边界仍在不断扩展,建设用地在研究期内持续增长;20多年间东京、纽约和上海的建设用地面积分别增长了63%、53%和233%;上海一直处于高强度扩张状态,而纽约的城市扩张在后期几近停滞。② 大都市区建设用地密度从中心向外呈圈层递减式分布,城市核心区和边缘区半径的增长最明显;城市形态均趋向于紧凑。③ 新增建设用地时空异质性明显。东京的远郊新城不断建设,纽约一些尚有发展潜力的区域次中心仍在扩张但速率逐渐放缓,上海的核心区外围增长剧烈并逐渐向远城区推进。④ 大都市区域扩张先后经历高速期—缓慢期—停滞期,扩张进程表现为核心区膨胀—次中心及新城建设—逐步形成稳定的多中心结构。

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焦利民
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许刚
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张博恩
李泽慧
关键词 城市扩张大都市区城市土地密度城市形态时空分异 
Abstract

Global cities are stepping into the metropolitan era at a high speed. Studying the process of urban expansion in metropolitan areas is of great significance for understanding its future growth trend and regional sustainable development. However, urban expansion in metropolitan area, especially regional comparative analysis, has not been extensively understood. Taking three metropolitan areas—Tokyo, New York, and Shanghai—as examples, we obtained Landsat images in three time periods between 1990 and 2015 (circa 1990, 2000, and 2014). Using gradients and grid analysis and applying urban land density function and urban expansion index, we analyzed the spatiotemporal differences of urban expansion in two time periods from multiple perspectives. We focused on the quantitative changes and spatiotemporal distributions of built-up land, as well as urban form changes. The results show that: 1) Boundaries of these metropolitan areas were expanding and built-up land continued to grow during the study period. The built-up land area in Tokyo, New York, and Shanghai increased by 63%, 53% and 233%, respectively, over the study period. Shanghai experienced intense expansion while urban expansion in New York stagnated during the later period. 2) The density of built-up land in these metropolitan areas gradually decreases with the distance from the city center. The growth of the radii is most obvious in urban core and urban fringe, and the urban forms all tend to be compact. 3) Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of new construction land is apparent. In Tokyo, construction of new urban areas is continuous in the suburban region. In New York, some regional sub-centers with potential for growth were still expanding but the rate gradually slowed, while in Shanghai the peripheral areas of the urban core area had grown rapidly and progressively advanced to the urban fringe. 4) Regional expansion of the metropolitan areas has successively experienced high-speed growth, slow growth, and stagnation period. The expansion process manifests itself as urban core expansion, sub-center and new urban area construction, then gradually forms a stable polycentric structure.

Key wordsurban expansion    metropolitan areas    urban land density    urban form    spatiotemporal differentiation
收稿日期: 2018-10-25      出版日期: 2019-05-28
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41571385)
引用本文:   
焦利民, 龚晨, 许刚等 . 大都市区城市扩张过程及形态对比分析——以东京、纽约和上海为例[J]. 地理科学进展, 2019, 38(5): 675-685.
JIAO Limin, GONG Chen, XU Gang et al . Urban expansion dynamics and urban forms in three metropolitan areas—Tokyo, New York, and Shanghai[J]. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2019, 38(5): 675-685.
链接本文:  
http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.05.005      或      http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/Y2019/V38/I5/675
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