地理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 637-647.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.05.002

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

政治地理学中生存空间概念的演变

侯璐璐1(), 刘云刚2,*()   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    2. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 5106311
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-11 修回日期:2019-01-22 出版日期:2019-05-28 发布日期:2019-05-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘云刚 E-mail:lulu.hou@foxmail.com;ygliu@scnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    第一作者简介:侯璐璐(1988— ),女,山东济南人,博士生,主要研究方向为政治地理学、生活空间论、城乡规划等。E-mail: lulu.hou@foxmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571130,41271165)

The evolving concept of lebensraum in political geography

Lulu HOU1(), Yungang LIU2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. School of Geography, Southern China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2018-07-11 Revised:2019-01-22 Online:2019-05-28 Published:2019-05-28
  • Contact: Yungang LIU E-mail:lulu.hou@foxmail.com;ygliu@scnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41571130 and 41271165

摘要:

生存空间是拉采尔创立现代政治地理学之初提出的核心概念,与国家有机体一起构成人类有机体空间政治的分析框架。20世纪上半叶,地缘政治学派继承并发展了国家有机体的概念,同时吸收了民族主义、社会达尔文主义等思想,将生存空间改造成为服务法西斯空间扩张的理论工具。二战结束后,地缘政治学被唾弃为恶学,而生存空间也被抨击为恶学之钥。80年代后期,新政治地理学从批判视角审视生存空间与法西斯的关系,生存空间的理论价值重新得到重视。论文通过梳理生存空间从提出、兴盛、没落到复苏的发展历程,旨在揭示这一概念在理解政治地理学研究模式、认识人地关系、探索空间治理、制定区域决策等方面的重要价值,为中国未来开展相关研究提供参考。

关键词: 生存空间, 拉采尔, 政治地理学, 地缘政治学, 生活圈

Abstract:

Lebensraum is a core concept that Friedrich Ratzel created while he first founded political geography. In 1901, based on the study of anthropogeography, Ratzel came up with two analytical frameworks of spatial politics, "lebensraum" and "national organism," and the word lebensraum has attracted much attention since then. Haushofer, Ratzel's student and a used-to-be soldier devoted to national interests, contributed to the use of lebensraum in geopolitics and military science. Along with the rising popularity of geopolitics, lebensraum was developed into a geopolitical concept to explain the evolution of country system, which served as a theoretical support for Fascism. In the first half of the 20th century, German geographers played a leading role in lebensraum research. With the end of World War II, neither lebensraum nor geopolitics escaped from condemnation. Treating lebensraum as a weapon speaking for fascist states, Anglophone geographers tried to keep away from it, leading to its abandonment in the West. Due to the different language and a relatively independent academic community from the West, some Japanese geographers took up the study of lebensraum from a regional planning perspective since the 1960s. With political geography back into humanism view since the late 1980s, lebensraum liberated from the darkroom of German geopolitics, and there have been increasingly more geographers aware of the enormous theoretical value behind the concept. Through a brief review of the development process of lebensraum, this article aims to reveal the status and role of lebensraum in understanding the analytical framework of political geography, the relationship between human and land, space governance, and decision making of human agency.

Key words: lebensraum, Friedrich Ratzel, political geography, geopolitics, life circle