地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (8): 1216-1226.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.08.005

• 城市地理与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国资源枯竭城市产业功能特征

曹靖1,2, 张文忠1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-01 修回日期:2013-05-01 出版日期:2013-08-25 发布日期:2013-08-25
  • 作者简介:曹靖(1988-),男,陕西宝鸡人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为城市和区域发展。E-mail: sysucaojing@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230632)

Characteristics of resource-exhausted cities’industrial function in China

CAO Jing1,2, ZHANG Wenzhong1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-03-01 Revised:2013-05-01 Online:2013-08-25 Published:2013-08-25
  • Contact: 张文忠(1966-),男,内蒙古呼和浩特人,研究员,博导,主要从事城市和区域发展研究。E-mail: zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn

摘要: 当前中国多数资源型城市进入资源枯竭阶段后陷入了发展困境。产业功能严重失衡是造成资源枯竭城市产业发展不可持续问题的重要原因之一。依据经济基础理论、产业生命周期理论,借鉴城市功能研究方法,以国家发改委确定的24 个地级资源枯竭城市为案例,对中国资源枯竭城市产业功能特征进行了研究,探讨了1997年以来样本城市产业功能变化的动态过程。结果显示:资源枯竭城市产业功能较多体现在其基本功能方面(采矿业及相关行业),但在交通运输、仓储及邮政业以及大多服务业功能上存在缺陷;约半数资源枯竭城市优势产业功能已经由采矿业转向了制造业,但各城市间存在差异;依据产业功能特征,将24 个案例城市分为四大类别,分别探讨其1997-2011年间的产业功能变化。

关键词: 产业功能特征, 优势产业功能, 中国, 专业化程度, 资源枯竭城市

Abstract: Many resource-dependent cities in China are stepping into predicament nowadays, when their resources have been depleted. The severe imbalance of industrial function is one of the main reasons that make sustainable development beyond reach of resource-exhausted cities. Mainly based on statistic data, this paper analyzes the characteristics of main industrial sectors, dominant industrial function, industrial specialization and its extent in 24 prefecture-level resource-exhausted cities confirmed by the National Development and Reform Commission. The 24 case cities are classified, and the dynamic changes of industrial function from 1997 to 2011 in those cities are discussed by using basic economic theory, industry life circle theory and methods of city function analysis. The conclusion shows that, due to industrial specialization, in general in resource-exhausted cities percentage of the work forces in the primary industry is slightly higher than national average. As a result, resource-exhausted cities largely exemplify fundamental industrial function and have more work forces in the fields like mining, electricity, gas and water supply, which are closely related to mining industry. Resource-exhausted cities play an important functional role in mining industry and other related industries. However, in most service areas like transportation, storage, postal service, these cities have low percentage of work forces, much lower than national average, which reflects the functional defect of resource-exhausted cities. Moreover, resource-exhausted cities mainly rely on resource-related heavy manufacturing industry as well as mining industry, with the percentage of work forces engaged in manufacturing still under the national average. About half of the case cities have redefined manufacturing instead of mining as their dominant industrial function. However, in the case cities, only mining industry reaches specialization standard, though situations differ from city to city. Based on the current industrial function characteristics, the 24 case cities can be classified into four major categories. Most of the case cities kept improving their mining function in the years between 1997 and 2011. Meanwhile there is also a clear trend of industrial function diversification.

Key words: China, competitive industrial function, industrial function, resource-exhausted city, specialization level