地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (8): 1195-1206.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.08.003

• 城市地理与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

空间规划政策在中国五年计划/规划体系中的演变

王磊, 沈建法   

  1. 香港中文大学地理与资源管理学系, 香港沙田
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-01 修回日期:2013-07-01 出版日期:2013-08-25 发布日期:2013-08-25
  • 作者简介:王磊(1984-),男,博士研究生,主要研究方向为区域发展规划与管治和GIS应用。E-mail: wanglei@cuhk.edu.hk
  • 基金资助:
    香港中文大学亚太研究所华南研究项目(6903306)

Evolution of spatial planning in the Five-Year Plan/Planning system of China

WANG Lei, SHEN Jianfa   

  1. Department of Geography and Resource Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR
  • Received:2013-04-01 Revised:2013-07-01 Online:2013-08-25 Published:2013-08-25
  • Contact: 沈建法(1963-),男,博士,教授,主要从事人口迁移、城市化、城市竞争、城市与区域发展等研究。E-mail: jianfa@cuhk.edu.hk E-mail:jianfa@cuhk.edu.hk

摘要: 作为社会主义国家,国民经济和社会发展五年计划/规划对调节中国区域发展具有重要的作用。自1953年第一个五年计划以来,尤其是随着市场化改革和权力下放,中国政治经济背景发生了重要变化,客观需要五年计划/规划体系中的规划内容做出相应调整。本文分析了空间规划元素在中国五年规划体系中从无到有、不断丰富完善的演变特点及其机制,同时指出了五年规划对空间发展作用的变迁:① 初期,并无空间规划,空间发展只是部门工业项目布局的结果;② 改革开放之后一段时期,空间规划的形式主要体现在划定特殊的政策区域和空间分类引导;③“十一五”规划以来,空间规划则以空间分类引导与约束并举的形式出现。通过构建政府与市场主体的关系、中央和地方的关系,以及空间发展状态所引起的规划反馈3 个维度的分析框架,着重探讨了五年规划体系中空间规划元素的变迁机制。“十一五”以来重点加强和改善了空间规划内容,其目的是使经济规划与空间规划的结合更加紧密,以克服中国当前空间管治的各种困境。

关键词: 空间规划, 市场, 五年计划/规划体系, 演变, 政府, 中国

Abstract: As one of the characteristics of China as a socialist country, the Five-Year Plan/Planning (FYP) is very important for regulating economic development even in post-reform China. Currently FYP is officially known as five-year economic and social development planning, which evolved from socialist economic planning during pre-reform period. As defined by the State Council, FYP is not a single document but rather a system that includes a master plan (the outline), sector plans and regional plans across the national, provincial and city or county levels. The role of this planning system has changed significantly since the first FYP was launched in 1953. The market-oriented reform and decentralized economic administration has changed China's political economy and necessitated the transformation of FYP mechanisms in economic and spatial governance. Based on the relevant government documents of the first FYP and the current status of spatial development of China, this paper first analyzes the changes of spatial planning in the FYP system and the underlying mechanisms over the past sixty years, and it indicates that spatial planning has become more and more sophisticated and systematic since the first FYP. In the beginning, there were few spatial planning elements in the FYP during the period of planned economy; spatial development was only a passive result of site selection of the projects of different industries and sectors. During a certain period of time after the reform, spatial planning emerged in the form of designating certain regions for special policies and guiding the use of space. After the 11th FYP, more strongly, spatial planning took the form of not only guiding but also restricting the use of space. This paper then analyzes the mechanisms underlying the evolution of spatial planning through an analytical framework, including three aspects such as the relationship between the government and market stakeholders, the relationship between the central government and local authorities, and feedback of spatial development status to planning. Basically, the mixed economy and decentralized planning administration generated new stakeholders and marginalized the role of FYP in spatial development in post-reform period. The FYP has changed from economic planning to spatial policy zone setting to guide economic and social development in its evolution process. However, in the 1990s, FYP failed in regional governance to tackle the disordered spatial development. Recently, facing the declining of the role of FYP in the mechanism of spatial governance, the central government attempted to incorporate and conceptualize spatial planning in FYP as a governance instrument in spatial development. The initiative took three approaches to reinforce the position of spatial planning in the FYP system, including major function-oriented zone plan, regional plans and planning institutional reform at municipal or county levels, which were articulated in 11th FYP discourse at different geographic scales. The innovative spatial governance approach provides opportunities to cope with the uncoordinated and unbalanced regional development by spatial regulations and guiding practices. In addition, the approach is institutionally articulated in the political economy of China through the top-down planning system. With the spatial and economic strategies closely combined, the new spatial planning approach is deemed as an important instrument to cope with the current dilemmas of regional governance in China. Lastly, the paper points out that the emerging spatial planning approach is facing the challenges from the pro-growth strategies of local governments and the big picture of fragmented planning in China and will not operate smoothly in the near future.

Key words: China, evolution, Five-Year Plan/Planning system, government, market, spatial planning